- Aerial tramway
An aerial tramway is a type of
aerial liftin which a cabin is suspended from a cable and is pulled by another cable.
An aerial tramway is often called a cable car or ropeway, and sometimes incorrectly referred to as a gondola lift (not to be confused with a gondola). Because of the proliferation of such systems in the Alpine regions of
Europe, the French and German languagenames of Téléphérique and Seilbahn are often also used in an English languagecontext. "Cable car" is the usual term in British English, as in British English the word "tramway" generally refers to a railed street tramway. Note also that, in American English, "cable car" is most often associated with surface cable car systems, e.g. San Francisco's Cable Cars, so careful phrasing is necessary to prevent confusion.
An aerial tramway consists of one or two fixed cables (called "track cables"), one loop of cable (called a "haulage rope"), and two
passengercabins. The fixed cables provide support for the cabins. The haulage rope, by means of a grip, is solidly connected to the truck (the wheel set that rolls on the track cables). The haulage rope is usually driven by an electric motorand being connected to the cabins, moves them up or down the mountain.
Aerial tramways differ from
gondola lifts in that the latter use several smaller cabins suspended from a "circulating" looped cable.
Two-car tramways use a "jig-back" system: A large
electric motoris located at the bottom of the tramway so that it effectively pulls one cabin down, using that cabin's weight to help pull the other cabin up. A similar system of cables is used in a funicularrailway. The two passenger cabins, which carry from 4 to over 150 people, are situated at opposite ends of the loops of cable. Thus, while one is coming up, the other is going down the mountain, and they pass each other midway on the cable span.
Some aerial trams have only one cabin, which lends itself better for systems with small elevation changes along the cable run.
Many aerial tramways were built by Von Roll Ltd. of Switzerland, which has since been acquired by Austrian lift manufacturer
Doppelmayr. The German firm of Bleichertbuilt hundreds of freight and military tramways .
An escape aerial tramway is a special form of the aerial tramway that allows a fast escape from a dangerous location. They are used on
rocketlaunching sites in order to offer the launch staff or astronauts a fast retreat. The tramway consists of a rope which runs from the launch tower downward to a protection shelter. On the launch supply towerseveral small cabs can be occupied by the launch staff or the astronauts. After loosening a barrier these roll downward to the protection shelter. An escape aerial tramway exists on launch pads 39A and 39B at Cape Canaveral.
Some aerial tramways have their own propulsion, such as the
Lasso Muleor the Josef Mountain Aerial Tramwaynear Merano, Italy.
The original version was called "telpherage".Smaller telpherage systems are sometimes used to transport objects such as tools or mail within a building or
The telpherage concept was first publicised in 1883 and several experimental lines were constructed. It was not designed to compete with railways, but with horses and carts. [Lusted, A., 1985: The Electric Telpherage Railway. Glynde Archivist 2:16-28.]
The first commercial telpherage line was in
Glynde, which is in Sussex, England. It was built to connect a newly-opened clay pit to the local railway station and opened in 1885. [Lusted, A., 1985: The Electric Telpherage Railway. Glynde Archivist 2:16-28.]
There are aerial tramways with double deck cabins. The
Vanoise Expresscable car carries 200 people in each cabin at a height of 380 m (1250') over the Ponturin gorgein France. The Shinhotaka Ropewaycarries 121 people in each cabin at Mount Hotakain Japan.
*Tallest support tower: 113.6 metres (373 feet) (Gletscherbahn Kaprun, Austria)
Masada cableway, Israel
Mérida cable car, Venezuela
*Longest ropeway: Norsjö aerial ropeway, Sweden
*As mass transit: The
Roosevelt Island Tramwayin New York Citywas the first aerial tramway in North Americaused by commuters as a mode of mass transit(See Transportation in New York City). Passengers pay with the same farecard used for the New York City Subway. The Portland Aerial Tramin Portland, Oregonwas opened in January 2007 and became the second public transportation aerial tramway in North America. In Medellin, Colombia, both the Metro and the recent Metrocableaerial tramway addition can be used while paying a single fare.
Sandia Peak Tramwayin Albuquerque, New Mexicois the world's longest double reversible tramway.
Mount Roberts Tramwayin Juneau, Alaska, serves visitors arriving in Juneau on cruise ships with its base terminal on the cruise ship dock. At sea levelit is one of the lowest aerial tramway terminals.
Palm Springs Aerial Tramwayin Palm Springs, Californiahas the world's largest rotating tramcars.
List of accidents
*August 15, 1960: between
Castellammare di Stabiaand the Monte Faito, near Naples, Italy.
*August 29, 1961: A military plane splits the hauling cable of a cabin railway on the
Aiguille du Midiin the Mont Blancmassif: six people killed.
*1963: Cabin of the renovated PKB crashes at the valley station, one person killed, several injured.
*December 25, 1965: Power failure on the aerial ropeway at
Puy de Sancyin central France causes abrupt cabin halt, cabin wall breaks. 17 people fall, seven killed.
*July 9, 1966: A cable breaks on a cabin railway at Aiguille du Midi in the Mont Blanc massif: three cabins fall, four people killed.
*December 6, 1970: Five people killed at
*July 13, 1972: 13 killed at the crash of a cab in Bettmeralp,
*October 26, 1972: During a test at an aerial tramway at
Les Deux Alpesin France, two cabs collide, nine people killed.
*July 9, 1974: Hauling cable breaks on the aerial tramway at
Ulriken, Norway. One cabin fell, four people killed.
*March 9, 1976: In the Italian Dolomites at
Cavalese, a cab falls after a rope break, killing 42. "(See Cavalese cable-car disaster (1976))"
*March 26, 1976: Damage to the carrying rope leads to crash of multiple cabs of the aerial tramway at
Vail, Colorado, USA. Four people killed, five injured.
*April 15, 1978: In a storm, two carrying ropes of the
Squaw Valley Aerial Tramwayin California fall from the aerial tramway support tower. One of the ropes partly destroys the cabin. four killed, 32 injured.
*February 13, 1983: Two cabs collide in
Champoluc, near Aosta(Italy), 11 dead.
*January 13, 1989: Eight people killed during a test of the French aerial tramway "Vaujany" in the Alpe D'Huez area.
*June 1, 1990: 15 people killed after a rope break in
*1995: Operator error causes the cabin of
Muttereralmbahnnear Innsbruck, Austria, to crash. No casualties or injuries.
*February 3, 1998: U.S. military aircraft severs the cable of an aerial ropeway in Cavalese, Italy, killing 20 people. "(See
Cavalese cable-car disaster)"
*July 1, 1999: 20 people killed at the crash of an aerial tramway at the Bure observatory in the French alps.
*July 6, 2000: Entering the middle station of
Nebelhornbahn, a cabin fails to brake. 23 people injured.
*October 19, 2003: Four were killed and 11 injured when three cars slipped off the cable of the
*October 9, 2004: Crash of a cabin of the
Grünbergaerial tramway in Gmunden, Austria. Many hurt.
*November 14, 2004: Empty cabin of tramway in
Sölden, Austria, falls after becoming entangled with rope. No casualties, 113 people rescued from other cabins
*April 18, 2006: New York's
Roosevelt Island Tramwayexperiences a power failure, leaving 69 passengers in two trams stranded over the East Riverfor approximately seven hours, just eight months after a similar incident in which trams were stranded for 90 minutes. No injuries or fatalities occurred in either incident.
*October 31, 2007: The Flaine lift Les Grands Platieres or DMC broke down for six hours and was evacuated.
Zell am Seein the Austrian Alps. Portland Aerial Tramcar descends towards the rising South Waterfrontdistrict in Portland, Oregon.
Sandia Peak Tramwayin Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Titlisgondola provides passengers better view
Uphill_mechanical_room_of_the_Katoomba Scenic Skyway in the Blue Mountains of
Åre(Sweden) Klein Matterhorncable car, the highest in Europe. Aiguille du Midicable car (Chamonix, France) Table Mountain Aerial Cableway, Cape Town, South Africa. Lisbon, Portugal.
Romania, Carpathians, at Balea Lakein Sibiucounty.
Aerial tramway support pillar
Blondin (quarry equipment)
Cable car (disambiguation)
List of aerial tramways
List of aerial lift manufacturers
List of spans
COMILOG Cablewayin Moanda
Riblet Tramway Company
Roosevelt Island Tramway
* Skiing and Skiing Topics
* [http://www.seilbahntechnik.net/english.php Aerial Tramways (worldwide)] Lift-Database
* [http://www.mines.edu/library/ropeway/about_ropeways.html Information Center for Ropeway Studies] at
Colorado School of Mines
* [http://www.nycsubway.org/irt/irtbook/ch11.html Telpherage system in the repair sheds of the New York City subway]
* [http://www.ropeways.net Ropeways.net]
* [http://www.tablemountain.net Table Mountain Aerial Cableway]
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См. также в других словарях:
aerial tramway — noun a conveyance that transports passengers or freight in carriers suspended from cables and supported by a series of towers • Syn: ↑tramway, ↑tram, ↑cable tramway, ↑ropeway • Hypernyms: ↑conveyance, ↑transport * * * tramway ( … Useful english dictionary
aerial tramway — tramway (def. 4). [1900 05] * * * … Universalium
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Palm Springs Aerial Tramway — The Palm Springs Aerial Tramway in Palm Springs, California, opened in September 1963 as a way of getting from the floor of the Coachella Valley to near the top of San Jacinto Peak. Prior to its construction, the only way to the top of the… … Wikipedia
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