4Q175 (or 4QTest), also known as The Testimonia, is one of the
Dead Sea Scrollsand was found in Cave 4 at Qumranin Israel. Only one sheet long, 4Q175 is a collection of scriptural quotations seemingly connected to a messianicfigure. The manuscript was written in Hasmoneanscript of the early first century BCE and was edited by John Marco Allegro.
The Testimonia is a short document containing five
Biblicalquotations arranged in four sections concerning God's activities at the end-time. Only the last section is followed by an interpretation. The first three sections refer to future blessings which will come from three figures, a prophet similar to Moses, a messianicfigure and a priestly teacher.
The first section consists of two texts from Deuteronomy and refers to the prophet-figure who is like
Moses( Deuteronomy5:28-29; 18:18-19). The second section is an extract from a prophecy of Balaamabout the Messiah-figure, who is similar to David(Numbers 24:15-17). This prophecy predicts "A star shall come out of Jacob and a sceptre shall arise out of Israel; he shall crush the temples of Moab and destroy all the children of Sheth." The third section is a blessing of the Levites, and of the Priest-Messiah who will be a teacher like Levi(Deuteronomy 33:8-11). The last section begins with a verse from Joshua(6:26), which is then expounded by means of a quotation from the Psalms of Joshua(see 4Q379). These verses show that the Qumrancommunity was interested in the messianic prophecies found in the Tanakh.
To date, no scholar has seriously attempted to identify the three figures described in 4Q175, but many associate them with a father and two sons.
John Marco Allegrobelieved them to be Alexander Jannaeusand his sons; Frank Moore Crossidentified them as Mattathiasand his sons Simon and Judas Maccabeewho were all central figures in the Maccabeanrevolt; while Otto Betz believed they were the Hasmoneanking John Hyrcanusand his two sons Aristobulusand Alexander Jannaeus.
Many scholars believe that the scribe who copied 4Q175 also copied the
Community Rule(1QS) found in Cave 1 as well as a Samuelmanuscript also found in Cave 4. All have been dated by the style of script ( palaeography) to the Hasmoneanperiod.
Tanakh at Qumran
* [http://www.christian-witness.org/archives/cetf2002/scrolls02.html The name 'Jesus' found in 4Q175?]
* [http://faculty.bbc.edu/ggromacki/deadseascrolls/messiah.htm 4Q175 on "Doctrines of the Dead Sea Scrolls"]
* [http://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/educational_site/dead_sea_scrolls/4QTestimonia.shtml 4Q175 on the West Semitic Research Project website]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
4Q175 — (ou 4QTest), aussi dénommé Le Testimonia, est un des Manuscrits de la mer Morte trouvé dans la grotte 4 à Qumrân en Israël. Long de seulement une feuille, 4Q175 est une collection de citations bibliques relative à une figure messianique. Le… … Wikipédia en Français
Dead Sea Scrolls — Coordinates: 31°44′27″N 35°27′31″E / 31.74083°N 35.45861°E / 31.74083; 35.45861 … Wikipedia
Essenes — Part of a series of articles on Jews and Judaism … Wikipedia
Dead Sea scrolls — The Dead Sea Scrolls consist of roughly 1,000 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1979 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet Qumran, on the… … Wikipedia
Muhammed edh-Dhib — Muhammad Ahmed al Hamed (born 1931), better known by his nickname Muhammed edh Dhib (Arabic: محمد الذئب; Muhammad the Wolf ), was a Bedouin shepherd from the Ta amireh clans residing in Bethlehem, who discovered the Dead Sea Scrolls in winter… … Wikipedia
Copper Scroll — The Copper Scroll (3Q15) is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found in Cave 3 near Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others. Whereas the other scrolls are written on parchment or papyrus, this scroll is written on metal: copper mixed… … Wikipedia
Damascus Document — The Damascus Document (CD) (the Cairo Damascus document) or Damascus Rule is one of the most interesting texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls because it is the only Qumran sectarian work that was known before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls. There … Wikipedia
Norman Golb — (born in Chicago, Illinois in 1928) is the Ludwig Rosenberger Professor in Jewish History and Civilization at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. He earned his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1954. He joined the faculty of… … Wikipedia
Community Rule — The Community Rule (1QS), which was previously referred to as the Manual of Discipline and in Hebrew Serekh ha Yahad is one of the first scrolls to be discovered near khirbet Qumran, the scrolls found in the eleven caves between 1947 and 1954 are … Wikipedia
Messiah ben Joseph — (Hebrew: משיח בן יוסף), also alternatively known as Messiah ben Ephraim (Hebrew: משיח בן אפרים), is a Messianic figure peculiar to the rabbinical apocalyptic literature. One of the earliest known mentions of him is in (Sukkah52a, b), where three… … Wikipedia