List of medieval Mongolian tribes and clans


List of medieval Mongolian tribes and clans

The qualifier Mongol Tribes was established as an umbrella term in the early 13th century, when Temüjin (later Genghis Khan) united the different tribes into the Mongol Nation, the precursor of the Mongol Empire. There were 19 Nirun tribes (marked (N) in the list) that descended from Bodonchar and 18 Darligin tribes (marked (D) in the list), which were also core Mongolic tribes but not descending from Bodonchar. Besides the original Mongols, many of those clans and tribes were of Turkic, and some of Tungusic or other origin. The unification created a new common social identity as Mongols.

From the Secret History of the Mongols

Tribes and clans mentioned in the Secret History of the Mongols: [Erich Haenisch, "Die geheime Geschichte der Mongolen", Leipzig 1948]

Tribes and clans related to Temüjin's clan

*Khoritumat (twentythousand), the people that Alun Goa descends from
*Khurilar clan descended from Alun Goa's father Khurilardai Mergen
*Dorben (four), descendants of Duva sokhor (the blind) (N)
*Uriankhat, tribe of a man whom Dobun mergen (the wise) meets in the forest and who gives him a deer
*Ma'alikh baya'ut, clan of Dobun's servant (D)
*Jarchi'ut Adangkhan, Uriankha clan that Alun Goa's five sons (Belgunotai, Bugunotai, Bukhu khatagi, Bukhatu salji, and Bodonchar, the Fool) subdue (D)
*Belgunot, descendants of Belgunotai
*Bugunot, descendants of Bugunotai
*Khatagin, descendants of Bukhu khatagi (N)
*Salji'ut, descendants of Bukhatu salji (N)
*Borjigin, descendants of Bodonchar
**Jadaran, descendants of Bodonchar's captive wife's first son, Jamukha's clan (N)
**Ba'arin, descandants of Bodonchar and his captive wife (N)
**Manan Ba'arin, descendants of Bodonchar's son with his captive wife
**Jaoret, descendants of Bodonchar's concubine
**Descendants of Bodonchar and his chosen wife:
***Noyakin (N)
***Barulas (several clans) (N)
***Buda'at (N)
***Adargin/Adarkin (N)
****Chinos, a tribe whose seventy princes are boilt to death by Jamukha. (N)
****To'oles
****Telenggut
***Uru'ut (N)
***Mangkhut (N)
***Taichi'ut (N)
****Suldus (D)
****'Naked' Ba'arin
***Besut (N)
***Oronar
***Khongkhotan (D)
***Arula
***Sünit
***Khabturkhas
***Geniges
***Yürki, descendants of Khabul Khan's oldest son
***Kiyat, Yesügei's subclan
***Jurkin
****Khadagin
*Mangkhol or Mangghal, the Mongols

Kerait

The Kerait were a tribe of mixed Mongol and Turkic ancestry. However, names and titles of Kerait rulers imply that they primarily spoke a Turkic language. [ [http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~aps1/graphics/101_Mongols.htm "The Mongol Century"] , Department of Asian Pacific Studies, San Diego State University] R. Grousset, "The Empire of the Steppes", New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press, 1970, p191.] [ [http://www.history.kz/Articles/kerey.php "Kereys"] , Files about origins of Kirgiz-Kaisak(Kazak) people, Muhamedzhan Tynyshbaev] [ [http://www.history.kz/Articles/kerey.php "Kereys"] , Genealogy of türks, kirgizes, kazakhs and ruling dynasties, Shakarim Qudayberdy-uly] They were partly influenced by Nestorianism. [Moffett, "A History of Christianity in Asia" pp. 400-401.] Prominent christian figures were Toghrul and Sorghaghtani Beki.

*Tumen Tubegun
*Dungkhait
*Ubchikh
*Jirgin
*Ongchijid

Tatar

*Airi'ut, mentioned in connection with Ambakhai's death
*Buiri'ut, mentioned in connection with Ambakhai's death
*Juyin other Tatars, or maybe a military organization, mentioned in connection with Ambakhai's death
*Chakhan Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar
*Alchi Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar
*Duta'ut Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar
*Alukhai Tatar, mentioned in connection with the final destruction of the Tatar

Merkit

The Merkit were a Mongol tribe who opposed the rise of Temüjin, and kidnapped his new wife Börte. They were defeated and absorbed into the Mongol nation early in the 13th century. Other than with most other tribes, that was the end of their line of ancestry

*Uduyit
*Uvas
*Kha'at

Forest peoples

*Khoritumat
*Oirat
*Buriyat
*Barkhun
*Ursut
*Khabkhanas
*Khangkhas
*Tubas
*Kirgis
*Kesdiyin
*Bayit
*Tukhas
*Tenlek
*To'eles
*Tas
*Bajigit
*Tumat, identical to Khoritumat
*Barkhujin

Other peoples mentioned

*Naimans
**Guchugut

*Ongut

Other smaller groups mentioned

Groups whose affiliation is not really made clear: these groups may or may not be related to any of the tribes and clans mentioned above:

*Olkhuno'ut, the clan of Temüjin's mother (D)

*Onggirat, the tribe Börte, Temüjin's first wife, descends from (D)

*some clans whose members join Temüjin after the first victory over the Merkit and the separation from Jamukha:
**Jalair
**Tarkhut
**Bishi'ut
**Baya'ut
**Khinggiadai (D), Khinggit, subclan of Olhunoud
**Gorlos (D), subclan of Olhunoud
**Ikires
**Sakhait
**Arulat (D)
**Oronar

*some clans that take part in Sangums conspiracy:
**Khardakit
**Ebugedjin
**Kharta'at (N?)

*Khorulas, clan that joins Chinggis at the Baljun lake

*Tokhura'ut
*Negus, clan whose chief is killed together with the 70 Chinos princes

References


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