Jirga


Jirga

A jirga (occasionally jirgah) (Pashto: جرګه ) is a tribal assembly of elders which takes decisions by consensus, particularly among the Pashtun but also in other ethnic groups near them; they are most common in Afghanistan and among the Pashtun in Pakistan near its border with Afghanistan.

Functioning

The community council meaning is often found in circumstances involving a dispute between two individuals; a jirga may be part of the dispute resolution mechanism in such cases. The disputants would usually begin by finding a mediator, choosing someone of stature such as a senior religious leader, a local notable, or one of the mediation specialists (known as "khans" or "maliks"). The mediator hears from the two sides, and then forms a jirga of community elders, taking care to include supporters of both sides. The jirga then considers the case, and after discussing the matter comes to a decision about how to handle the matter, which the mediator then announces. The jirga's conclusion in the matter has to be accepted.

The jirga was also used as a court in cases of criminal conduct, but this usage is being replaced by formal courts in some settled areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan, elsewhere it is still used as courts in tribal regions.

The jirga holds the prestige of a court in the tribal areas of Pakistan. Although a Political Agent, appointed by the national government, maintains law and order through Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR), the actual power lies in the jirga. The political agent maintains law and order in his tribal region with the help of jirgas. The jirga can award capital punishment, stoning to death in case of adultery, or expulsion from the community.

The Sindh High Court imposed a ban on the holding of jirgas in April 2004 because of the sometimes inhumane sentences awarded to people, especially the women. But the ban has been blatantly ignored and nothing has been done about it so far.

In the recent military operation against al Qaeda and Taliban in Pakistan's restive southern tribal agencies bordering Afghanistan, jirgas played a key role of moderator between the government and the militants.

ee also

*Loya jirga — "grand jirga", a large congress called to discuss a particularly important event
*Wolesi Jirga — "people's jirga", the lower house of the Afghan legislature
*Meshrano Jirga — "elders' jirga", the upper house of the Afghan legislature
*Nanawate

References

External links

* [http://www.dawn.com/2004/04/25/top6.htm Pakistan court bans all trials under Jirga system]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jirga — Une jirga dans la province de Pandjchir, en Afghanistan. Une jirga est une assemblée tribale qui vise à prendre des décisions par consensus, surtout au sein de l ethnie Pachtounes, surtout au Pakistan et en Afghanistan …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jirga — noun a Pashto term for a decision making assembly of male elders most criminal cases are handled by a tribal Jirga rather than by laws or police • Topics: ↑Pashto, ↑Pashtu, ↑Paxto, ↑Afghani, ↑Afghan • Hypernyms: ↑council …   Useful english dictionary

  • jirga — /ˈdʒɜgə/ (say jerguh) noun → loya jirga …   Australian English dictionary

  • jirga — noun /ˈdʒɪəɡə,ˈdʒəːɡə/ A gathering of elders or leaders in Pakistan or Afghanistan, especially within a tribe …   Wiktionary

  • jirga — jir·ga …   English syllables

  • Afghan Peace Jirga 2010 — The Afghan President Hamid Karzai announced the holding of a consultative grand council called the Afghanistan s National Consultative Peace Jirga (NCPJ)[1] or shortly Peace Jirga in his inauguration speech on 19 November 2009,[2] after winning… …   Wikipedia

  • Loya jirga — A Loya Jirga (Pashto: لويه جرګه, Persian: جرگه بزرگ) is a grand assembly, a phrase taken from the name of large meetings held among certain Central Asian peoples, such as in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Mongolia. In Afghanistan, the… …   Wikipedia

  • Loya Jirga — Delegierte der Loja Dschirga 2002 Die Loja Dschirga, Loya Jirga(h) oder Loya Gerga Pashtu bzw. (‏لويه جرگه‎), ist die große Versammlung, die in Afghanistan, Usbekistan, Turkmenistan und sogar heute noch in der Mongolei zur Klärung der großen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • 2003 loya jirga — A 502 delegate loya jirga convened in Kabul, Afghanistan, on December 14, 2003, to consider the proposed Afghan Constitution. Originally planned to last ten days, the assembly did not endorse the charter until January 4, 2004. As has been… …   Wikipedia

  • Loya jirga — Afghanistan Cet article fait partie de la série sur la politique de l Afghanistan, sous série sur la politique. Président …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.