Slovene pronouns


Slovene pronouns

=Substantival Pronoun=

Substantival pronouns can replace a noun in a sentence; this is, as opposed to, say, an adjective or an adverb.

Personal Pronoun

A personal pronoun denotes the speaker ("I"), the addressee ("you") or a third person ("it"). Personal pronouns in Slovene are inflected in a somewhat unusual way, for there are many different forms for each of the pronouns, as indicated below. Solidi (/) separate the masculine, feminine and neuter forms if applicable.

The first person (I, the two of us, we):

SingularDualPlural
1jazmidva / midve | medve / midve | medvemi / me / me
2mene | menaju (dveh) | nas dvehnas
3meni | minama (dvema)nam
4mene | me | -menaju (dva / dve / dve) | nas (dva / dve / dve)nas
5pri menipri naju (dveh) | pri nas dveh | pri nama (dvema)pri nas
6z menoj | z manoz nama (dvema)z nami

The second person:

SingularDualPlural
1tividva / vidve | vedve / vidve | vedvevi / ve / ve
2tebe | tevaju (dveh) | vas (dveh)vas
3tebi | tivama (dvema)vam
4tebe | te | -tevaju (dva / dve / dve) | vas (dva / dve / dve)vas
5pri tebipri vaju (dveh) | pri vas dveh | pri vama (dvema)pri vas
6s teboj | s taboz vama (dvema)z vami

The third person (masculine) (he, they (2), they):

SingularDualPlural
1ononadva | onaoni
2njega | ganjiju | ju | jih | njih (dveh) | nju | -njunjih | jih
3njemu | munjima (dvema) | jimanjim | jim
4njega | ga | -nj, -enjnjiju | ju | jih | njih (dva) | nju | -njunjih | nje | jih | -nje
5pri njempri njiju | pri njih (dveh) | pri njima (dvema)pri njih
6z njimz njima (dvema)z njimi

The third person (feminine) (she, they (2), they):

SingularDualPlural
1onaonidve | onedveone
2nje | jenjiju | ju | jih | njih (dveh) | nju | -njunjih | jih
3njej | nji | jinjima (dvema) | jimanjim | jim
4njo | jo | -njonjiju | ju | jih | njih (dve) | nju | -njunjih | nje | jih | -nje
5pri njej | pri njipri njiju | pri njih (dveh) | pri njima (dvema)pri njih
6z njoz njima (dvema)z njimi

The third person (neuter) (it, they (2), they):

SingularDualPlural
1onoonadva | onidve | onedveona
2njega | ganjiju | ju | jih | njih (dveh) | nju | -njunjih | jih
3njemu | munjima (dvema) | jimanjim | jim
4ono | njega | ga | -nj | -enjnjiju | ju | jih | njih (dve) | nju | -njunjih | nje | jih | -nje
5pri njempri njiju | pri njih (dveh) | pri njima (dvema)pri njih
6z njimz njima (dvema)z njimi

It should be noted that forms of the accusative starting with - only appear in compound words. For example:
* Zanj mi je dal denar. (He (person 1) gave me the money for him (person 2).) (if the 'he' was referring to the same person, the reflexive personal pronoun would be used (Zase mi je dal denar. (He gave me the money for himself.))
* Za njega mi je dal denar. (same, except that person 2 is emphasised)
* Sledili smo jim. (We followed them.)
* Jaz mislim drugače. ("I" think otherwise.)
* Spodbudili smo jih, da naj se pokažejo vredne našega zaupanja, a so nas nesramno zavrnili. (We encouraged them to prove themselves worthy of our trust, but they rejected us rudely.)
* Nanjo se je zgrnila ena nesreča za drugo. (She was struck by one misfortune after another.)
* Da bi le njim to lahko dopovedali! (If only we could make "them" understand this!) (the dative pronoun is stressed, though the translation uses the accusative)
* Zame ni več rešitve: pugubljena sem. (For me there is no solution any more: I (feminine) am doomed.)
* Pogledal ga je s kancem ironije v očeh. (He (person 1) looked at him (person 2) with a drop of irony in the eyes.)
* Pogledal je njega. (He (person 1) looked at "him" (person 2).) (the stress is on person 2)

Note: The nominative forms of personal pronouns are not used in neutral sentences, but rather only when stressing the subject, especially so for the first person singular ("I" ("Jaz")). While regular forms, they are so seldom used, peculiarly in spoken language, that their use strikes one as odd. This is likely because, unlike in English, the form of the verb gives all applicable information such as the gender, grammatical number and person by itself.

Reflexive Personal Pronoun

The reflexive pronoun in Slovene is "se" or "sebe". The reflexive personal pronoun is special in that it does not have the nominative form. It is, however, the same for all persons and grammatical numbers; that it, it is dependent solely on case."Se" ("sebe") is the accusative form of the reflexive pronoun.

For example:
* Dative: umivam "si" roke (I am washing my hands. (in German, Ich wasche "mir" die Hände))
* Accusative: umivam "se" (I am washing myself. (in German, Ich wasche "mich".))
* Dative: umivate "si" roke (You are washing your hands. (in German, Sie waschen "sich" die Hände))
* Accusative: umivate "se" (You are washing yourselves. (in German, Sie waschen "sich".))

Similarly as in German and English, the reflexive pronoun can sometimes be replaced by the reciprocal phrase "drug drugega" (each other, one another; in German, einander). Thus: "Drug drugemu umivata roke." (The two of them are washing each other's hands; or in German, Sie waschen einander die Hände) or "Umivata drug drugega." (The two of them are washing each other, or in German, Sie waschen einander).

The accusative "se" can bind with prepositional words just like other personal pronouns; it is, namely, an enclitic:
* Na"se" je nanesla lepotilno kremo. (She put beautifying cream on herself.)
* Ampak ko dela za"se", dela učinkovito. (But when he/she works for him-/herself, he/she works efficiently.)

Other cases and examples:
* "Sebi" gradi grobnico. (He/She is building a tomb for "him-/herself".)
* Gradi "si" grobnico. (the same, but the emphasis is not so much on for whom the tomb is, but rather the tomb or the building itself)
* "S sabo/seboj" ni zadovoljna. (She is not happy "with herself".) (instrumental case)
* Najprej počisti "pri sebi", potlej šele kritiziraj druge! (First clean up "at yourself", only then criticise others!) (locative case)
* Ko je videl odsev "sebe" v ogledalu, mu je ta pogled povsem pokvaril dan. (When he saw the reflexion "of himself" in the mirror, this sight completely ruined the day for him.) (genitive case, but a clumsy and not widely used construction at that, since genitive possession is much better expressed with an adjectival possessive pronoun: 'Ko je videl "svoj" odsev v ogledalu ...')

Interrogative Pronoun

The substantival interrogative pronouns introduce direct and indirect questions. There are two nominative forms: kdo (who) and kaj (what). They are declined as shown at cases above.

* "Kaj" je ta stvar, ki se premika? ("What" is this thing that is moving?)
* Vprašal sem ga, "o kom" je bil govoril. (I asked him "about whom" he had been talking.)
* "Komu" naj dam to? ("To whom" ought I to give this?)
* Česa ne smem storiti? (What mayn't I do?)

Relative Pronoun

The substantival relative pronoun ends in "-r": kdor (someone who), kar (something that).

# kdor | kar
# kogar | česar
# komur | čemur
# kogar | kar
# pri komer | pri čemer
# s komer | s čimer

* "Kdor" krade, ni pošten. ("Someone who" steals is not honest.)
* "Kar" poveš, tega ne moreš več obvladovati. ("Something that" you say, that you cannot control any more.)
* Odrekli so ji možnost do izbire odvetnika, "s čimer" je bila kršena njena ustavna pravica. (They refused her the option of choosing a solicitor, "with which" her constitutional right was violated.)

Negative Pronoun

The negative pronoun, a substantival pronoun at that, starts with "ni-": nihče (nobody), nič (nothing) (similar are also the adverbs nikjer (nowhere), nikoli (never), nikdar (never), however they are not true pronouns, since they are not inflected).

A negative pronoun demands a negative predicate, resulting in the so-called double negation, a characteristic of Slovene that is purportedly responsible for the high number of suicides.

* "Nihče" me nikoli ni maral. (Nobody ever liked me.) (literally: Nobody never did not like me.)
* Nikjer ni "nikogar". (There is no one anywhere.) (literally: Nowhere isn't no one.)
* "Nič" ni resnično. (Nothing is real.) (literally: Nothing isn't real.)
* Od "nikogar" ne želim "ničesar". (I want nothing from no one. / I don't want anything from anyone.) (literally: From no one I don't want nothing.)
* "Nikogaršnja" (adjectival negative (possessive) pronoun) neolikanost ni nikdar in nikjer in na nikakršen način "nikomur" pridobila "nič" drugega kot neodobravanje. (No one's impropriety gained ever anyone anywhere and in whatever way anything else than disapproval.) (literally: No one's impropriety did not never and nowhere and in no way gain nothing else than disapproval.)

Total Pronoun

The substantival total pronouns are "vsakdo" (everyone) and "vse" (everything). "Vsak" (everyone) is an adjectival pronoun that can function as a substantival one, and is thus declined as per the adjectival declension. Also in this category are "vsakateri" (-e, -a) (everyone) and "vsakteri" (-e, -a) (everyone, but also used in other, adjectival senses), both of which are old-fashioned and not used in modern language.

Inflexion:
#vsakdo | vse
#vsakogar | vsega
#vsakomur | vsemu
#vsakogar | vse
#pri vsakomer | pri vsem
#z vsakomer | z vsem

* "Vsemu" so namenjali pozornost. (They dedicated attention to everything.)
* "Vsakogar" bodo vrgli iz službe, če ne bo izpolnjeval zahtev. (They will sack everyone who will not fulfil requirements.)

Indefinite Pronoun

The substantival indefinite pronoun is a pronoun starting with "ne-": nekdo (someone), nekaj (something). The indefinite pronoun refers to an unknown or deliberately untold person or object. The inflexion follows the pattern of "kdo" and "kaj".

* "Nekoga" so videli stati ob oknu, a niso mogli ugotoviti, kdo bi to lahko bil. (They saw "someone" standing near the window, but they could not figure out who could have been that.)
* Zgodilo se je "nekaj" strašnega! ("Something" horrible has happened!)
* Zataknilo se jima je "pri nečem", a nikakor se ne morem spomniti, pri čem. (They faltered "at something", but I cannot in any way remember at what.)
* "Nekdo" prihaja. Skrijmo se. ("Someone" is coming. Let us hide.)

Unspecified Pronoun

The substantival unspecified pronouns are "kdo" (someone, anyone) and "kaj" (something, anything), referring to any unspecified person or object, or one that can be chosen at will. They are inflected in the same way as "kdo" and "kaj" in the interrogative sense.

* Sporoči mi, prosim, če se bo "kaj" spremenilo. (Please let me know if "anything" changes.)
* Seveda dvomim "o čem": kaj to ni normalno? (Naturally I doubt "about something": is this not normal?)
* "Česa" podobnega še nisem videl! (I have never seen "anything" like that!)
* Uporabi klorovodikovo kislino ali "kaj" drugega, da nevtraliziraš to bazo. (Use hydrochloric acid or "something" else to neutralise this base.)
* Denar, ki si ga "kdo" sposodi, seveda ni njegov, pač pa z njim le upravlja. (Money that "someone" borrows is obviously not his; he merely manages it.)
* Naj stopi "kdo" vendar do tega DJ-ja in ga nekajkrat lopne po glavi. (May "someone" go to this DJ and smack him on the head a few times.)
* Ojej, kakšne lepe govorice! O tem se res moram "s kom" pogovoriti. (Oh dear, what beautiful gossip! I really must talk "to someone" about this.)

In some cases, the indefinite and unspecified pronouns can stand in the place of one another, but not always, especially not in literary language.

Relative Unspecified Pronoun

The substantival relative unspecified pronouns are "kdorkoli" or "kdor koli" (whoever) and "karkoli" or "kar koli" (whatever). The meaning conveyed is very similar to the unspecified pronoun. The inflexion follows the pattern of the relative pronoun with "-koli" or " koli" appended. The space, as shown, is optional, but for sake of consistency, once one method has been adopted, one should not use the other.

* "Kdorkoli" pokliče 112, mora znati povedati, kaj je narobe. ("Whoever" rings 112 must know how to say what is wrong.)
* "Kogarkoli" poslušam od teh politikov, vsi govorijo iste neumnosti. ("To whichever" of these politicians I listen, they all speak the same stupidities.)
* "Karkoli" stori, stori to dobro. ("Whatever" he/she does, he/she does it well.)

Manifold Pronoun

The substantival manifold pronouns are "marsikdo" (many [persons] ) and "marsikaj" (many [things] ). The inflexion follows the basic pattern of "kdo" and "kaj". These pronouns refer to many people and many things, however they are singular in nature in Slovene. In addition to "marsi-", other prefixes are possible, such as "redko-" (redkokdo: rarely anyone), "mnogo-" (mnogokdo = marsikdo, although perhaps somewhat less usual) and "malo-" (malokdo: few [persons] ).

* "Marsikdo" pravi, da je lepše živeti na deželi, a jaz jim seveda ne verjamem. ("Many people" say that it is nicer to live in the countryside, but I of course do not believe them.)
* Res je, da "marsičesa" ne vem, pa vendar veš ti še mnogo manj. (It is true that I do not know "many things", but you know far less still.)
* "Z marsičim" je že bila obdarjena, a česa takšnega, kar ji je prinesel egiptovski odposlanec, ni bila nikdar poprej še videla. ("Many things" she had been gifted, but something like that which the Egyptian emissary brought she had never before seen.)
* "Redkokdo" bi priznal, da je storil takšno napako. ("Rarely anyone" would admit that he has made such a mistake.)
* "Mnogokaj" mi je šlo po glavi, a bolje je, da ne povem, kaj. ("Many things" went though my mind, but it is better that I do not say which.)
* "Maločesa" se loti, če ve, da se popolnosti pri stvari ne da doseči. (He attempts to do "few things" if he knows that perfection cannot be achieved at them.)

Adjectival Pronoun

Personal Possessive Pronoun

The possessive adjective denotes, obviously, possession of someone or something. Solidi separate the masculine, feminine and neuter forms of the adjectival pronoun respectively if applicable.

An example for the first person singular (I):

SingularDualPlural
1moj / moja / mojemoja / moji / mojimoji / moje / moja
2mojega / moje / mojegamojihmojih
3mojemu / moji / mojemumojimamojim
4mojega / mojo / mojemoja / moji / mojimoje / moje / moja
5pri mojem / pri moji / pri mojempri mojihpri mojih
6z mojim / z mojo / z mojimz mojimaz mojimi
To obtain other possessive pronouns, "moj-" should be replaced with:
* "najin-" for the first person dual
* "naš-" for the first person plural
* "tvoj-" for the second person singular
* "vajin-" for the second person dual
* "vaš-" for the second person plural
* "njegov-" for the third person singular for masculine and neuter nouns
* "njen-" for the third person singular for feminine nouns
* "njun-" for the third person dual
* "njihov-" for the third person plural

The endings remain the same.

Example sentences:
* "Moj" bog pravi drugače! ("My" god says otherwise!)
* "Njegove" oči so kot kupi koruze na polju. ("His" eyes are like heaps of maize on a field.)
* Letalo je bilo last vojske in "njene" države. (The aeroplane was the property of the military and "her" (the military's or another person's, depending on the context) country.)
* Vaše kraljevo veličanstvo, klanjam se pred Vami. ("Your" royal highness, I bow before You.)
* Cerkev je "njen" grob na pokopališču prodala, kajti "njeni" potomci niso imeli dovolj denarja, da bi plačali pristojbino. (The church has sold "her" grave at the graveyard, since "her" descendants did not have enough money to pay the fee.)
* "S tvojim" avtom smo šli: saj ne zameriš, kajne? (We went "with your" car: you do not resent [us] , do you?)

Reflexive Possessive Pronoun

When the possessive pronoun refers to the subject of the sentence in question, it is of a special kind, namely the so-called reflexive possessive pronoun, svoj (in the appropriate form, as above).

* Stopam v "svojo" sobo. (I am walking into "my" room.) – to say 'Stopam v mojo sobo.' is considered incorrect
* Kupili so jim lepo darilo; vso svojo domiselnost so vložili v njegovo izbiranje. (They (person 1) bought them (person 2) a beautiful gift; all their (person 1) ingenuity have they (person 1) invested into its (the gift's) choosing.
* Svojega leva je pustila na dežju. (She left her lion in the rain.)

It should be noted that the reflexive possessive and 'normal' possessive pronouns make some ambiguous English sentences perfectly clear in Slovene. The sentence "She has taken her towel into the bathroom." can be translated into the following two ways:
* Njeno brisačo je vzela v kopalnico. (the towel she has taken is of some other feminine person)
* Svojo brisačo je vzela v kopalnico. (the towel she has taken belongs to her)

Non-Personal Adjectival Pronouns

Qualitative ("Kakovostni")Relational ("Vrstni")Possessive ("Svojilni")Quantitative ("Količinski")
Interrogative ("Vprašalni")kakšen, kolikšen (what kind of, to what extent)kateri (which, what)čigav (whose)koliko (how much, how many)
Relative ("Oziralni")kakršen (the kind that)kateri, ki (which, that)čigar, katerega (whose)kolikor (as much)
Negative ("Nikalni")nikakršen (of no kind)noben, nobeden (no one)nikogar, ničesar (of no one, of nothing)nič, noben (nothing, none)
Total ("Celostni")vsakršen (of every kind)vsak (everyone)vsakogar, vsega (of everyone, of everything)ves, oba (all, both)
Indefinite ("Nedoločni")nekak(šen) (some kind of)neki (some(one))nekoga, nečesa (someone's, something's)nekoliko (somewhat)
Unspecified ("Poljubnostni")kak(šen)kateričigavkoliko
Relative Unspecified ("Oziralni poljubnostni")kakršenkoli (whatever kind)katerikoli (whichever)čigarkoli (whosever)kolikorkoli (however much)
Mnogostni ("Manifold")marsikak(šen) (of many kinds)marsikaterimarsičigavdokaj, precej (quite a bit, quite a lot)
Differential ("Drugostni")drugačen (different)drug (someone else)drugega (of someone else)ne toliko (not that/as much)
Equal ("Istostni")enak (of the same kind)isti (the same)istega (of the same one)enako (the same [amount] )
Demonstrative ("Kazalni")tak(šen) (of this kind)ta, tisti, oni (that one)tega (of that one)toliko (this much)

Quantitative adverbial pronouns are non-inflected at all times. All other pronouns are normally inflected.

Examples:
* Čeprav mi je "tisti" avtobus bolj všeč, moram na "tega", kajti "tisti drugi" vozi v drugo smer. (Even though I like "that" bus more, I have to board "this one", for "that other one" is driving in another direction.)
* "Mnogokakšna" želja se mi je že uresničila, vendar mi je "marsikatera" prinesla tudi "kakšne" stranske neprijetnosti. ("Many a" wish has come true for me, however "many" have (singular in Slovene) brought me "some" side inconveniences.)
* Vlak, "ki" smo ga videli, je pravzaprav "tisti", "na katerega" bi se bili morali usesti. (The train "that" we have seen is actually "the one onto which" we should have boarded. (literally: sat on))
* "čigav" svinčnik je "to"? ("Whose" pencil is "this"?)
* "Nekakšna" radirka je bila nameščena na "drugem" koncu. ("Some type of" rubber was mounted on "the other" end.)
* "Enak" kalkulator imam kot ti. (I have "the same type of" calculator as you.)
* Vzemi mnenje, "katerega" ne odobravaš, in ga poskusi spremeniti. (Take an opinion "that" you do not approve of and try to change it.)
* "Nekoliko" pozni ste, a nič ne de. (You are "somewhat" late, but that is all right.)
* Zaradi "nekega" bedaka mi je "vsako" letalo ušlo. (Because of "some" fool "every" aeroplane got away from me.) (=I missed every plane because of some fool; in the sense that this person has taught me to get to an airport too late or similar, not that all planes have left without me.)
* "Toliko" truda "za nič" učinka. ("So much" effort "to no" avail.)

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