Venera 14


Venera 14

Infobox_Spacecraft
Name = The Venera 14 bus is virtually identical to the Venera 13 bus.


Caption = Venera 14 orbiter
Organization = URSS
Major_Contractors =
Mission_Type = Flyby
Satilite_Of = Venus
Orbital Insertion_Date = March 5, 1982
Launch = 1981-11-04 at 05:31:00 UTC
Launch_Vehicle = Proton Booster Plus Upper Stage and Escape Stages
Decay =
Mission_Duration =
NSSDC_ID = 1981-110A
Webpage =
Mass =
Power =
Orbital_elements =
Semimajor_Axis =
Eccentricity =
Inclination =
Orbital_Period =
Apoapsis =
Periapsis =
Orbits =

Venera 14 ( _ru. Венера-14) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.

Venera 14 was identical to the Venera 13 spacecraft and built to take advantage of the 1981 Venus launch opportunity and launched 5 days apart. It was launched on 1981-11-04 at 05:31:00 UTC and Venera 13 on 1981-10-30 at 06:04:00 UTC, both with an on-orbit dry mass of 760 kg.

Design

Each mission consisted of a bus and an attached descent craft.

As it flew by Venus the bus acted as a data relay for the lander and then continued on into a heliocentric orbit. It was equipped with a gamma-ray spectrometer, UV grating monochromator, electron and proton spectrometers, gamma-ray burst detectors, solar wind plasma detectors, and two-frequency transmitters which made measurements before, during, and after the Venus flyby.

The descent lander was a hermetically sealed pressure vessel, which contained most of the instrumentation and electronics, mounted on a ring-shaped landing platform and topped by an antenna. The design was similar to the earlier Venera 9–12 landers. It carried instruments to take chemical and isotopic measurements, monitor the spectrum of scattered sunlight, and record electric discharges during its descent phase through the Venusian atmosphere. The spacecraft utilized a camera system, an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, a screw drill and surface sampler, a dynamic penetrometer, and a seismometer to conduct investigations on the surface.

List of lander experiments and instruments:
* Accelerometer, Impact Analysis - Bison-M
* Thermometers, Barometers - ITD
* Spectrometer / Directional Photometer - IOAV-2
* Ultraviolet Photometer
* Mass Spectrometer - MKh-6411
* Penetrometer / Soil Ohmmeter - Prop-V
* Chemical Redox Indicator - Kontrast
* 2 Color Telephotometer Cameras - TFZL-077
* Gas Chromatograph - Sigma-2
* Radio / Microphone / Seismometer - Groza-2
* Nephelometer - MNV-78-2
* Hydrometer - VM-3R
* X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (Aerosol) - Bora-1
* X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (Soil) - Arakhis-2
* Soil Drilling Apparatus - GZU
* Stabilized Oscillator / Doppler Radio

Landing

Infobox_Spacecraft
Name = Venera 14 lander


Caption = The Venera 14 lander was identical to Venera 13
Organization = USSR
Major_Contractors =
Mission_Type = Venus Lander
Satellite_Of =
Flyby_Date =
Launch =
Launch_Vehicle = Venera 14 bus
Decay =
Mission_Duration =
NSSDC_ID = 1981-110D
Webpage =
Mass = 760 kg
Power =
Orbital_elements =
Semimajor_Axis =
Eccentricity =
Inclination =
Orbital_Period =
Apoapsis =
Periapsis =
Orbits =
After launch and a four month cruise to Venus the descent vehicle separated from the bus and plunged into the Venusian atmosphere on March 5, 1982. After entering the atmosphere a parachute was deployed. At an altitude of about 50 km the parachute was released and simple airbraking was used the rest of the way to the surface.

Venera 14 landed at Venus coords and quad cat|13.25|S|310|E (about 950 km southwest of Venera 13) near the eastern flank of Phoebe Regio on a basaltic plain.

The lander had cameras to take pictures of the ground and spring-loaded arms to measure the compressibility of the soil. The quartz camera windows were covered by lens caps which popped off after descent. Venera 14, however, ended up measuring the compressibility of the lens cap, which landed right where the probe was to measure the soil. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/science/k2/moments/gmis9907.htm Dr Karl - Murphy's Law, Part two ] ] [Images available at http://www.donaldedavis.com/2003NEW/NEWSTUFF/DDVENUS.html]

The composition of the surface samples was determined by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, showing it to be similar to oceanic tholeiitic basalts.

The lander survived for 57 minutes (the planned design life was 32 minutes) in an environment with a temperature of 465 °C and a pressure of 94 Earth atmospheres (9.5 MPa).

Fictional references

"Venera 14" is visited by a Russian cosmonaut in BBC's "".

Image processing

American researcher Don P. Mitchell has processed the color images from Venera 13 and 14 using the raw original data. [ [http://www.mentallandscape.com/C_Catalog.htm The versions currently available on Mitchell's website] ] The new images are based on a more accurate linearization of the original 9-bit logarithmic pixel encoding.

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Venera - все действующие купоны Venera в категории Одежда и аксессуары

  • Venera 13 — Venera 14 Orbiter de Venera 13 Venera 13 et 14 étaient des sondes spatiales identiques, construites pour profiter de l occasion de lancement de 1981, qui furent lancées à cinq jours d intervalle en direction de Vénus. La mission Venera 13… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venera 8 — Capsule de Venera 8 Venera 8 (en russe …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venera-1 — Caractéristiques Organisation URSS …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venera 1 — Caractéristiques Organisation URSS …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venera 3 — Vénéra 3 (Венера 3) Photographie de la sonde spatiale Vénéra 3 Caractéristiques Organisation …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venera I — Venera 1 Venera 1 Caractéristiques Organisation URSS …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venera 15 — (Венера 15 en russe) est une sonde spatiale faisant partie du programme spatial soviétique Venera, dont l objectif était l exploration de la planète Vénus. Elle est lancée le 2 juin 1983, 5 jours avant une sonde jumelle Venera 16. Venera 15 se… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venera 9 — (en russe : Венера 9) était une sonde d URSS envoyée sur Vénus. Elle était constituée d une partie destinée à rester en orbite (orbiteur) et d une autre destinée à atterrir sur Vénus (atterrisseur). D une masse de 4936 kg, elle fut lancée le …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venera-D — (Russe :Венера Д ) est une sonde spatiale russe à destination de Vénus, qui doit être lancée en 2016. C est la première mission russe à destination de Vénus depuis l éclatement de l Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques. Elle prend… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Venera 9 — Orbiter von Venera 9 NSSDC ID 1975 050 Missionsziel Untersuchung des Planeten Venus Auftraggeber U …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Venera 3 — Organización URSS Tipo de misión Aterrizaje Satélite de Venus …   Wikipedia Español