- Enderbury Island
Enderbury Island (Ederbury Island, Enderbury Island, Guano) is a small, uninhabited
atoll63 km ESE of Kanton Islandin the Pacific Oceanat 3 degrees, 8 minutes S, 171 degrees, 5 minutes W. It is about 1 mile (1.6 km) wide and 3 miles (4.8 km) long, with a reef stretching out 60-200 metres. Forming a part of the Canton and Enderbury Islands condominiumfrom 1939-79, the island is now a possession of the Republic of Kiribati.
Flora and Fauna
The island is flat and bare, with elevations between 15 and 22 feet. Vegitation consists of low shrubs, including herbs, bunchgrass, sida and morning-glory vines, together with a few clumps of trees, including coconut palms and kou trees. Unlike other atolls, Enderbury has only a small lagoon; most of the island is land. Bird life is abundant, as is the rat population, according to E.H. Bryan. [http://www.janeresture.com/kiribati_phoenix_group/enderbury.htm. Contains photos of the island taken in 1938.] Feral cats used to exist, but recently died out. [http://www.phoenixislands.org/species.html.] Enderbury has been identified as the most important green sea turtle nesting area in the Phoenix Islands group. [http://www.phoenixislands.org/enderbury.html. Contains color photo of Enderbury's lagoon.]
Enderbury Island was discovered in 1823 by Capt. James J. Coffin from the British whaling ship 'Transit' and named after Samuel Enderby (1756-1829), owner of a London whaling company. The version 'Enderbury' is a misspelling. The first interest in Enderbury came in 1860, with
guanomining. The Guano Islands Actof 1856 allowed Americans to claim islands which had guanodeposits; Enderbury was one of them. The start was slow, but guano mining in Enderbury reached its peak in 1870, under the Phoenix Guano Company, when 6,000 tons were mined and shipped in 64 days. The Americans left in 1877, and an English guano company took over in the 1880s, though it was not as productive.
Very little else occurred at Enderbury until 1938, when US President
Franklin Rooseveltdeclared Enderbury, along with the nearby island of Kanton, to be under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of the Interior. These islands had been deemed a good strategic point for stopover of PanAm flights to Australiaand New Zealand, though Enderbury itself was never used for this. Britain also claimed the islands, and in 1939, a deal was signed for the U.S. and U.K. to share them in a condominium.
Four colonists settled on the island in 1938, to uphold the American claim of ownership, but they were evacuated in 1942 during the
World War II, and all buildings were destroyed to stop them from being used by the Japanese.
Today, Enderbury is home to many species of seabirds which roost there and is under the
sovereigntyof the Republic of Kiribati. In 2008, it became, together with the other Phoenix Islands, a part of the Phoenix Islands Protected Area (PIPA), the largest marine protected area in the world. The PIPA's official website recently revealed that Enderbury has recently been invated by non-indigenous coconut palms from the islands of Manra, Orona and Nikumaroro. [http://www.phoenixislands.org/species.html. Contains a recent color photo of Enderbury.]
*Bryan, Edwin H.: American Polynesia : coral islands of the Central Pacific; Honolulu, Hawaii 1941
*Skaggs, Jimmy M.: The great guano rush : entrepreneurs and American overseas expansion; New York, NY : St. Martin's Pr., 1994 ISBN 0-312-10316-6
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Look at other dictionaries:
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