Danishmend ← 1071–1178 → Anatolia in 1097, before the Siege of Nicaea Capital Sivas
Language(s) Turkish Religion Islam Government Monarchy Bey, Melik - 1071-1104 Danishmend Gazi - 1175-1178 Nasreddin Muhammed Historical era High Medieval - Established 1071 - Disestablished 1178
The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman dynasty that ruled in north-central and eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries. The centered originally around Sivas, Tokat, and Niksar in central-northeastern Anatolia, they extended as far west as Ankara and Kastamonu for a time, and as far south as Malatya, which they captured in 1103. In early 12th century, Danishmends were rivals of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, which controlled much of the territory surrounding the Danishmend lands, and they fought extensively with the Crusaders.
The dynasty was established by Danishmend Gazi for whom historical information is rather scarce and was generally written long after his death.
His title or name, Dānishmand or more accurately Dāneshmand, means "learned man" in Persian: دانشمند . As of 1134, Danishmend dynasty leaders also held the title Melik (the King) bestowed in recognition of their military successes by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mustarshid, although the Beys (Emirs) of Danishmend prior to 1134 may also be retrospectively referred to as Melik. Danishmend Gazi himself was alternatively called "Danishmend Taylu".
Danishmends established themselves in Anatolia in the aftermath of the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, in which the Seljuks defeated the Byzantine Empire and captured most of Anatolia. Gazi took advantage of the dynastic struggles of the Seljuks upon the death of the Sultan Suleyman I of Rûm in 1086 to establish his own dynasty in central Anatolia. The capital was likely first established in Amasia.
In 1100, Gazi's son, Emir Gazi Gümüshtigin. captured Bohemond I of Antioch, who remained in their captivity until 1103. A Seljuk-Danishmend alliance was also responsible for defeating the Crusade of 1101.
In 1130 Bohemond II of Antioch was killed in a battle with Gazi Gümüshtigin, after coming to the aid of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, which Gümüshtigin had invaded. Gümüshtigin died in 1134 and his son and successor Mehmed did not have the martial spirit of his father and grandfather. He is nevertheless considered the first builder of Kayseri as a Turkish city, despite his relatively short period of reign.
When Mehmed died in 1142, the Danishmend lands were divided between his two brothers, Melik Yaghibasan, who maintained the title of "Melik" and ruled from Sivas, and Ayn el-Devle, who ruled from Malatya.
In 1155, Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan II attacked Melik Yaghibasan, who sought help from Nur ad-Din, the Zengid emir of Mosul. However, when Nur ad-Din died in 1174, the Sivas lands were incorporated into the Sultanate. Four years later, the Malatya Danishmends were defeated and also incorporated, marking the end of Danishmend rule.
Danishmends in folklore
Danishmend Gazi, the founder of the dynasty, is the central figure of a posthumous romance epic, Danishmendnâme, in which he is mis-identified with an 8th century Arab warrior, Sidi Battal Gazi, and their exploits intertwined.
Virtually all Danishmend rulers entered the traditions of the Turkish folk literature, where they are all referred to as "Melik Gazi". Hence, there are "tombs of Melik Gazi", many of which are much visited shrines and belong in fact to different Danishmend rulers, in the cities of Niksar, Bünyan, Kırşehir, along the River Zamantı near the castle of the same name (Zamantı) and elsewhere in Anatolia, and Melikgazi is also the name of one of the central districts of the city of Kayseri. The same uniformity in appellations in popular parlance may also apply to other edifices built by Danishmends.
Danishmends Reign Notes Danishmend Gazi 1097 -d. 1104 Also called Danishmend Taylu Gazi Gümüshtigin 1104-d. 1134 Melik Mehmed Gazi 1134-d. 1142 Sivas branch (Meliks - The Kings) 1142–1175 Incorporated to Anatolian Seljuks Melik Yaghibasan 1142–1164 Melik Mücahid Gazi 1164–1166 Melik İbrahim 1166-1166 Melik İsmail 1166-1166 Melik Zünnun 1172–1174 Malatya branch (Emirs) 1142–1178 Incorporated to Anatolian Seljuks Ayn el-Devle 1142–1152 Zülkarneyn 1152–1162 Nasreddin Muhammed 1162–1170 Fahreddin 1170–1172 Afridun 1172–1175 Nasreddin Muhammed 1175–1178 Second reign History of Turkey Seljuq dynasty 1071–1325 • Great Seljuq Empire 1071–1194 • Sultanate of Rum 1075–1307 • Under The Seljuks after 1071 Anatolian Beyliks • Artuqids 1098–1409 • Mengujekids 1072–1277 • Ahlatshahs 1085–1207 • Saltukids 1072-1202 • Beylik of İnal 1096–1183 • Danishmends 1071–1178 • Tzachas 1081–1098 • Under The Ilkhanates 1243–1335 Anatolian Beyliks • Ottoman Emirate 1302–1922 • Ramadanids 1352–1608 • Dulkadirids 1348–1507 • Karamanids 1250–1487 • Isfendiyarids 1291–1461 • Germiyanids 1300–1429 • Aydinids 1300–1425 • Beylik of Teke 1321–1425 • Menteşe 1261–1424 • Sarukhanids 1300–1410 • Kadi Burhan al-Din 1381–1398 • Hamidids 1300–1391 • Beylik of Lâdik 1262–1391 • Pervâneoğlu 1262–1391 • Eretnids 1335–1381 • Karasids 1296–1357 • Sahib Ataids 1275–1341 • Eshrefids 1285–1326 Ottoman Dynasty 1302–1922 Occupation 1918–1923 Republic of Turkey from 1923 Related topics Republic of Hatay 1938-1939 Turkish Republic of
from 1983 List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
List of Presidents of Turkey
Economic history of Turkey
Constitutional history of Turkey
Military history of Turkey
- ^ Claude Cahen cited in Donald Sidney Richards (2006). The Chronicle of Ali ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period ISBN 0754640779. Ashgate Publishing Inc..
- ^ Fisher, p. 8.
- ^ "Turkmen Ruling Dynasties in Asia Minor".
- ^ Dr. Mürselin Güney. All Danishmend rulers are referred to as "Melik Gazi" by the general public "History of Ünye" (in Turkish). http://www.unye.net/TARIH1.HTM All Danishmend rulers are referred to as "Melik Gazi" by the general public.
- Oktay Aslanapa (1991) (in Turkish). Anadolu'da ilk Türk mimarisi: Başlangıcı ve gelişmesi (Early Turkish architecture in Anatolia: Beginnings and development). AKM Publications, Ankara. ISBN 9751602645. http://www.ottomanstore.com/switch.php?file=ProductInfo&cat_id=82&product_id=1146.
- Clifford Edmund Bosworth (2004). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0748621377. http://books.google.com/books?id=mKpz_2CkoWEC&pg=PA215&vq=danishmendids&dq=new+islamic+dynasties&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html.
- Fisher, Sydney Nettleton (2000). The Foreign Relations of Turkey 1481-1512. Electronic Journal of Oriental Studies. http://www2.hum.uu.nl/Solis/anpt/ejos/EJOS-III.3.html.
- "Turkmen Ruling Dynasties in Asia Minor"
- (fact sheet) "Danishmend Gazi (Melik Gazi) Tomb in Niksar". ArchNet. http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.tcl?site_id=11582 (fact sheet).
- Prof. Dr. Mehmet Eti. Coins: "Specimens of Danishmend numismatics". http://mehmeteti.150m.com/danishmendids/index.htm Coins:.
- Mustafa Güler, İlknur Aktuğ Kolay. (full text) "12. yüzyıl Anadolu Türk Camileri (12th century Turkish mosques in Anatolia)" (in Turkish). Istanbul Technical University Magazine (İtüdergi). http://www.itudergi.itu.edu.tr/tammetin/itu-a_2006_5_2_M_Guler.pdf (full text).
History of TurkeyPre-14th centuryOttoman
of Turkey(since 1923)by topicSee also: Ancient kingdoms of Anatolia · Medieval states in Anatolia · Timeline of the Turks (500-1300)
Landmarks of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum and the Anatolian beyliks Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Ancestor: Kutalmish • Founder: Suleyman I • Capital: İznik, then Konya
Important centers and extension: Konya • Kayseri • Sivas (1175) • Malatya (1178) • Alanya • Antalya
Dynasty: Suleyman I (1077–1086) •• Kilij Arslan I (1092–1107) •• Melikshah (1107–1116) •• Mesud I (1116–1156) •• Kilij Arslan II (1156–1192) •• Kaykhusraw I (1192–1196) •• Süleymanshah II (1196–1204) •• Kilij Arslan III (1204–1205) •• Kaykhusraw I (2nd reign) (1205–1211) •• Kaykaus I (1211–1220) •• Kayqubad I (1220–1237) •• Kaykhusraw II (1237–1246) •• Kaykaus II (1246–1260) •• Kilij Arslan IV (1248–1265) •• Kayqubad II (1249–1257) •• Kaykhusraw III (1265–1282) •• Mesud II (1282–1284) •• Kayqubad III (1284) •• Mesud II (2nd reign) (1284–1293) •• Kayqubad III (2nd reign) (1293–1294) •• Mesud II (3rd reign) (1294–1301) •• Kayqubad III (3rd reign) (1301–1303) •• Mesud II (4th reign) (1303–1307) • Mesud III (1307)
1243: Gradually vassalized to the Mongol Empire after the defeat suffered in the Battle of Köse Dag • 1307: Taken over by the Beylik of Karamanids
Palaces and Castles: Seljuk Palace in Konya (1190–1220) •• Kubadabad Palace in Beyşehir (1220–1230) •• Keykubadiye Palace in Kayseri (1220–1230) •• Alanya Kızıl Kule (Red Tower) and Shipyard constructions and widescale extension of Alanya Castle
Külliye (Complexes) and Dar al-Shifa (Medical Centers) and Medrese (Schools) and Mosques: Gevher Nesibe Külliye with Medical Center and Medical School and Mosque in Kayseri (1204–1210) •• Battal Gazi Külliye in Seyitgazi (1208) •• Karatay Medrese in Konya (1225) •• Ince Minaret Medrese in Konya (1258–1279) •• Atabeg Ferruh Darüşşifa in Çankırı (1236) •• Alâeddin Keykubad I Darüşşifa in Konya (1237) •• Torumtay Darüşşifa in Amasya (1266) •• Izzeddin Keykavus I Şifaiye Medrese and Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Sivas (1218) •• Gökmedrese in Sivas (1271) •• Çifte Minaret Medrese in Sivas (1271) •• Alâeddin Mosque in Konya (1220) •• Alâeddin Mosque in Niğde (1220) •• Great Mosque of Malatya in Eskimalatya (Battalgazi) (1224) •• Hüsameddin Temurlu castle, caravanseai and medrese in Kalehisar, Alaca (~1250) •• Havadan Külliye in Develi (~1300)
Caravanserais: Ağzıkara Han caravanserai near Aksaray (1237) •• Ak Han caravanserai near Denizli (1254) •• Alaca Han caravanserai in Alacahan (~1280) •• Alara Han caravanserai near Manavgat •• Alay Han caravanserai near Aksaray (1190) •• Altınapa Han caravanserai between Beyşehir and Konya (1201) •• Angit Han caravanserai between Konya and Akşehir (1201) •• Burma Han caravanserai in Divriği (13th century) •• Çakallı Han caravanserai near Samsun (~1250) •• Çardak Han (Hanabad) caravanserai in Çardak (1230) •• Çay Han caravanserai in Çay (1279) •• Dokuzun Han caravanserai in Konya (1210) •• Eğirdir Han caravanserai in Eğirdir (1238) •• Ertokuş Han caravanserai near Eğirdir (1224) •• Eshab-i Kehf Han caravanserai near Afşin–Elbistan (~1225) •• Evdir Han caravanserai near Antalya (1224) •• Ezinepazar Han caravanserai near Amasya (1246) •• Goncalı Akhan caravanserai between Konya and Aksaray •• Hatun Han caravanserai between Amasya and Tokat •• Hekim Han caravanserai in Hekimhan (1220) •• Horozlu Han caravanserai near Konya (1249) •• Incir Han caravanserai near Bucak (1239) •• Kadın Han caravanserai in Kadınhanı (1223) •• Karatay Han caravanserai near Pınarbaşı (1241) • Kargı Han caravanserai near Antalya (1246) •• Kesikköprü Han caravanserai near Kırşehir (1268) •• Kırkgöz Han caravanserai near Antalya (1246) •• Kızılören Han caravanserai near Konya (1206) •• Kuruçeşme Han caravanserai near Konya (1210) ••Melleç Han caravanserai near Anamur (13th century) •• Mirçinge Han caravanserai near Divriği (13th century) •• Obruk Han caravanserai near Konya (1230) •• Öresin Han caravanserai near Aksaray (~1275) •• Pazar Han caravanserai near Tokat (1239) •• Zazadın Han caravanserai near Konya (1236) •• Şarapsa Han caravanserai near Alanya (1246) •• Sarı Han caravanserai near Ürgüp (1249) •• Sevserek Han caravanserai between Malatya and Pötürge (13th century) •• Sultan Han caravanserai between Konya and Aksaray (1229) • Sultan Han caravanserai near Bünyan between Kayseri and Sivas (1236) • Susuz Han caravanserai near Bucak (1246)
Anatolian beyliks Tzachas (1081 - 1092) Ahlatshahs (1100–1207)
Founder: Sökmen el Kutbi • Capital: Ahlat
Important centers and extension: Silvan • Malazgirt • Erciş • Adilcevaz • Başkale • Eleşkirt • Van • Tatvan • Bitlis • Muş • Hani
Dynasty: Sökmen el Kutbi (1100–1112) • Ibrahim bin Sökmen (? - ?) • Ahmed bin Ibrahim (? - ?) • Sökmen the Second (1128–1185) • Seyfeddin Begtimur (1185–1193) • Aksungur (1193–1197) • Muhammed bin Begtimur (1185–1207)
1207: Submitted to the Ayyoubids
Important works: Ahlat Tombs
Artuqids (1102 - )
Ancestors: Eksük and his son Artuk, commander of Alparslan, from Döğer Oghuz Türkmen clan
Founder: Muinüddin Sökmen Bey • Capitals: Three branches in Hasankeyf, Mardin and Harput
Important centers and extension: Diyarbekir • Hasankeyf • Silvan • Mardin • Midyat • Harput • Palu • Aleppo (temporarily as of 1117)
Hasankeyf Dynasty or Sökmenli Dynasty: Müinüddin Sökmen Bey (1102–1104) • Sökmenli Ibrahim Bey (1104–1131)
Mardin Dynasty or Ilgazi Dynasty: Necmeddin Ilgazi (1106–1122) • Hüsameddin Timurtaş (1122–1154) • Necmeddin Alp (1154–1176)
Harput Dynasty: Belek Bey (1112–1124) • Nureddin Muhammed (? - ?) • Sökmen the Second (? - ?)
Important works: Artuqid Palace in Diyarbakır • Widescale extension of Diyarbakır City Walls • Malabadi Bridge • Hasankeyf Bridge • Sökmenli Nasirüddevle Bîmaristan-ı Farukî Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Silvan (1108) • Emineddin (brother of Ilgazi) Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Mardin (built between 1122) • Great Mosque of Silvan • Great Mosque of Mardin • Older Great Mosque of Midyat (Cami-i Kebir) • Great Mosque of Kızıltepe • Great Mosque of Harput • Artuqid Caravanserai in Mardin • Ibrahim Shah Caravanserai near Keban between Elazığ and Çemişgezek
Founder: Danishmend Gazi • Capitals: Sivas • Niksar
Important centers and extension: Sivas • Niksar • Malatya • Kayseri • Tokat • Amasya • Kastamonu • Ankara
Dynasty: Danishmend Gazi (1071–1105) • Emir Gazi Gümüştekin (1105–1134) • Melik Mehmed (1134–1146) • Yağıbasan (1146–1164) • Melik Ismail (1164–1175)
1175: Capital city of Sivas incorporated into the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum • 1178: Malatya branch incorporated into the Seljuk Sultanate
Important works: Great Mosque of Niksar • Great Mosque of Kayseri • Kayseri Kölük Mosque • Danishmend Gazi Tomb (Melik Gazi Tomb) in Niksar • Denishmend Melik Mehmed Gazi Tomb in Kayseri
Founder: Mengücek Bey • Capitals: Erzincan, later also Divriği
Important centers and extension: Erzincan • Divriği • Kemah • Şarkikarahisar
Dynasty: Mengücek Bey (1071–1118) • Mengücekli Ishak Bey (1118–1120) • 1120–1142 Temporarily incorporated into the Beylik of Danishmends
Erzincan and Kemah Branch: Mengücekli Davud Shah (1142- ?) • 1228 Incorporation into the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Divriği Branch: Mengücekli Süleyman Shah (1142- ?) • 1277 Beylik destroyed by Abaka
Important works: Divriği Great Mosque and Divriği Turan Melek Sultan Medical Center (Darüşşifa) (1229) • Kale Mosque in Divriği
Founder: Saltuk Bey • Capital: Erzurum
Important centers and extension: Erzurum • Tercan
Dynasty: Saltuk Bey (1072–1102) • Ali bin Ebu'l-Kâsım (1102 - ~1124) • Ziyâüddin Gazi (~1124–1132) • Izzeddin Saltuk (1132–1168) • Nâsırüddin Muhammed (1168–1191) • Mama Hatun (1191–1200) • Melikshah bin Muhammed (1200–1202)
1202: Incorporation into the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Important works: Great Mosque of Erzurum • Emir Saltuk Tomb in Erzurum • Mama Hatun Caravanserai in Tercan • Mama Hatun Tomb in Tercan • Kale Mosque in Erzurum • Erzurum Medical Center (Darüşşifa) (1147)
Founder: Aydınoğlu Mehmed Bey • Capitals: Birgi, later Ayasluğ
Important centers and extension: Tire • Izmir • Alaşehir • Aydın • Sakız/Chios (between 1336–1344)
Dynasty: Aydınoğlu Mehmed Bey (1307–1334) • Umur Beg (1334–1348) • Aydınoğlu Hızır Bey (? - ?) • Aydınoğlu Isa Bey ( - 1390)
1390: First period of incorporation (by marriage) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I the Thunderbolt • 1402–1414: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane to Aydınoğlu Musa Bey (1402–1403) • Aydınoğlu Umur Bey the Second (1403–1405) • İzmiroğlu Cüneyd Bey (1405–1425 with intervals) • 1425: Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II
Important works: Isabey Mosque in Selçuk (1375)
Founder: Şemseddin Yaman Candar, commander of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum • Capital: Kastamonu
Important centers and extension: Sinop • Eflani • Çankırı • Kalecik • Tosya • Araç • Samsun (temporarily)
Dynasty: Candaroğlu Süleyman Pasha (1309 - ~1340) • Candaroğlu Ibrahim Bey (1340–1345) • Candaroğlu Adil Bey (1340–1361) • Celaleddin Bayezid (1361–1385) • Candaroğlu Süleyman Pasha the Second (1384–1392)
1392: Incorporation (by conquest) of Kastamonu branch into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I
Sinop Dynasty or Isfendiyarid Dynasty: Isfendiyar Bey (1385–1440) • Taceddin Ibrahim Bey (1440–1443) • Kemaleddin Ismail Bey (1443–1461)
1461: Incorporation (by surrender) of Sinop branch into the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed II
Founder: Hüsamettin Çoban Bey, commander from Kayı Oghuz clan of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum • Capital: Kastamonu
Important centers and extension: Kastamonu • Taşköprü
Dynasty: Hüsamettin Çoban Bey (1309 - ?) • Alp Yürek (? - ?) • Muzafferüddin Yavlak Arslan (? - ?) • Çobanoğlu Mahmud Bey (? - 1309) •
1309: Incorporation (by conquest) into the Beylik of Isfendiyarids
Dulkadirids (1348- ~1525)
Ancestor: Hasan Dulkadir • Founder: Zeyneddin Karaca Bey • Capital: Elbistan
Important centers and extension: Maraş • Malatya • Harput • Kayseri • Antep
Dynasty: Zeyneddin Karaca Bey (1348–1348) • Dulkadiroğlu Halil Bey (1348–1386) • Sûli Bey (1386–1396) • Nâsıreddin Mehmed Bey (1396–1443) • Dulkadiroğlu Süleyman Bey (1443–1454) • Melik Arslan (?-?) • Shah Budak (?-1492) • Şahsuvar (?-?) • Alaüddevle Bozkurt Bey (1492–1507) • Şahsuvaroğlu Ali Bey (1507- ~1525)
1443–1525: Increasingly tributary and gradually incorporated into the Ottoman Empire
Founder: Eretna Bey, brother-in-law of the Ilkhanid governor for Anatolia, Timurtash• Capital: Sivas, later Kayseri
Important centers and extension: Sivas • Kayseri • Niğde • Tokat • Amasya • Erzincan • Şarkikarahisar • Niksar
Dynasty: Eretna Bey (1328–1352) • Gıyasüddin Mehmed Bey (1352–1365) • Alâeddin Ali Bey (1365–1380) • Mehmed Bey the Second (1380–1381)
1326: Beylik replaced by Mehmed Bey's chancellor Kadı Burhaneddin
Founder: Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey, regent to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum •• Capital: Beyşehir
Important centers and extension: Beyşehir •• Akşehir •• Bolvadin
Dynasty: Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey (1288–1302) •• Eşrefoğlu Mehmed Bey (1302–1320) •• Eşrefoğlu Süleyman Bey the Second (1320–1326)
1326: Beylik destroyed by Demirtaş, the Ilkhanid governor for Anatolia
Important works: Eşrefoğlu Mosque in Beyşehir (1299)
Ancestor:: Kerimüddin Alişir • Founder: Germiyanlı Yakub Bey the First • Capital: Kütahya
Important centers and extension: Kula (District), Manisa • Simav • Yenicekent • Yenicekent (Beylik of Lâdik between 1300–1368)
Dynasty: Germiyanlı Yakub Bey the First (1300–1340) • Germiyanlı Mehmed Bey (1340–1361) • Germiyanlı Süleyman Shah (1361–1387)
1390: First period of incorporation (by legation) into the Ottoman Empire under Murad I • 1402–1414: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane to Germiyanoğlu Yakub Bey the Second (1402–1429) • 1414: Recognition of Ottoman sovereignty by Germiyanoğlu Yakub Bey the Second under Mehmed I • 1429: Second and last incorporation (by legation) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II
Ancestors:: Hamid and his son Ilyas Bey, frontier rulers under Seljuk Sultanate of Rum • Founder: Hamidoğlu Feleküddin Dündar Bey • Capital: Isparta
Important centers and extension: Eğirdir • Uluborlu • Gölhisar • Korkuteli and Antalya transferred in 1301 to Dündar Bey's brother Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey
Dynasty: Hamidoğlu Feleküddin Dündar Bey (~1280–1324) • Hamidoğlu Hızır Bey (1324–1330) • Hamidoğlu Necmeddin Ishak Bey (? - ?) • Hamidoğlu Muzafferüddin Mustafa Bey (? - ?) • Hamidoğlu Hüsameddin Ilyas Bey (? - ?) • Hamidoğlu Kemaleddin Hüseyin Bey (? - 1391)
1374: Incorporation (by sale of territories) into the Ottoman Empire under Murad I and also partially to Karamanid dynasty.
Ancestor:: Nure Sûfi from Afshar Oghuz clan • Founder: Kerimüddin Karaman Bey • Capitals: successively Ereğli • Ermenek • Larende (Karaman) • Konya • Mut
Important centers and extension:
Dynasty: Kerimeddin Karaman Bey (1256–1261) • Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey (1261–1283) • Güneri Bey (1283–1300) • Bedreddin Mahmud Bey (1300–1308) • Yahşı Han Bey (1308–1312) • Bedreddin Ibrahim Bey (1312–1333) • Alâeddin Halil Mirza Bey (1333–1348) • Bedreddin Ibrahim Bey, 2nd reign (1348–1349) • Fahreddin Ahmed Bey (1349–1350) • Şemdeddin Bey the Second (1350–1351) • Burhaneddin Musa Bey (1351–1356) • Seyfeddin Süleyman Bey (1356–1357) • Alâeddin Ali Bey (1357–1398) • Nasreddin Mehmed Bey (1398–1399) • Bengi Alâeddin Ali Bey (1418–1424) • Damat Ibrahim Bey (1424–1464) • Sultanzade Ishak Bey (1464) • Sultanzade Pir Ahmed Bey (1464–1469) • Karamanoğlu Kasım Bey (1469–1483) • Turgutoğlu Mahmud Bey (1483–1487)
1398–1402: First incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I • 1402–1414: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane • 1414–1487: Gradual second incorporation into the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed I, Murad II and Mehmed II.
Ancestor:: Melik Danişmend Gazi • Founder: Karesi Bey • Capital: Balıkesir
Important centers and extension: Aydıncık • Bergama • Edremit • Bigadiç • Ezine
Dynasty: Karesi Bey (1307–1328) • Demir Han (1328–1345) • Yahşı Han (1328–1345) • Süleyman Bey (1345–1360)
1374: Incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Beylik under Orhan I and Murad I
Ancestor:: Germiyanlı Ali Bey • Founder: Inanç Bey • Capital: Denizli
Important centers and extension: Denizli
Dynasty: Inanç Bey (~1300 - ~1314) • Murad Arslan (~1314 - ?) • Inançoğlu Ishak Bey (? - ~1360) • Süleyman Bey (1345–1368)
1368: Re-incorporation (by conquest) into the Beylik of Germiyan
Founder: Menteşe Bey • Capitals: Beçin castle and nearby Milas, later also Balat
Important centers and extension: present-day Muğla Province • Muğla • Finike • Kaş • Çameli • Acıpayam • Tavas • Bozdoğan • Çine • temporarily Aydın and Güzelhisar, also Rhodes between 1300–1314
Dynasty: Menteşe Bey (~1261 - ~1282) • Menteşeoğlu Mesud Bey (~1282 - ~1320) • Menteşeoğlu Şücaüddin Orhan Bey (~1320 - ~1340) • Menteşeoğlu Ibrahim Bey (~1340 - ~1360)
1360: Division between the three sons of Menteşeoğlu Ibrahim Bey; Musa, Mehmed, Ahmed • 1390: First period of incorporation into the Ottoman Empire (by submission) under Bayezid I the Thunderbolt • 1402–1414: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane to Menteşeoğlu Ilyas Bey • 1414: Recognition of Ottoman sovereignty under Mehmed I • 1424: Second and last incorporation (by submission) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II
Important works: Firuz Bey Mosque in Milas • Ilyas Bey Mosque in Balat • Great Mosque of Muğla (1344) • Vakıflar Hamam (Turkish bath) in Muğla (1334)
Ancestor: Mühezzibeddin Ali Kâşî (vizier of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum) • Founder: Süleyman Pervâne • Capital: Sinop
Important centers and extension: Sinop
Dynasty: Süleyman Pervâne (1261–1277) • Pervâneoğlu Mehmed Bey (1277–1296) • Pervâneoğlu Mesud Bey (1296–1300) • Pervâneoğlu Gazi Çelebi (1300–1326)
1516: Incorporation into the Beylik of Isfendiyarids
Important works: Muîneddin Pervâne Medical Center (Darüşşifa) in Tokat (1276) • Pervâne Medrese in Sinop • Durağan Han caravanserai in Durağan (1266) • Eğret Han caravanserai near İhsaniye (1278) • Pervâne Bey Medrese in Closed Bazaar in Kayseri • Mosque in Merzifon
Founder: Ramazan Bey from Yüreğir Oghuz clan • Capitals: Adana
Important centers and extension: Adana • Tarsus
Dynasty: Ibrahim Bey (1344-?) • [[|Ahmed Bey (Ramadanids)|Ahmed Bey]] (?-1416) • Ibrahim Bey (1416–1417) • Hamza Bey (1417–1427) • Mehmed Bey (1427-?) • Eyluk Bey (? - ?) • Dündar Bey (? - ?) • Omer Bey (?-1490) • Giyas al-Din Halil Bey (1490–1511) • Hahmud Bey (1511–1516) • Selim Bey (?-?) • Kubad Bey (1517-?)
1516: Icorporation (by submission) into the Ottoman Empire under Selim I • 1516–1608: Dynasty members as Beys of Ottoman sanjak of Adana until 1608.
Sahib Ataids (1275–1341)
Founder: Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali, vizier of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum • Capital: Afyonkarahisar
Important centers and extension: Akşehir • Beyşehir • Sandıklı • Denizli
Dynasty: Dynasty: Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali (1275–1288) and sons • Nusreddin Ahmed (1288–1341)
1341: Incorporation into the Beylik of Germiyan
Important works: Sâhib Ata Caravanserai in Sultandağı
Founder: Saruhan Bey • Capital: Manisa
Important centers and extension: Demirci • Nif (Kemalpaşa) • Akhisar • Gördes • Menemen
Dynasty: Dynasty: Saruhan Bey (1302–1345) • Fahreddin Ilyas Bey • Muzafferuddin Ishak Bey ( -1388) • Hızır Shah (1388–1390)
1390: First period of incorporation (by submission) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I the Thunderbolt • 1402–1410: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane to Saruhanoğlu Orhan Bey (1402–1403) • Hızır Shah (1403–1410) • 1410: Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Mehmed I
Ancestors: Hamidoğlu dynasty • Founder: Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey • Capitals: Antalya • Korkuteli
Important centers and extension: Antalya (lost to the Kingdom of Cyprus between 1361–1373) • Teke Peninsula
Dynasty: Tekeoğlu Yunus Bey (1301-?) • Tekeoğlu Mehmud Bey (?-1327) • Tekeoğlu Hızır Bey (? - ?) • Tekeoğlu Dadı Bey (?-?) • Zincirkıran Mehmed Bey (~1360 - ~1375) • Tekeoğlu Osman Bey (~1375–1390)
1390: First period of incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman Empire under Bayezid I the Thunderbolt • 1402–1423: Second period of Beylik restituted by Tamerlane to Tekeoğlu Osman Bey (1402–1423) • 1423: Second and last incorporation (by conquest) into the Ottoman realm under Murad II
Important works: Yivli Minare Mosque in Antalya (~1375)
Medieval states in AnatoliaAhis • Aq Qoyunlu • Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia • Alaiye • Artuqids • Aydinids • Isfendiyarids • Tzachas • Chobanids • Beylik of Çubukoğulları • Danishmends • Beylik of Demleç • Dulkadirids • Eretnids • Beylik of Erzincan • Eshrefids • Germiyanids • Hamidids • Beylik of İnal • Kadi Burhan al-Din • Karamanids • Karasids • Beylik of Lâdik • Mengujekids • Menteşe • Pervâneoğlu • Ramadanids • Sahib Ataids • Saltukids • Sarukhanids • Ahlatshahs • Beylik of Tanrıbermiş • Beylik of Teke • Beyliks of Canik • Byzantine Empire • County of Edessa • Emirate of Armenia • Empire of Nicaea • Empire of Trebizond • Kara Koyunlu • Latin Empire • Ottoman Empire • Principality of Antioch • Sultanate of Rum
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