Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard

Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard
Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard

Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard
Born April 8, 1817(1817-04-08)
Port Louis, Mauritius
Died April 2, 1894(1894-04-02) (aged 76)
Sceaux, France
Residence Mauritius, United States, England, France
Nationality Mauritian
Fields Medicine
Physiology
Neurology
Known for Brown-Séquard syndrome

Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard FRS (8 April 1817 – 2 April 1894), also known as Charles Edward, was a Mauritian physiologist and neurologist who, in 1850, became the first to describe what is now called Brown-Séquard syndrome.[1]

Contents

Early life

Brown-Séquard was born at Port Louis, Mauritius to an American father and a French mother. After graduating in medicine at Paris in 1846 he returned to Mauritius with the intention of practicing there, but in 1852 he went to the United States. There he was appointed to the faculty of the Medical College of Virginia where he conducted experiments in the basement of the Egyptian Building.

Subsequently he returned to Paris, and in 1859 he migrated to London, becoming physician to the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic. There he stayed for about five years, expounding his views on the pathology of the nervous system in numerous lectures which attracted considerable attention. In 1864 he again crossed the Atlantic, and was appointed professor of physiology and neuropathology at Harvard. He relinquished this position in 1867, and in 1869 became professor at the École de Médecine in Paris, but in 1873 he again returned to America and began to practice in New York.

Finally, he went back to Paris to succeed Claude Bernard in 1878 as professor of experimental medicine in the Collège de France, and he remained there until his death, which occurred in 1894 at Sceaux, France. He was buried in Paris at the Cimetière du Montparnasse.[2][3][4]

Brown-Séquard was quite a controversial and eccentric figure, and is also known for self-reporting "rejuvenated sexual prowess after eating extracts of monkey testis". The response is now thought to have been a placebo effect, but apparently this was "sufficient to set the field of endocrinology off and running."[5]

Interestingly, many nations claim him as their own, he was the son of an American sea captain and a French woman. He was born in Mauritius. He studied in the US and France and worked several years in the UK, US and France.

In 1886 Brown-Séquard was elected to the Board of the Sugar Club. He also was a member of the Royal Society of London.

Works

Brown-Séquard was a keen observer and experimentalist. He contributed largely to our knowledge of the blood and animal heat, as well as many facts of the highest importance on the nervous system. He was the first scientist to work out the physiology of the spinal cord, demonstrating that the decussation of the fibres carrying pain and temperature sensation occurs in the cord itself. His name was immortalized in the history of medicine with the description of a syndrome which bears his name (Brown-Séquard syndrome) due to the hemisection of the spinal cord, which he described after observing accidental injury of the spinal cord in farmers cutting sugar cane in Mauritius.

Far more important is that he was one of the first to postulate the existence of substances, now known as hormones, secreted into the bloodstream to affect distant organs. In particular, he demonstrated (in 1856) that removal of the adrenal glands resulted in death, due to lack of essential hormones. In his extreme old age, he advocated the hypodermic injection of a fluid prepared from the testicles of guinea pigs and dogs, as a means of prolonging human life. It was known, among scientists, derisively, as the Brown-Séquard Elixir.

Brown-Séquard's research, published in about 500 essays and papers, especially in the Archives de Physiologie, which he helped to found in 1868 along with Jean-Martin Charcot and Alfred Vulpian, cover a very wide range of physiological and pathological subjects.

In the late 19th century Brown-Séquard gave rise to much controversy in the case of supposed modification-inheritance by his experiments on guinea pigs. In a series of experiments extending over many years (1869 to 1891), he showed that a partial section of the spinal cord, or a section of the sciatic nerve, was followed after a few weeks by a peculiar morbid state resembling epilepsy. The offspring of the animals operated on were frequently decrepit, and a certain number showed a tendency to the so-called epilepsy.

See also

References

  1. ^ C.-É. Brown-Séquard: De la transmission croisée des impressions sensitives par la moelle épinière. Comptes rendus de la Société de biologie, (1850)1851, 2: 33-44.
  2. ^ Pearce (1988). "Brown-Séquard's description of spontaneous cerebellar haemorrhage". J. Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 51 (5): 634. http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/pdf_extract/51/5/634. 
  3. ^ Laporte, Y. (2006). "Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard. Une vie mouvementée et une contribution importante à l'étude du système nerveux (Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard. An eventful life and a significant contribution to the study of the nervous system)". Comptes Rendus Biologies 329: 363–368. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2006.03.007. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6X1F-4JW128P-2&_user=2429682&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000057245&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=2429682&md5=62b38c4d6ef11f83d71787305e26dee5. 
  4. ^ "Brown-Sequard, Charles Edouard (1817-1894) and Family". http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cgi-bin/vcdf/detail?coll_id=7156&inst_id=8&nv1=search&nv2=. Retrieved 2009-05-30. 
  5. ^ The Practice of Neuroscience, p. 199-200, John C.M. Brust (2000).

Further reading

External links

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard — Charles Édouard Brown Séquard. Charles Édouard Brown Séquard, né le 8 avril 1817 à Port Louis (île Maurice) et mort le 2 avril 1894 à Sceaux (France), est un physiologiste et neurologue français de nationalité …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Charles-Edouard Brown-Sequard — Charles Édouard Brown Séquard Charles Édouard Brown Séquard. Charles Édouard Brown Séquard, né le 8 avril 1817 à Port Louis (île Maurice) et mort le 2 avril 1894 à Sceaux (France), est un physiologiste et neurologu …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard — Charles Édouard Brown Séquard. Charles Édouard Brown Séquard (variante Charles Edward) FRS (8 de abril de 1817 – 2 de abril de 1894) fue un fisiólogo y neurólogo mauriciano que, en 1850, se convirtió en el primero en describir el ahora llamado… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard — Charles Édouard Brown Séquard, auch Charles Edward Brown Séquard (* 8. April 1817 in Port Louis, der Hauptstadt von Mauritius; † 2. April 1894 in Sceaux) war ein Physiologe und Neurologe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Charles Edward Brown-Séquard — Charles Édouard Brown Séquard Charles Édouard Brown Séquard, auch Charles Edward Brown Séquard (* 8. April 1817 in Port Louis, der Hauptstadt von Mauritius; † 2. April 1894 in Sceaux) war ein Physiologe und Neurologe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Brown-Séquard — Charles Édouard Brown Séquard Charles Édouard Brown Séquard, auch Charles Edward Brown Séquard (* 8. April 1817 in Port Louis, der Hauptstadt von Mauritius; † 2. April 1894 in Sceaux) war ein Physiologe und Neurologe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Charles-Édouard — is a masculine given name, and may refer to: Charles Édouard Brown Séquard (1817 1894), Mauritian born physiologist and neurologist Charles Édouard Campeau (born 1916), Canadian engineer Charles Édouard Coridon (born 1973), French Martiniquais… …   Wikipedia

  • Brown-Sequard-Syndrom — Klassifikation nach ICD 10 G83.88 Brown Séquard Syndrom …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Brown-Séquard-Syndrom — Klassifikation nach ICD 10 G83.88 Brown Séquard Syndrom …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Brown-Séquard syndrome — Infobox Disease Name = Brown Séquard syndrome | Caption = Brown Séquard syndrome is bottom diagram | Width = 100px | DiseasesDB = 31117 ICD10 = ICD10|G|83|8|g|80 ICD9 = ICD9|344.89 ICDO = OMIM = MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = emerg eMedicineTopic …   Wikipedia


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