- Raid on Taipei
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Taipei Air Raid
World War II, Pacific theater
caption=Location of bombs landed during Taipei Air Raid
date=May 31, 1945
combatant1=flag|Empire of Japan
casualties1=Civilians killed: 3,000+
Wounded/Displaced: tens of thousands
Taipei Air Raid (
Traditional Chinese: 臺北大空襲/台北大空襲, Simplified Chinese: 台北大空袭), which took place on May 31, 1945, was the largest Allied air raid on the city of Taipei, known back then as Taihoku. Despite efforts by Allied strategy planners to minimize civilian casualties, many residents were killed in the raid and tens of thousands wounded or displaced.
As early as 1943,
Fourteenth Air Forceof the United States Army Air Forcesand units of the combined air force of U.S. and Nationalist Chinahad launched several air raids against military and industrial targets in Taiwan. Before this, Sovietvolunteer units and Chinese air force had attacked military bases around TaipeiArea, most of which were targeted on smaller objectives and were of smaller scales. After American ground forces captured Subic Bayin the Philippines, the Allied air forces began larger and more systematic air raids against targets on the island of Taiwan. After October 12, 1944, Allied air forces began scheduled air raids on factories located in Pingtungand Huwei, Takao Harbor, and fighter production facility in the outskirt of Takao. Also, Taipei, the capital and political and financial center of Taiwan, had been under constant aerial assaults by the Allies since that time.
On May 31, 1945, units of the
Fifth Air Forceconsisting of 117 B-24heavy bombers were sent to conduct the largest air raid ever on Taiwan. The bombing began from around ten o'clock in the morning and lasted until one o'clock the the afternoon, during which the attack was non-stop. The Americans met virtually no resistance from the Japanese, mainly due to the attrition the Japanese air forces had suffered in the Aerial Battle of Taiwan-Okinawa, which reduced the number of Japanese aircraft in Taiwan from 230 fighters to almost none. The Allies dropped approximately 3,800 bombs on the military units and governmental facilities in Taipei; many other buildings within the downtown area and Japanese quarter also suffered various damages.
The Office of Governor-General of Taiwan suffered a direct hit, in spite of the building being heavily camouflaged to avoid being targeted. The building suffered extensive damage from fire caused by the bombs and almost collapsed on itself; it was rendered unoccupiable and was not repaired until the Nationalist Chinese takeover. Other facilities hit during the bombing included the residence of the Assistant Governor-General, Taiwan Railway Hotel, Office of Governor-General Library, Army Headquarters,
Imperial Universityof Taipei, Taipei Main Station, Bank of Taiwan, Taipei High Court, Taipei Park, and many other facilities.
Although the Allies tried to avoid civilian casualties, many civilian installations were mistakenly bombed, including
Taipei First Girls' High School, Huashan Catholic Church of Taipei, and the famous Lungshan Temple, which was hit in the main building and the left corridor; many precious artifacts and art works in the temple were lost in the ensuing fire.
The number of deaths totaled more than 3,000, which exceeded the total number of deaths resulting from all the previous air raids on Taiwan by the Allies. Tens of thousands of people were displaced or became homeless, and many buildings were destroyed either by the attacks or by the fire caused by the attacks. The air raid showed that the city was defenseless against Allied aerial assaults, and the Governor-General ordered schools and other installations to be evacuated, and that more air raid drills be held.
After the conclusion of
World War II, because of its pro-American political stance, the government of Republic of Chinatoned down the attack and excluded it from the media and history textbooks.
Fire-bombing of Tokyo
Aerial Battle of Taiwan-Okinawa
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*又吉盛清《台灣今昔之旅【台北篇】》 [M] 。台北：前衛出版社，1997年。
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