- Ancient and Primitive Rite
The Ancient and Primitive Rite is a Quasi-Masonic higher-degree Rite.
The Rite began around 1805 amongst Napoleon's soldiers in Egypt who were Freemasons. It was based primarily on the degree work of the
Philadelphes of Narbonneas well as several other Masonic Rites that were operating in France during this period. The Rite was then introduced to Francefrom Egyptby Samuel Honis in 1815 and also spread to Italy. In 1856 the Rite was established in the USA, Romania, Australiaand Switzerlandby Jacques Etienne Marconis de Negre. During the Civil War, the Rite in the USAlost so many members that it fell into a decline from which it never recovered. The Rite did, however, continue to be practiced in Europeand was chartered for the jurisdiction of Chile in the 1920s where it is still practiced and where it survived until recent times.
The Rite has experienced somewhat of a renaissance recentlyFact|date=September 2008, and is now being practiced once again in
United States of America, France, Belgium, Chile, Brazil, Ecuador, Lebanon, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, England, Italy, Mexico, Monaco, Venezuela, Slovenia, Serbia, Romania, Argentinaand the Dominican Republic.
Famous people who have been members of the Rite include
Kenneth McKenzie, John Yarker, Salvatore Zola, David McLellan and several members of the Romanian royal family prior to the suppression of Freemasonryas a whole by the Communistsin that country. The mysticism and rituals of people such as the Comte de Cagliostro, Martinez Pasquallyand Louis Claude de Saint-Martinhave influenced this Rite of Freemasonry.
The Rite confers 92 degrees starting from the 4th degree and going to the 95th in four series. The Rite as it was originally practiced in
Egyptalso had symbolic lodge degrees which were unique, similarly to Scottish Riteand York Rite, which were the official ritual of the Grand Lodge of Egypt. The degree rituals of the Rite are chivalric in nature with kabbalistic, hermetic, biblical and mythological influences.
The Rite as it exists today operates in the same spirit as the Masonic Metropolitan College in Paris where the degrees of all high degree rites which were present at that time were available to master masons, so that they could make up their own mind as to their value. The Rite does this in order to preserve and use as much of the tradition of high degree
masonic rituals as possible.
* Prescott, Andrew. " [http://freemasonry.dept.shef.ac.uk/pdf/bradlaugh.pdf The Cause of Humanity: Charles Bradlaugh and Freemasonry] "
Boris Nicolaevsky, “Secret Societies and the First International,” in "The Revolutionary Internationals", 1864-1943, ed. Milored M. Drachkovitch (Stanford, 1966), 36-56.
* [http://www.sovereignsanctuary.org The Ancient and Primitive Rite]
* [http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/kneph/aprm.html from the Grand Lodge of British Columbia & Yukon] , an outline of the history and principles of the rite as written by John Yarker.
* [http://www.memphis-misraim-international.org/ International Masonic Order of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraïm]
*(HTTP://WWW.REGULARGRANDLODGE.IT RITE OF MEMPHIS
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