- Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
The Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was signed on October 21, 1994 between
North Korea( DPRK) and the United States. The objective of the agreement was the freezing and replacement of North Korea's indigenous nuclear power plantprogram with more nuclear proliferationresistant light water reactorpower plants, [ [http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/Others/infcirc457.pdf Text of Agreed Framework] ] and the step-by-step normalization of relations between the U.S. and the DPRK. The agreement largely broke-down by 2003.
The main provisions of the agreement were:
* DPRK's graphite-moderated
nuclear power plants, which could easily produce weapons grade plutonium, would be replaced with light water reactor(LWR) power plants by a target date of 2003.
* Oil for heating and electricity production would be provided while DPRK's reactors were shut down, until completion of the first LWR power unit.
* The two sides would move toward full normalization of political and economic relations.
* The U.S. would provide formal assurances to the DPRK, against the threat or use of nuclear weapons by the U.S.
* The DPRK would take steps to implement the 1992 Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula [ [http://www.carnegieendowment.org/npp/koreadenuclearization.cfm NPP ] ] .
* The DPRK would remain a party to the
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
IAEAad hoc and routine inspections would resume for facilities not subject to the freeze.
* Existing spent nuclear fuel stocks would be stored and ultimately disposed of without reprocessing in the DPRK.
* Before delivery of key LWR nuclear components, the DPRK would come into full compliance with its safeguards agreement with the IAEA.
There were also some confidential minutes supporting the agreement, which have not been made public. [http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2002/200210/news10/25.htm#1] [http://www.clintonfoundation.org/legacy/030499-presidential-memo-on-kedo.htm]
pactwas neither a treatysubject to Senate approval nor a legally binding execuritve agreement, which does not require Senate action, but a non-binding political commitment between the two countries noted by the United Nations Security Council[http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N94/433/86/PDF/N9443386.pdf?OpenElement] . It was signed in the wake of North Korea's 90-day advance notification of its intended withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty(which North Korea "suspended" after 89 days), a U.S. military buildup near the country, and U.S. plans to bomb the active Yongbyon nuclear reactor [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/kim/interviews/acarter.html] .
Terms of the pact and consequent agreements included the shutdown of the pilot Yongbyon nuclear reactor, abandoning the construction of two larger nuclear power plants, and the canning and sealing, under
IAEAmonitoring, of spent fuel that could have been reprocessed to create plutonium for a nuclear weapon.In exchange two light water reactors would be constructed in North Korea by 2003 at a cost of $4 billion, primarily supplied by South Korea. [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c104:H.J.RES.83.EH:] In the interim, North Korea would be supplied with 500,000 tons of heavy fuel oilannually, at no cost, to make up for lost energy production. North Korea was required to come into full compliance with its IAEA safeguards agreement, allowing the IAEA to verify the correctness and completeness of its initial declaration, before key nuclear components of the reactor would be delivered. When the LWR plants were completed, North Korea would dismantle its other nuclear reactors and associated facilities.
Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization(KEDO) is a consortium of the United States, South Korea, Japan, and various other states that is responsible for implementing the energy-related parts of the agreement. North Korea would repay KEDO over a 20-year interest-free period after the completion of each LWR plant. [http://www.kedo.org/pdfs/SupplyAgreement.pdf]
It was reported that US President
Bill Clinton's officials agreed to the plan only because they thought that the North Korean government would collapse before the nuclear power project was completed as North Korea's leader Kim Il-sunghad recently died. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/07/12/AR2005071200220.html] .North Korean officials at the time also suspected the U.S. anticipated an early collapse of the DPRK [http://www1.korea-np.co.jp/pk/188th_issue/2003012701.htm] .
Implementation of the agreement
Soon after the agreement was signed,
U.S. Congresscontrol changed to the Republican Party, who did not support the agreement. [ [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c104:H.J.RES.83.EH: Sense of Congress Resolution] ] Some Republican Senators were strongly against the agreement, regarding it as appeasement[http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/kim/interviews/gallucci.html] [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/kim/interviews/perle.html] . Initially U.S. Department of Defenseemergency funds not under Congress control were used to fund the transitional oil supplies under the agreement [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/kim/interviews/perry.html] , together with international funding. From 1996 Congress provided funding, though not always sufficient amounts [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB87/nk24.pdf] . Consequently some of the agreed transitional oil supplies were delivered late. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/report/gao/rc00020t.pdf#page=5] KEDO's first director, Stephen Bosworth, later commented "The Agreed Framework was a political orphan within two weeks after its signature". [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2003/05/12/342316/]
Some analysts believe North Korea agreed to the freeze primarily because of the U.S. agreement to phase out economic sanctions that had been in place since the Korean War. But because of congressional opposition, the U.S. failed to deliver on this part of the agreement. [http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20010301faessay4263/selig-s-harrison/time-to-leave-korea.html]
International funding for the LWR replacement power plants had to be sought. Formal invitations to bid were not issued until 1998, by which time the delays were infuriating North Korea. [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2003/05/12/342316/] In May 1998 North Korea warned it would restart nuclear research if the U.S. could not install the LWR. [http://www1.korea-np.co.jp/pk/042nd_issue/98051302.htm] Formal ground breaking on the site was on August 21, 1997, [http://www1.korea-np.co.jp/pk/005th_issue/97082102.htm] but significant spending on the LWR project did not commence until 2000. [http://www.kedo.org/pdfs/KEDO_AR_2004.pdf]
There was increasing disagreement between North Korea and U.S. on the scope and implementation of the treaty. When by 1999 economic sanctions had not been lifted and full diplomatic relations between U.S. and North Korea had not been established, North Korea warned that they would resume nuclear research unless the U.S. kept up its end of the bargain. The U.S. repeatedly stated that further implementation would be stalled as long as suspicions remained that the North Korean nuclear weapons research program continued covertly.
Construction of the first LWR reactor began in August 2002. [http://www.kedo.org/news_detail.asp?NewsID=22] Construction of both reactors was well behind schedule. The initial plan was for both reactors to be operational by 2003, but the construction had been halted indefinitely in late 2002.
Final break down of the agreement
In October 2002, a U.S. delegation led by Assistant Secretary of State
James A. Kellyvisited North Korea to confront the North Koreans with the U.S. assessment that they had a uranium enrichmentprogram [http://www.state.gov/p/eap/rls/rm/2004/34395.htm] . Both parties' reports of the meeting differ. The U.S. delegation believed the North Koreans had admitted the existence of a highly enriched uranium program [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/kim/nukes/nukes.html] . The North Koreans stated Kelly made his assertions in an arrogant manner, but failed to produce any evidence such as satellite photos, and they responded denying North Korea planned to produce nuclear weapons using enriched uranium. They went on to state that as an independent sovereign state North Korea was entitled to possess nuclear weapons for defense, although they did not possess such a weapon at that point in time [http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2002/200210/news10/25.htm#1] [http://www1.korea-np.co.jp/pk/188th_issue/2003013001.htm] [http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/2004_hr/012104hecker.pdf] . Relations between the two countries, which had seemed hopeful two years earlier, quickly deteriorated into open hostility.
The HEU intelligence that James Kelly’s accusation is based on is still controversial: According to the CIA fact sheet to Congress on November 19, 2002, there was “clear evidence indicating the North has begun constructing a centrifuge facility” and this plant could produce annually enough HEU for two or more nuclear weapons per year when it is finished. However, some experts assessed that the equipment North Korea imported was insufficient evidence of a production-scale enrichment program. [http://www.isis-online.org/publications/dprk/DPRKenrichment22Feb.pdf]
KEDO members considered in November 2002 whether to halt the fuel oil shipments in response to the previous month's developments. U.S. Assistant Secretary of State James A. Kelly warned Japanese officials that the U.S. Congress would not fund such shipments in the face of continued violations. The shipments were halted in December.
In December 2003, KEDO suspended work on the pressurized water reactor project. Subsequently KEDO shifted the focus of its efforts to ensuring that the LWR project assets at the construction site in North Korea and at manufacturers’ facilities around the world ($1.5 billion invested to date) are preserved and maintained.
On January 10, 2003, North Korea again announced its withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. [http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2003/200301/news01/11.htm#12] On February 10, 2005, North Korea finally declared that it had manufactured nuclear weapons as a "nuclear deterrent for self-defence" [http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2005/200502/news02/11.htm#1] . On October 9, 2006, North Korea conducted a nuclear test. US intelligence agencies believe that North Korea has manufactured a handful of simple nuclear weapons.
Each side blamed the other for ending the Agreed Framework. The United States pointed out that a North Korean uranium enrichment facility would violate the 1992 Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula [http://www.carnegieendowment.org/npp/koreadenuclearization.cfm] , which states "The South and the North shall not possess nuclear reprocessing and uranium enrichment facilities." North Korea accused the United States of a "hostile policy" including deliberately delaying fuel supplies and progress on the KEDO project that "effectively nullified" the agreement, listing North Korea as part of the "Axis of evil" and a target of the U.S. preemptive nuclear strikes. [http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2002/200210/news10/25.htm#4] [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020129-11.html] [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/policy/dod/npr.htm]
Although the agreement had largely broken down, North Korea did not restart work on the two production size nuclear power plants that were frozen under the agreement. These plants could potentially have produced enough weapons-grade plutonium to produce several nuclear weapons per year. The Agreed Framework was successful in freezing North Korean plutonium production in Yongbyon plutonium complex for eight years From 1994 to December, 2002. [http://www.dynamic-korea.com/news/view_news.php?uid=200700154588&main=KHF&sub=&keyword=selig%20harrison]
Discussions are taking place through the
Six-party talksabout a replacement agreement, reaching a preliminary accord on September 19, 2005. The accord makes no mention of the U.S. contention that North Korea has a secret, underground enriched uranium program. However the new accord would require North Korea to dismantle all nuclear facilities, not just specific plants as in the Agreed Framework. [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/20/international/asia/20korea.html] . This has been followed up by the February 13, 2007 agreement which has largely adopted this September 19 statement. Its implementation has been successful so far, with only a slight delay being recorded due to an issue of funds being unfrozen by the US actually reaching North Korea.
On May 31, 2006, the Executive Board of KEDO decided to terminate the LWR construction project. [http://www.kedo.org/]
North Korea and weapons of mass destruction
List of Korea-related topics
* [http://www.isis-online.org/publications/dprk/book/af.html 1994 Agreed Framework between the USA and the DPRK] - Geneva, October 21, 1994
* [http://www.clintonfoundation.org/legacy/101894-press-briefing-by-ambassador-gallucci-on-korea.htm Press Briefing by Ambassador Gallucci on Korea (Agreed Framework)] ,
White House, October 18, 1994
* [http://www.ppnn.soton.ac.uk/nb27.pdf Programme for Promoting Nuclear Non-Proliferation Newsbrief, 3rd Quarter 1994] - describes negotiations leading to Agreed Framework
* [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c104:H.J.RES.83.EH: Joint resolution relating to the United States-North Korea Agreed Framework and the obligations of North Korea under that and previous agreements with respect to the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula and dialog with the Republic of Korea] , House of Representatives,
104th Congress, 1st Session, H.J. Res. 83, September 18, 1995
* [http://www.kedo.org/pdfs/SupplyAgreement.pdf Agreement on Supply of a Light-Water Reactor Project to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea] - KEDO, 1995
* [http://www.ceip.org/files/projects/npp/resources/DeadlyArsenals/chapters%20(pdf)/Pages%20from%2014-NoKorea.pdf Ch 14: North Korea] - from "Deadly Arsenals", Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (2002)
* [http://www.nautilus.org/fora/ Nautilus Institute] - In-depth coverage of the North Korean situation since 1997
* [http://www.ceip.org/files/projects/npp/resources/northkoreacrisis.htm North Korea's Nuclear Breach] - "Carnegie Endowment for International Peace"
* [http://www.cnn.com/US/9910/04/korea.brink/ Washington was on brink of war with North Korea 5 years ago] ,
CNN, October 4, 1999
* [http://nautilus.org/archives/papers/energy/ModernizingAF.PDF Modernizing the US-DPRK Agreed Framework: The Energy Imperative] , Nautilus Institute, February 16, 2001
* [http://www1.korea-np.co.jp/pk/161st_issue/2001052201.htm Report on Delay in Construction of Light-Water Reactor Project] , KCNA, May 22, 2001
* [http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2002/200210/news10/25.htm#1 Conclusion of non-aggression treaty between DPRK and U.S. called for] , KCNA, October 25, 2002
* [http://freekorea.us/2008/01/27/satellite-images-of-north-koreas-nuclear-facilities/ North Korea's nuclear facilities by Google Earth]
;Break-down of Agreed Framework
* [http://www1.korea-np.co.jp/pk/188th_issue/2003013001.htm J. Kelly Failed to Produce ‘Evidence’ in Pyongyang] - O Song Chol, DPRK Foreign Ministry, January 18, 2003
* [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB87/nk24.pdf North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Program] , Larry A. Niksch, Congressional Research Service - The Library of Congress, March 17, 2003
* [http://www.ffip.com/infobriefs030703.htm The History of the 1994 Agreed Framework] , Daniel B. Poneman,
The Forum for International Policy, March 7, 2003
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/kim/themes/lessons.html Examining the Lessons of the 1994 U.S.-North Korea Deal] ,
PBS, April 10, 2003
* [http://www.army.mil/professionalwriting/volumes/volume1/august_2003/8_03_1.html The United States, North Korea, And The End Of The Agreed Framework] ,
Naval War College Review, Summer 2003
* [http://www.state.gov/p/eap/rls/rm/2004/34395.htm Dealing With North Korea’s Nuclear Programs] -
James A. Kelly, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, July 15, 2004
* [http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20050101faessay84109/selig-s-harrison/did-north-korea-cheat.html Did North Korea Cheat?] ,
Foreign Affairs, January/February 2005
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/19/international/asia/19korea.html?hp&ex=1127188800&en=1cab1bb77582f12a&ei=5094&partner=homepage North Korea Says It Will Abandon Nuclear Efforts] ,
New York Times, September 19, 2005
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/20/international/asia/20korea.html U.S.-Korean Deal on Arms Leaves Key Points Open] ,
New York Times, September 20, 2005
* [http://www.kcna.co.jp/item/2005/200512/news12/20.htm#9 KCNA Urges U.S. to Compensate for Losses Caused by Scrapping AF] , KCNA, December 19, 2005
* [http://www.nautilus.org/fora/security/07014Hayes.html The Beijing Deal is not the Agreed Framework] , Peter Hayes, Nautilus Institute, February 14, 2007
;Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula
* [http://www.state.gov/t/ac/rls/or/2004/31011.htm Joint Declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula] - text of agreement, February 19, 1992
* [http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/koreanuc.pdf Joint Declaration of South and North Korea on the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula] - analysis, Inventory of International Nonproliferation Organizations and Regimes, 2002
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