Weak noun


Weak noun

In the Icelandic language nouns are considered weak, if they fulfill the following conditions:

Masculines::The nominative singular ends in "-i", the other singular cases end in "-a" or "-ja".:The noun is derived from the present participle of a verb, in which case the plural ends in "-ur" (but the singular follows the "-i-a" rule).

Feminines::The nominative singular ends in "-a", the other singular cases end in "-u".:The singular ends in "-i" in all cases. (If there is a plural, it may end in either "-ir" or "-ar".)

Neuters::They end in "-a" in the singular in all cases. The plural ends in "-u" (but the genitive plural in "-na") without further alterations with the exception of "hjarta" ("heart") which becomes "hjörtu" in the plural through u-breaking. Some borrowings may exhibit similar behaviour, e.g, singular "drama", plural "drömu". Most of these are words for organs.

An almost exhaustive list follows::auga (eye):bjúga (a type of sausage):eista (testicle):eyra (ear):hjarta (heart):hnoða (a woollen ball, most often encountered in fairy-tales):lunga (lung):milta (spleen):nýra (kidney)

Then there are a small number of borrowings like "firma", "drama", "þema" etc. none of which require translation.

See also

*Strong noun
*Icelandic language

References

*cite book | first= | last=Björn Guðfinnsson | year=1958 | title=Íslensk málfræði |Námsgagnastofnun


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