- Hoxnian Stage
The Hoxnian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage of the geological history of the British Isles. It precedes the Wolstonian Stage and follows the Anglian Stage. The Hoxnian Stage corresponds to the Holstein Interglacial (or "Stage") in northern Europe and the Mindel-Riss Interglacial in the Alps. It is equivalent to Marine Isotope Stage 11. Marine Isotope Stage 11 started 424,000 years ago and ended 374,000 years ago.
This stage had been equated to the Yarmouthian (Yarmouth) Stage in North America. However, the Yarmouthian Stage, along with the Kansan, Nebraskan, and Aftonian stages, have been abandoned by North American Quaternary geologists and merged into the Pre-Illinoian Stage. At this time, the Hoxnian and Holstein stages are correlated with a brief part of the Pre-Illinoian Stage lying between the Pre-Illinoian A and Pre-Illinoian B glaciations of North America.
The Hoxnian Stage is named after Hoxne in the English county of Suffolk where some of the deposits it created were first found. Plant and vertebrate fossils indicate that it was a period of relatively warm climate. Clactonian and Acheulean flint tools and human remains have been found dating to this stage.
- ^ Stringer, Chris (2006), Homo Britannicus: The incredible story of human life in Britain, London: Penguin, ISBN 9780141018133 .
- ^ McMillan, A. A. (2005), "A provisional Quaternary and Neogene lithostratigraphic framework Great Britain", Netherland Journal of Geosciences 84 (2): 87–107 .
- ^ Walker, M. (2005), Quaternary Dating Methods, Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Son, ISBN 0470869275 .
- ^ a b Gibbard, P. L.; Boreham, S.; Cohen, K. M. & Moscariello, A. (2007), "Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years v. 2007b (jpg version 844 KB )", Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (Cambridge, England: Department of Geography, University of Cambridge), http://www.quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk/correlation/POSTERSTRAT_v2007b_small.jpg .
- ^ Lisiecki, L. E. (2005). Ages of MIS boundaries.LR04 Benthic Stack Boston University, Boston, MA
- ^ Lisiecki, L. E. & Raymo, M. E. (2005), "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records", Paleoceanography 20: PA1003, Bibcode 2005PalOc..20.1003L, doi:10.1029/2004PA001071 .
- ^ Hallberg, G. R. (1986), "Pre-Wisconsin glacial stratigraphy of the Central Plains region in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri", Quaternary Science Reviews 5: 11–15, doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90169-1 .
- ^ a b Richmond, G. M. & Fullerton, D. S. (1986), "Summation of Quaternary glaciations in the United States of America", Quaternary Science Reviews 5: 183–196, doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90184-8 .
- Bowen, D.Q., 1978, Quaternary geology: a stratigraphic framework for multidisciplinary work. Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. 221 pp. ISBN 978-0080204093
- Ehlers, J., P. L. Gibbard, and J. Rose, eds., 1991, Glacial deposits in Great Britain and Ireland. Balkema, Rotterdam. 580 pp ISBN 978-9061918752
- Mangerud, J., J. Ehlers, and P. Gibbard, 2004, Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology 1: Part I Europe, Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN 0-444-51462-7
- Sibrava, V., Bowen, D.Q, and Richmond, G.M., 1986, Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere, Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 5, pp. 1–514.
- Aber, J.S., 2006, Regional Glaciation of Kansas and Nebraska, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas.
- anonymous, 2007, Global correlation tables for the Quaternary, Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England
- Hallberg, G.R., ed., 1980a, Pleistocene stratigraphy in east-central Iowa., PDF version 15.6 MB. Technical information Series. no. 10. Iowa Geological Survey Bureau, Ames, IA.
- Hallberg, G. R., ed., 1980b, Illinoian and Pre-Illinoian stratigraphy of southeast Iowa and adjacent Illinois., PDF version 19.3 MB. Technical information Series. no. 11. Iowa Geological Survey Bureau, Ames, IA.
- Roy, M., P.U. Clark, R.W. Barendregt, J.R., Glasmann, and R.J. Enkin, 2004, Glacial stratigraphy and paleomagnetism of late Cenozoic deposits of the north-central United States, PDF version, 1.2 MB. Geological Society of America Bulletin. vol. 116, no. 1-2; pp. 30–41; DOI: 10.1130/B25325.1
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.