- Persecution of Jews in the First Crusade
The call for the
First Crusadetouched off new persecutions of the Jews in which peasantcrusaders from Franceand Germanyattacked Jewish communities.
The preaching of the First Crusade inspired an outbreak of anti-Semitism. In parts of
Franceand Germany, Jews were perceived as just as much an enemy as Muslims: they were thought to be responsible for the crucifixion, and they were more immediately visible than the distant Muslims. Many people wondered why they should travel thousands of miles to fight non-believers when there were already non-believers closer to home.
It is also likely that the crusaders were motivated by their need for money. The
Rhinelandcommunities were relatively wealthy, both due to their isolation, and because they were not restricted as Christians were against moneylending. Many crusaders had to go into debt in order to purchase weaponry and equipment for the expedition; as Western Christianity strictly forbade usury(unlike Orthodox Christianity, which merely regulated it), many crusaders inevitably found themselves indebted to Jewish moneylenders. Having armed themselves by assuming the debt, the crusaders conveniently rationalized the killing of Jews as an extension of their Christian mission.Fact|date=June 2008
There had not been so broad a movement against Jews by Christians since the seventh century's mass expulsions and forced conversions. While there had been a number of regional persecutions of Jews by Christians, such as the one in
Metzin 888, a plot against Jews in Limogesin 992, a wave of anti-Jewish persecution by Christian millenniary movements (who believed that Jesus was set to descend from Heaven) in the year 1000, and the threat of expulsion from Trevesin 1066; these are all viewed “in the traditional terms of governmental outlawry rather than unbridled popular attacks.”cite book| title=Social and Religious History of the Jews, Volume 4|author=Salo Wittmayer Baron|publisher=Columbia University Press| date=1957] Also many movements against Jews (such as forced conversions by King Robert the Pious of France, Richard II, Duke of Normandy, and Henry II, Holy Roman Emperoraround 1007-12) had been quashed by either Roman Catholicism’s Papacy or its Bishops. The passions aroused in the Christian populace by Urban II’s call for the first crusade moved persecution of Jews into a new chapter in history where these previous constants no longer held.
The extent of the era's anti-Semitism is apparent in
Godfrey of Bouillon, who
Emperor Henry IV (after being notified of the pledge by Qalonymus the Jewish leader in
Mainz) issued an order prohibiting such an action. Godfrey claimed he never really intended to kill Jews, but the community in Mainz and Colognesent him a collected bribe of 500 silver marks.cite book|title=The Jews in Medieval Normandy: a social and intellectual history|author=Norman Golb|date=1998|location=Cambridge, United Kingdom|publisher=Cambridge University Press] Sigebert of Gemblouxwrote that before “a war in behalf of the Lord” could be fought it was essential that the Jews convert; those who resisted were “deprived of their goods, massacred, and expelled from the cities.”
The first outbreaks of violence occurred in France. A contemporary chronicle of events written by an anonymous author in Mainz wroteRichard of Poitiers wrote that Jewish persecution was widespread in France at the beginning of the expeditions to the east. The anonymous chronicler of Mainz also wrote
In June and July of 1095 Jewish communities in the Rhineland (north of the main departure areas at
Neuss, Wevelinghoven, Altenahr, Xantenand Moers) were attacked, but the leadership and membership of these crusader groups was not chronicled.cite book|title= Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade|page =92|author=John France |date=1997|publisher=Cambridge University Press, 1994] Some Jews dispersed eastward to escape the persecution. [cite book|title=Political Paranoia: The Psychopolitics of Hatred|author=Robert S. Robins, Jerrold M. Post|page=168|date=1997|publisher=Yale College]
On top of the general Christian suspicion of Jews at the time, when the thousands of French members of the
People's Crusadearrived at the Rhine, they had run out of provisions.cite book|title=The Amazing Adventures of the Jewish People|author=Max I. Dimont|date=1984|publisher=Behrman House, Inc. |location=Springfield, NJ] To restock their supplies, they began to plunder Jewish food and property while attempting to force them to convert to Christianity.
Not all crusaders who had run out of supplies resorted to murder; some, like
Peter the Hermit, used extortion instead. While no sources claim he preached against the Jews, he carried a letter with him from the Jews of France to the community at Trier. The letter urged them to supply provisions to Peter and his men. The Jewish chronicler Solomon b. Simsonrecorded that they were so terrified by Peter’s appearance at the gates that they readily agreed to supply his needs. Whatever Peter's own position on the Jews was, men claiming to follow after him felt free to massacre Jews on their own initiative, to pillage their possessions.
Sometimes Jews survived by being subjected to involuntary baptism, such as in
Regensburg, where a crusading mob rounded up the Jewish community, forced them into the Danube, and performed a mass baptism. After the crusaders had left the region these Jews returned to practicing Judaism.
Folkmar and Gottschalk
In the spring of 1096, a number of small bands of knights and peasants, inspired by the preaching of the Crusade, set off from various parts of France and Germany. The crusade of the priest
Folkmar, beginning in Saxony, persecuted Jews in Magdeburgand later, on May 30, 1096 in Praguein Bohemia. The Catholic Bishop Cosmas attempted to prevent forced conversions, and the entire Catholic hierarchy in Bohemia preached against such acts. Duke Bratislav was out of the country and the Catholic Church's officials' protests were unable to stop the mob of crusaders.
The hierarchy of the Catholic Church as a whole condemned the persecution of the Jews in the regions affected (though their protests had little effect). Especially vocal were the parish priests (only one monk, named Gottschalk, is recorded as joining and encouraging the mob). Chronicler
Hugo of Flavignyrecorded how these religious appeals were ignored, writing
“It certainly seems amazing that on a single day in many different places, moved in unison by a violent inspiration, such massacres should have taken place, despite their widespread disapproval and their condemnation as contrary to religion. But we know that they could not have been avoided since they occurred in the face of excommunication imposed by numerous clergymen, and of the threat of punishment on the part of many princes.”In general the crusader mobs did not fear any retribution as the local courts did not have the jurisdiction to pursue them past their locality nor the ability to identify and prosecute individuals out of the mob. The pleas of the clergy were ignored on similar grounds (no cases against individuals were brought forward for excommunication) and the mob believed that anyone preaching mercy to the Jews was only doing so because they had succumbed to Jewish bribery.
Gottschalk the monk went on to lead a crusade from the
Rhinelandand Lorraine into Hungary, occasionally attacking Jewish communities along the way. In late June 1096, the crusader mob of Gottschalk was welcomed by King Coloman of Hungary, but they soon began plundering the countryside and causing drunken disorder. The King then demanded they disarm. Once their weapons had been secured, the enraged Hungarians fell upon them and “the whole plain was covered with corpses and blood.”cite book|title=The Crusades: The Story Of The Latin Kingdom Of Jerusalem|author=T. A. Archer|date=1894|publisher=G.P. Putnam Sons]
The priest Folkmar and his Saxons also met a similar fate from the Hungarians when they began pillaging villages there because “sedition was incited”.cite book|title= Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade|page =92|author=John France |date=1997|publisher=Cambridge University Press, 1994]
The largest of these crusades, and the most involved in attacking Jews, was that led by Count
Emicho. Setting off in the early summer of 1096, an army of around 10,000 men, women and children proceeded through the Rhine valley, towards the Main Riverand then to the Danube. Emicho was joined by William the Carpenterand Drogo of Nesle, among others from the Rhineland, eastern France, Lorraine, Flandersand even England. Holy Roman EmperorHenry IV, absent in southern Italy, ordered the Jews to be protected when he learned of Emicho's intent. After some Jews were killed at Metzin May, John, Bishop of Speyergave shelter to the Jewish inhabitants. Still at least 12 Jews of Speyer were slain by crusaders on May 3. The Bishop of Wormsalso attempted to shelter Jews, but the crusaders broke in to his episcopal palace and killed the Jews inside on May 18. At least 800 Jews were massacred in Worms when they refused Christian baptism.cite book|title=The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare|author=Jim Bradbury| page=182|date=2004|publisher=Routledge |Location=New York, NY]
News of Emicho's crusade spread quickly, and he was prevented from entering
Mainzon May 25by Bishop Ruthard. Emicho also took an offering of gold raised by the Jews of Mainz in hope to gain his favor and their safety. Bishop Ruthard tried to protect the Jews by hiding them in his lightly fortified palace. Nevertheless Emicho did not prevent his followers from entering the city on May 27and a massacre followed. Many among the Christian business class (the burghers) in Mainz, had working ties with Jews and gave them shelter from the mobs (as the burghers in Prague had done). The Mainzburghers joined with the militia of the bishop and the burgrave (the town's military governor) in fighting off the first waves of crusaders. This stand had to be abandoned when crusaders continued to arrive in ever greater numbers. Despite the example of the burghers, many ordinary citizens in Mainz and other the towns were caught up in the frenzy and joined in the persecution and pillaging. Mainz was the site of the greatest violence, with at least 1,100 Jews and (possibly more) being killed by troops under Clarambaud and Thomas. One man, named Isaac, was forcefully converted, but later, wracked with guilt, killed his family and burned himself alive in his house. Another woman, Rachel, killed her four children with her own hands so that they would not be killed by the crusaders.
Eliezer b. Nathan, a Jewish chronicler at the times, paraphrased
Habakkuk1:6 and wrote of
“cruel foreigners, fierce and swift, Frenchmen and Germans… [who] put crosses on their clothing and were more plentiful than locusts on the face of the earth.”
May 29Emicho arrived at Cologne, where most Jews had already left or were hiding in Christian houses. In Cologne, other smaller bands of crusaders met Emicho, and they left with quite a lot of money taken from the Jews there. Emicho continued towards Hungary, soon joined by some Swabians. Coloman of Hungaryrefused to allow them through Hungary. Count Emicho and his warriors besieged Meseberg, on the Leitha. This led Coloman to prepare to flee into Russia, but the morale of the crusader mob began to fail which inspired the Hungarians and most of the mob was slaughtered or drowned in the river. Count Emicho and a few of the leaders escaped into Italy or back to their own homes. William the Carpenter and other survivors eventually joined Hugh of Vermandoisand the main body of crusader knights.
Later attacks on Jews
Later in 1096,
Godfrey of Bouillonalso collected tribute from the Jews in Mainz and Cologne, but there was no slaughter in this case. Saint Louis UniversityProfessor Thomas Madden, author of "A Concise History of the Crusades", claims the Jewish defenders of Jerusalem retreated to their synagogue to "prepare for death" once the Crusaders had breached the outer walls of the city during the siege of 1099. [http://www.hoover.org/publications/uk/2994821.html CROSS PURPOSES: The Crusades] ( Hoover Institutetelevision show). The entire episode can be viewed with Realplayer or Window’s Media player.] The chronicle of Ibn al-Qalanisimentions the building was set fire while the Jews were still inside.Gibb, H. A. R. "The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades: Extracted and Translated from the Chronicle of Ibn Al-Qalanisi". Dover Publications, 2003 (ISBN 0486425193), pg. 48] The Crusaders were supposedly reported as hoisting up their shields and singing “Christ We Adore Thee!” while they circled the fiery complex." [Rausch, David. "Legacy of Hatred: Why Christians Must Not Forget the Holocaust." Baker Pub Group, 1990 (ISBN 0801077583), pg. 27] However, a contemporary Jewish letter written shortly after the siege does not mention the burning synagogue. But playing on the religious schism between the two sects of Judaism, [Goitein, S.D. "A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. Vol. V: The Individual: Portrait of a Mediterranean Personality of the High Middle Ages as Reflected in the Cairo Geniza." University of California Press, 1988 (ISBN 0520056477), 358] Arabist S.D. Goiteinspeculates the reason the incident is missing from the letter is because it was written by KaraiteJews and the synagogue belonged to the RabbiniteJews. [Kedar, Benjamin Z. "The Jerusalem Massacre of July 1099 in the Western Historiography of the Crusades." The Crusades. Vol. 3 (2004) (ISBN 075464099X), pp. 15-76, pg. 64]
Following the siege, Jews captured from the
dome of the rock, along with native Christians, were made to clean the city of the slain.Goitein, S.D. "Contemporary Letters on the Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders." Journal of Jewish Studies 3 (1952), pp. 162-177, pg 163] Tancred took some Jews as prisoners of warand deported them to Apuleiain southern Italy. Several of these Jews did not make it to their final destination as “Many of them were […] thrown into the sea or beheaded on the way.” Numerous Jews and their holy books (including the Aleppo Codex) were held ransom by Raymond of Toulouse. [Goitein, "Contemporary Letters on the Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders," pg. 165] The Karaite Jewish community of Ashkelon(Ascalon) reached out to their coreligionists in Alexandriato first pay for the holy books and then rescued pockets of Jews over several months. All that could be ransomed were liberated by the summer of 1100. The few who could not be rescued were either converted to Christianity or murdered. [Goitein, "Contemporary Letters on the Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders", pg. 166]
The First Crusade ignited a long tradition of organized violence against Jews in European culture. Jewish money was also used in
Francefor financing the Second Crusade; the Jews were also attacked in many instances, but not on the scale of the attacks of 1096. In England, the Third Crusadewas the pretext for the expulsion of the Jews and the confiscation of their money. The two Shepherds' Crusades, in 1251and 1320, also saw attacks on Jews in France; the second in 1320 also attacked and killed Jews in Aragon(Spain).
News of the attacks spread quickly and reached the Jewish communities in and around Jerusalem long before the crusaders themselves arrived. However, Jews were not systematically killed in Jerusalem, despite being caught up in the general indiscriminate violence caused by the crusaders once they reached the city.
The Hebrew chronicles portray the Rhineland Jews as
martyrs who willingly sacrificed themselves in order to honour God and to preserve their own honour. Faced with conversion or death, they usually chose death. On numerous occasions, the chronicles mention a prominent Jew who expresses a willingness to convert, only to speak out against Christ and Christianity when a crowd has gathered for the baptism, mocking Jesus as a product of " lust" and " menstruation"; a swift death followed. The chronicles curse Count Emicho whenever he is mentioned ("may his bones be ground into dust"), and compare the Pope to Satan.
In the years following the crusade, the Jewish communities were faced with troubling questions about murder and suicide, which were normally sins for Jews just as they were for Christians. The Rhineland Jews looked to historical precedents since Biblical times to justify their actions: the honourable suicide of
Saul, the Maccabeesrevolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the suicide pact at Masada, and the Bar Kochbarevolt were seen as justifiable deaths in the face of a stronger enemy.
Previous to the Crusades, the Jews were divided among three major areas which were largely independent of one another. These were the Jews living in Islamic nations (still the majority), those in the Byzantine empire and those in the Roman Catholic West. With the persecutions that began around 1096, a new awareness of the entire people took hold across all of these groups, reuniting the three separate strands.
Albert of Aix, "Historia Hierosolymitana"
*Robert Chazan, "European Jewry and the First Crusade". University of California Press, 1987.
*Robert Chazan, "In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews". Jewish Publication Society, 1996 (also contains extracts from the Hebrew chronicles).
*Jeremy Cohen, "Sanctifying The Name of God: Jewish Martyrs and Jewish Memories of the First Crusade". University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
*Kenneth Setton, ed., "A History of the Crusades." Madison, 1969-1989 ( [http://libtext.library.wisc.edu/HistCrusades/ available online] ).
*see also First Crusade Selected Sources
Albert of Aixand Ekkehard of Aura: [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1096jews.html Emico and the Slaughter of the Rhineland Jews] .
Jewish Encyclopedia: [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=908&letter=C The Crusades]
* [http://www.flholocaustmuseum.org/history_wing/antisemitism/crusades.cfm Map and picture concerning German crusade]
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