- Cromerian Stage
The Cromerian Stage is the name for a middle Pleistocene stage used in the in the
British Islesthat is known as the Cromerian Complex in Europe. It precedes the Anglian Stageand follows the Beestonian Stage in the British Iles. The Cromerian Complex in Europe is subdivided into 3 glacial periods and 4 interglacial periods. Similarly, the Cromerian Stage of the British Isles is known to consist of multiple glacial and interglacial periods. Both the Cromerian Stage and Complex are equivalent to Marine Isotope stages 13 to 21.McMillan, A.A., 2005, "A provisional Quaternary and Neogene lithostratigraphic framework Great Britain", Netherland Journal of Geosciences. vol. 84, no. 2, pp, 87-107.] Walker, M., 2005, "Quaternary Dating Methods", John Wiley & Son, Chichester, United Kingdom. ISBN 0 470 86927 5] Gibbard, P.L., S. Boreham, K.M. Cohen and A. Moscariello, 2007, [http://www.quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk/correlation/POSTERSTRAT_v2007b_small.jpg"Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years v. 2007b"] , jpg version 844 KB. Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England] Based upon the beginning of Marine Isotope Stage 21 and the end of Marine Isotope Stage 13, the Cromerian Stage and Complex started 866,000 years ago ended 478,000 years ago.Lisiecki, L.E., 2005, [http://www.lorraine-lisiecki.com/LR04_MISboundaries.txt Ages of MIS boundaries.] [http://www.lorraine-lisiecki.com/stack.html LR04 Benthic Stack] Boston University, Boston, MA] Lisiecki, L.E., and M.E. Raymo, 2005, [http://www.lorraine-lisiecki.com/LisieckiRaymo2005.pdf A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic d18O records.] Paleoceanography. vol. 20, PA1003, doi:10.1029/2004PA001071]
This stage had been equated to the Aftonian Stage in
North America. However, the Aftonian Stage, along with the Yarmouth, Kansan and Nebraskan stages, have been abandoned by North American Quaternary geologists and merged into the Pre-Illinoian Stage.Hallberg, G.R., 1986, "Pre-Wisconsin glacial stratigraphy of the Central Plains region in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri", Quaternary Science Reviews. vol. 5, pp. 11-15.] Richmond, G.M. and D.S. Fullerton, 1986, "Summation of Quaternary glaciations in the United States of America", Quaternary Science Reviews. vol. 5, pp. 183-196.] At this time, the Cromerian Stage is correlated with the period of time, which includes the Pre-Illinoian C, Pre-Illinoian D, and Pre-Illinoian E glaciations of North America.
Both the Cromerian Complex and Cromerian Stage are named after the site of West Runton near Cromer in the English county of Norfolk where deposits it created were first found.
*Aber, J.S., 2006, [http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/ice/lec17/lec17.htm "Regional Glaciation of Kansas and Nebraska"] , Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas.
*anonymous, 2000, [http://www.emporia.edu/earthsci/gage/pre-wisc/pre-wisc.htm "Pre-Wisconsin Glaciation of Central North America"] , Work Group on Geospatial Analysis of Glaciated Environments (GAGE), INQUA Commission on Glaciation, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas.
*anonymous, 2007, [http://www.quaternary.stratigraphy.org.uk/correlation/chart.html "Global correlation tables for the Quaternary"] , Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
*Bowen, D.Q., 1978, "Quaternary geology: a stratigraphic framework for multidisciplinary work. " Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. 221 pp. ISBN 978-0080204093
*Ehlers, J., P. L. Gibbard, and J. Rose, eds., 1991, "Glacial deposits in Great Britain and Ireland." Balkema, Rotterdam. 580 pp ISBN 978-9061918752
*Mangerud, J., J. Ehlers, and P. Gibbard, 2004, "Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology 1: Part I Europe", Elsevier, Amsterdam. ISBN 0-444-51462-7
*Sibrava, V., Bowen, D.Q, and Richmond, G.M., 1986, "Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere, Quaternary Science Reviews", vol. 5, pp. 1-514.
Last glacial period
Timeline of glaciation
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