Caproni Ca.310

Caproni Ca.310

infobox Aircraft
name = Ca.310
type = Reconnaissance
manufacturer = Caproni



caption = Caproni-Begamaschi Ca.310
designer =Cesare Pallavicino
first flight =April 1937
introduced =1938
retired =1948
produced =
number built = 312 [ [http://uncleted.jinak.cz/ADC_ital.htm Caproni Ca.310] ]
status =
unit cost =
primary user = Regia Aeronautica
more users = Hungary,
Norway,
Yugoslavia,
Peru
developed from =
variants with their own articles = Caproni Ca.313
The Caproni-Begamaschi Ca.310 "Libeccio" (Italian: southwest wind [ [http://amsglossary.allenpress.com/glossary/browse?p=17&s=L Glossary of Meteorology] ] ) was an Italian monoplane, twin-engine reconnaissance aircraft used in World War II. Derived from the similar Ca.309, it had its combat debut during the Spanish Civil War, and took part in the earlier phases of World War II in Libya. Some were used in attack groups as a temporary replacement for the unsatisfactory Breda Ba.65. The last Ca.309 was retired by the Italian Air Force in 1948.

Design and development

The Ca.310 was designed as a low-wing monoplane reconnaissance/bomber, being essentially a version of the semi-military Ca.309 with retractable landing gear and uprated engines. The fuselage was of welded steel tube construction with a covering of light alloy panels and fabric, while the empennage/tail unit was of wooden construction with plywood skin on its fixed portions and fabric covering on control surfaces. [http://www.comandosupremo.com/Ca310.html Comando Supremo on the CA.310] ]

Above the fuselage, mounted in line with the wing trailing edges was a manually operated dorsal turret armed with a single rifle-caliber (7.7 mm) Breda-SAFAT machine gun.

Operational history

Caproni pinned great hopes on the Ca. 310's effectiveness as a combat aircraft, only to be dashed when its performance fell short of expectations. This lack of performance resulted in both Norway and Hungary being disappointed with the export models they received in 1938. The Ca.310 had been evaluated by the Regia Aeronautica (Italian Air Force) which ordered a small batch. A unit of 16 aircraft was sent to Spain in July 1938 for operational trials as a reconnaissance/bomber by the Italian expeditionary force operating alongside the Nationalist insurgents in the Spanish Civil War.

The Norwegian aircraft were acquired as part of a Dried and salted cod ("Klippfisk") barter deal between Norway and Italy. [ [http://www.nuav.net/norwair1940.html Norwegian Aircraft in 1940] ] The Official Norwegian Defence Force website on "the Norwegian Armed Forces Aircraft Collection": [http://www.mil.no/felles/lmu/start/utstilling/Mellomkrigstiden/ The inter-war years] no icon] The original order, including options, was for 24 aircraft, but after seeing that the aircraft did not perform well, the Norwegian authorities refused to accept any further Ca.310s. Instead, a delivery of 12 Caproni Ca.312s with upgraded engines and improved performance was substituted, but not delivered before the German invasion of Norway on 9 April 1940. A similar scenario occurred with other export contracts, especially with a hoped-for Royal Air Force order for bomber trainers being curtailed during negotiations with Caproni when Italy entered the war as an Axis power.

A series of 12 Ca.310bis were produced for Yugoslavia. This variant differed mainly in having an unstepped, glazed nose. The prototype Ca.310bis served as the development for the Caproni-Begamaschi Ca.311.

The 33 Hungarian Ca.310s returned to Italy were refurbished by Caproni and reissued to the 50˚ Stormo d’Assalto. The Ca.310 was not considered an effective combat aircraft and when it saw service during World War II, it was as a reconnaissance aircraft and as a light bomber in areas where no serious opposition was expected. [Constable.ca: [http://www.constable.ca/ca310.htm Caproni Ca 310 Reconnaissance Bomber "Libeccio"] ]

Peruvian Aeronautical Corps Ca.310s took part in the July 1941 Ecuadorian-Peruvian war. Together with North American NA.50s, the Peruvian Ca.310s flew bombing missions against Ecuadorian cities [Time.com: [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,849391,00.html?promoid=googlep Shooting Scrape] ] and supported Army of Peru ground forces. [Acig.org: [http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_164.shtml The Most Powerful Air Force in Latin America] ]

One Norwegian example has been restored and is displayed at Sola Aviation Museum.

Variants

* Ca310 : Twin-engined reconnaissance aircraft.
* Ca.310 Idro : Twin-float seaplane version.
* Ca.310bis :

Operators

*flag|Italy|1861-stateRegia Aeronautica
*flag|Peru|1825 – small number ordered in 1938 for the "Cuerpo de Aviación del Perú" (Peruvian Aviation Corps)
*NOR – the Royal Norwegian Army Air Service operated four Ca.310s.
*flag|Hungary|1940 – ordered 36 examples in 1938, but returned the surviving 33 in 1940 after being unhappy with type's performance.
*flag|Croatia|1941;* The Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia. 7 captured ex-Yugoslav aircraft.
*YUG;* The Royal Yugoslav Air Force purchased 12 aircraft in 1938.

pecifications (Ca.310)

aircraft specifications

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop

ref=
crew=3
capacity=
length main= 12.20 m
length alt=40 ft
span main= 16.20 m
span alt=53 ft
height main= 3.52 m
height alt= 11.5 ft
area main= 38.7 m²
area alt= 127 ft²
airfoil=
empty weight main= 3,050 kg
empty weight alt= 6,724 lb
loaded weight main= 4,650 kg
loaded weight alt= 10,251 lb
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt=

engine (jet)=
type of jet=
number of jets=
thrust main= lbf
thrust alt= kN
engine (prop)=Piaggio P.VIII C.35
type of prop=
number of props=2
power main=470 hp
power alt= 350 kW
max speed main= 365 km/h
max speed alt= 218-227 mph
cruise speed main= 285-312 km/h
cruise speed alt= 177-194 mph
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
range main= 1,690 km
range alt= 1,025 miles
ceiling main= 7,000 m
ceiling alt= 22,965 feet
climb rate main=
climb rate alt=
loading main=
loading alt=
more performance=

armament=
* Guns: 3 x 7.7 mm Breda SAFAT machine guns (Two 7.7 mm machine guns fixed forward firing mounted in the wing roots; one 7.7 mm machine gun in a dorsal turret)
*Bombs: up to 450 kg, 882 pounds

ee also

aircontent

related=
*

similar aircraft=
*

sequence=
Ca.307 -
Ca.308 -
Ca.309 - Ca.310 -
Ca.311 -
Ca.312 -
Ca.313

lists=
*List of aircraft of Italy, World War II

see also=

References

Notes

Bibliography

* Bishop, Chris. "The Complete Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II". London: Brown Books, 1998. ISBN 1-897884-36-2.
* Mondey, David. "The Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II". New York: Bounty Books, 1996. ISBN 1-85152-966-7.
* Taylor, M.J.H., ed. "Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation". London: Jane's Publishing Company, 1989. ISBN 1-85170-324-1.

External links

* [http://www.comandosupremo.com/Ca310.html Comando Supremo on the CA.310]
* [http://www.constable.ca/ca310.htm Constable.ca on the Ca.310]
* [http://www.aircraftaces.com/caproni.htm World War 2 Aircraft: Caproni Bergamaschi CA 310 Series]


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