Diallel


Diallel

A Diallel is a mating scheme used by plant breeders and geneticists to test for general and specific combining ability as well as genetic effects behind quantitative traits.Hallauer, A. R. and J. B. Miranda Filho. 1988 Quantitative genetics in maize breeding. 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IO. ]

In a full diallel, all parents are crossed to make hybrids in all possible combinations. Variations include partial dialleles with and without parents, see Examples. Full dialleles require twice as many crosses and entries in experiments, but allows for testing for maternal effects. If maternal effects are assumed to be negligible, then a partial diallele without reciprocals is effective.

Common analysis methods utilize general linear models to identify heterotic groups [Griffing, B. 1956. Concept of general and specific combining ability in relation to diallel crossing systems. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 9: 463-493] , estimate general combining ability (gca)Gardner, C. O. and S. A. Eberhart. 1966. Analysis and interpretation of the variety cross diallel and related populations. Biometrics 22: 439-452] , specific combining ability (SCA), interactions with testing environments, years, and estimates of additive, dominant, and epistatic genetic effects [Hayman, B. I. 1954. The analysis of variance of diallel tables. Biometrics 10: 235-244] [Sprague G. F., and L. A. Tatum. 1942. General vs. specific combining ability in single crosses of corn. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 34: 923-932] .

Other common mating designs used to study quantitative genetics effects include midparent-offspring regression,generation mean analysisHayman, B.I. 1958. The separation of epistatic from additive and dominance variation in generation means. Heredity 12: 371-390] , triple test cross Kearsey, M.J. and Jinks, J.L. 1968. A general method of detecting additive, dominance and episstatic variation for metric traits. I. Theory Heredity 23 : 403-409.] , and the mating schemes proposed by Comstock and Robinson (1948) called by plant breeders NC I nested design, NC II factorial design, and NC III testcross mating designs Comstock, R. E. and H.F. Robinson. 1948. The components of genetic variance in populations of biparental progenies and their use in estimating the average degree of dominance. Biometrics 4:254-266.] .

Examples

Full Diallel

a b c d e

a a x a a x b a x c a x d a x e

b b x a b x b b x c b x d b x e

c c x a c x b c x c c x d c x e

d d x a d x b d x c d x d d x e

e e x a e x b e x c e x d e x e

Partial Diallel with parents, Kempthorne, O. and R. N. Curnow. 1961. The partial diallel cross. Biometrics 17: 229-250]

assuming that initial parents are inbred. Otherwise including selfed parents.

a b c d e

a a x a

b b x a b x b

c c x a c x b c x c

d d x a d x b d x c d x d

e e x a e x b e x c e x d e x e

Partial Diallel without parents

a b c d e

a

b b x a

c c x a c x b

d d x a d x b d x c

e e x a e x b e x c e x d

References


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  • Diallel — Di al*lel, a. [Gr. ? crossing.] Meeting and intersecting, as lines; not parallel; opposed to {parallel}. [Obs.] Ash. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • diallel — adjective Etymology: Greek diallēlos reciprocating, from dia through + allēlōn one another more at allelo Date: 1920 relating to or being the crossing of each of several individuals with two or more others in order to determine the relative… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • diallel — di·al·lel dī ə .lel adj relating to or being the crossing of each of several individuals with two or more others in order to determine the relative genetic contribution of each parent to specific characters in the offspring …   Medical dictionary

  • diallel — di·al·lel …   English syllables

  • diallel — ˈdīəˌlel adjective Etymology: Greek diallēlos reciprocating, confused, in a circle, from di allēlōn through one another, from dia through + allēlōn of one another more at parallel : mating according to a system in which each female is bred to… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Diallel cross — A diallel cross is a mating scheme used by plant and animal breeders, as well as geneticists, to investigate the genetic underpinnings of quantitative traits.[1][2] In a full diallel, all parents are crossed to make hybrids in all possible… …   Wikipedia

  • diallel cross — dialelinis kryžminimas statusas T sritis augalininkystė apibrėžtis Kryžminimas, taikomas siekiant nustatyti specifinę kombinacinę savidulkių linijų galią (kiekviena linija kryžminama su visomis kitomis, kad būtų galima įvertinti visas galimas… …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • half-diallel cross — pusiau dialelinis kryžminimas statusas T sritis augalininkystė apibrėžtis Genotipų kryžminimas visose kombinacijose, išskyrus abipusį kryžminimą. atitikmenys: angl. half diallel cross rus. наполовину диаллельное скрещивание …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • Wim Crusio — Wim E. Crusio Wim Crusio, August 2006 Born 20 December 1954 (1954 12 …   Wikipedia

  • polyallel — |pälē adjective Etymology: poly + allel (as in diallel) : diallel …   Useful english dictionary