- Raja Raja Chola I
Rajaraja Chola I
ராஜ ராஜ சோழன்
Extent of the Chola Empire under Rajaraja the Great c.1014 CE
Reign 985 C.E. – 1014 C.E. Title Rajakesari Capital Thanjavur Queen Lokamahadevi
Children Rajendra Chola I
Predecessor Uttama Chola Successor Rajendra Chola I Father Sundara Chola Born Unknown Died 1015 C.E. List of Chola kings Early Cholas Elara Chola · 235 BC – 161 BC Ilamcetcenni · Karikala Chola Nedunkilli · Killivalavan · Kopperuncholan Kocengannan · Perunarkilli Interregnum (c.200–848) Medieval Cholas Vijayalaya Chola 848–871(?) Aditya I 871–907 Parantaka Chola I 907–950 Gandaraditya 950–957 Arinjaya Chola 956–957 Sundara Chola 957–970 Uttama Chola 970–985 Rajaraja Chola I 985–1014 Rajendra Chola I 1012–1044 Rajadhiraja Chola 1018–1054 Rajendra Chola II 1051–1063 Virarajendra Chola 1063–1070 Athirajendra Chola 1067–1070 Later Cholas Kulothunga Chola I 1070–1120 Vikrama Chola 1118–1135 Kulothunga Chola II 1133–1150 Rajaraja Chola II 1146–1173 Rajadhiraja Chola II 1166–1178 Kulothunga Chola III 1178–1218 Rajaraja Chola III 1216–1256 Rajendra Chola III 1246–1279 Chola society Chola government Chola military · Chola Navy Chola art · Chola literature Solesvara Temples Poompuhar · Uraiyur Melakadambur Gangaikonda Cholapuram Thanjavur · Telugu Cholas edit
Raja Raja Chola I (Tamil: ராஜ ராஜ சோழன்) born Arunmozhi Varman (also called as Raja Kesari Varman Raja Raja Devar and respectfully as Peruvudaiyar), popularly known as Raja Raja the Great, is one of the greatest emperors of the Tamil Chola Empire of India who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. He established the Chola empire by conquering the kingdoms of southern India expanding the Chola Empire as far as Sri Lanka in the south, and Kalinga (Orissa) in the northeast. He fought many battles with the Chalukyas in the north and the Pandyas in the south. By conquering Vengi, Rajaraja laid the foundations for the Later Chola dynasty. He invaded Sri Lanka and started a century-long Chola occupation of the island. He streamlined the administrative system with the division of the country into various districts and by standardising revenue collection through systematic land surveys. Being an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva, he built the magnificent Peruvudaiyar Temple (also known as the Brihadeeswarar Temple) in Thanjavur and through it enabled wealth distribution amongst his subjects. His successes enabled his son Rajendra Chola I to extend the empire even further.
The key dates of Raja Raja are difficult to come by, scholar N Sethuraman, concludes that he was born in circa 947 ACE, was crowned on 18 July 985 and died in 1014 in the Tamil month of Maka.
Rajaraja Chola was born as the third child of Parantaka Sundara Chola and Vanavan Maha Devi of the Velir Malayaman dynasty. After a long apprenticeship of an heir apparent, he ascended the throne after the death of Madurandhagan Chola. During the lifetime of his father Sundara Chola, Arulmozhi had carved a name for himself by his exploits in the battles against the Sinhala and Pandyan armies. Sundara Chola’s eldest son and heir apparent Aditya II was assassinated under unclear circumstances. madurandhaghan, as the only child of Gandar Adityar, wanted the Chola throne as he felt it was his birthright. After the death of Aditya II, madurandhagan forced Sundara Chola to declare him as their apparent ahead of Arulmozhi. The Thiruvalangadu copper-plate inscriptions say:
- "…Though his subjects…entreated Arulmozhi Varman, he…did not desire the kingdom for himself even inwardly ".
This was to say that Raja Raja was very much legally elected through the kind of democratic process followed by Cholas as seen in their Uttiramerur inscription. No other interpretation of the same is correct. Another example of such a process is selection to Pallava throne of Sri Nandi Varman II. Inasmuch as it could very much be possible that the king rejected the offer in order to continue to devote time and energy to build the resources to realise the Cholan military objectives. The assertion seems to be very much true as we see right from the beginning how the king was involved in the Cholan expeditions and also the organised structure of their military. madhurandhagan made a compromise with Sundara Chola that Madhurandhagan will be succeeded by Arulmozhi and not his own son. The Thiruvalangadu inscription again states:
- "Having noticed by the marks (on his body) that Arulmozhi was the very Vishnu, the protector of the three worlds, descended on earth, [madhurandhagan] installed him in the position of yuvaraja (heir apparent) and himself bore the burden of ruling the earth…"
The southern kingdoms of Pandyas, Cheras and the Sinhalas were often allied against the Cholas. It was the case when Rajaraja came to the throne. Rajaraja's initial campaigns were against the combined Pandya and Chera armies. There is no evidence of any military campaign undertaken by Rajaraja until the eighth year of his reign. During this period he was engaged in organising and augmenting his army and in preparing for military expeditions.
The first military achievement of Rajaraja’s reign was the campaign in Kerala c. 994 CE. Rajaraja’s early inscriptions use the descriptive ‘Kandalur salai kalamarutta’ (காந்தளுர் சாலைக் களமறுத்த). In this campaign Rajaraja is said to have destroyed a fleet in the port of Kandalur, which appears to have been situated in the dominions of the Chera King Bhaskara Ravi Varman Thiruvadi (c. 978–1036 CE). Inscriptions found around Thanjavur show that frequent references are made to the conquest of the Chera king and the Pandyas in Malai-nadu (the west coast of South India). Kandalur-Salai, which later inscriptions claim to have belonged to the Chera king, was probably held by the Pandyas when it was conquered by Rajaraja. Some years' fighting apparently was necessary before the conquest could be completed and the conquered country could be sufficiently settled for its administration could be properly organised. In the war against the Pandyas, Rajaraja seized the Pandya king Amarabhujanga and the Chola general captured the port of Virinam. To commemorate these conquests Rajaraja assumed the title Mummudi-Chola, (the Chola king who wears three crowns – the Chera, Chola and Pandya) and according to tradition the title Raja Raja was conferred on him by serving members of Chidambaram temple of ancient who had also the duty of conducting the swearing in ceremony of chola and pallava princes.
In a battle against the Cheras sometime before 1008 CE, Rajaraja captured Udagai in the western hill country. Kalingattuparani, a war poem written during the reign of Kulothunga Chola I hints at a slight on the Chola ambassador to the Chera court as the reason for this sacking of Udagai. Rajaraja's son Rajendra was the Chola general leading the army in this battle. A place named Udagai is mentioned in connection with the conquest of the Pandyas. The Kalingattu-Parani refers to the “storming of Udagai” in the verse, which alludes to the reign of Rajaraja. The Kulottunga-Soran-ula also mentions the burning of Udagai. This was probably an important stronghold in the Pandya country, which the Chola king captured. The Tamil poem Vikkirama Cholan ula mentions the conquest of Malai Nadu and the killing of 18 princes in retaliation of the insult offered to an envoy.
Invasion of Lanka
To eliminate the remaining actor in the triumvirate, Rajaraja invaded Sri Lanka in 993 CE. The copper-plate inscription mention that Rajaraja’s powerful army crossed the ocean by ships and burnt up the kingdom of Lanka. Mahinda V was the king of Sinhalas. In 991 CE, Mahinda’s army mutinied with help from mercenaries from Kerala. Mahinda had to seek refuge in the southern region of Rohana. Rajaraja utilised this opportunity and invaded the island. Chola armies occupied the northern half of Lanka and named the dominion ‘Mummudi Chola Mandalam’. Anuradhapura, the 1400-year-old capital of Sinhala kings was destroyed. The destruction was so extensive the city was abandoned. Cholas made the city of Polonnaruwa as their capital and renamed it Jananathamangalam. The choice of this city demonstrates the desire of Rajaraja to conquer the entire island. Rajaraja also built a Temple for Siva in Pollonaruwa. RajaRajan's desire to bring the whole Lankan island under Cholan empire was never fulfilled and the southern part of the island (Ruhuna) remained independent. Later, king Vijayabahu I successfully drove the Chola out of Sri Lanka in 1070, reuniting the country for the first time in over a century.
Rajaraja also expanded his conquests in the north and northwest. The regions of Gangapadi (Gangawadi) , Nolambapadi (Nolambawadi), Tadigaipadi came into Chola possession during Rajaraja.
Before his 14th year c. 998–999 CE, Rajaraja conquered Gangapadi (Gangawadi) and Nurambapadi (Nolambawadi), which formed part of the present Karnataka State. This conquest was facilitated by the fact the Cholas never lost their hold of the Ganga country from the efforts of Sundara Chola. Nolambas who were the feudatories of Ganga could have turned against their overlords and aided the Cholas to conquer the Gangas, who were the chief bulwark against the Chola armies in the northwest.
The invasion of the Ganga country was a success and the entire Ganga country was under the Chola rule for the next century. The easy success against the Gangas was also due to the disappearance of Rashtrakutas c. 973 CE as they were conquered by the western Chalukyas. From this time, the Chalukyas became the main antagonists of Cholas in the northwest.
Western Chalukya Wars
During the reign of Rajaraja Chola, there were continuous wars with the Western Chalukyas to assert supremacy and there are multiple epigraphic evidences that show that the Cholas were constantly fighting with the Chalukyas or against the vassals of the latter. It is unclear as to why Rajaraja mounted an invasion against Satyasraya. According to historian Eugen Hultzsch the circumstances that led to the war are not mentioned in any of Rajaraja's inscriptions. But we do know that the rulers of these two conquered provinces were originally feudatories of the Rashtrakutas. An inscription of Irivabedanga Satyasraya from Dharwar describes him as a vassal of the Western Chalukya Ahvamalla for he describes himself as a bee at the lotus feet of Ahavamalldeva in 1002 A.D. An inscription of Rajaraja asserts that he captured Rattapadi by force. Rajendra led the Chola armies against the Western Chalukyas and would turn Manyakheta, the Chalukyan capital into his own playground. Raja Raja I claims damages worth "seven and a half lakshas from Irattapadi which was evidently the site of war with Satyashraya resulting in victory for Raja Raja I and payment of damages by the Chalukya king. Chalukya kingdom Satyashraya would renege on his promise of agreeing to Chola suzerainty, but would be defeated by Rajendra Chola I when he became king. Irivabedanga Satyasraya partially acknowledges this Chola onslaught in his Hottur (Dharwad) inscription as he screams in pain. In his own words he calls himself the ornament of Chalukya race and the slayer of the Tamil. He identifies his opponent as Rajaraja Nittavinodha Rajendra Vidyadhara, the ornament of the Chola kula Nūrmadi Chola(one hundred times more powerful). In the same inscription, he accuses Rajendra of having arrived with a force of 900,000 and of having gone on rampage in Donuwara thereby blurring the moralities of war as laid out in the Dharmasastras. He says that his opponent destroyed the caste (jāti nāsa) of his people. Historians like James Heitzman, Wolfgang Schenkluhn conclude that this confrontation displayed the degree of animosity on a personal level between the rulers of the Chola and the Chalukya kingdoms, the feeling of otherness and their inability to identify with the other side that degenerated to a level of violence that overthrew the established social order(destruction of caste). They also draw a parallel between this relationship and the enmity between the Chalukyas of Badami and the Pallavas of Kanchi. There is also epigrahic evidence of earlier encounters between the Cholas and the Hoysalas who were vassals of the Western Chalukyas during the reign of Rajaraja Chola. An inscription from the roof of the Gopalakrishna temple at Kaleyur in the Tirumukudalu Narasipur taluk dated in Saka 929 being current, Parabhava, corresponding to 1006 A.D, records that Rajaraja's viceroy Aprameya displayed his valor by slaying the Hoysala minister Naganna and multiple other generals of the Hoysalas like Manjaga, Kalega(or Kali Ganga), Nagavarman, etc. There is also a similar inscription in the Channapatna taluk that shows Rajaraja crushing the Hoysalas. Rajaraja evidently attached much importance to his victory over Satyasraya, as he is said to have presented gold flowers to the Rajarajesvara temple on his return from the expedition. At the end of this war, the southern banks of the Tungabadhra river became the frontier between these two empires.
War against Vengi
The cholas in pursuit of their objective of annihilating to ground evil kingdoms" and hence destroy the excessive wickedness of age of Kali had clashed with many kingdoms and one of which was Vengi. Parantaka Chola I who had made extensive conquests had in fact subdued the Deccan kingdom that flourished in this region in 913.C.E. Even in Inscriptions of Sundarachola we find a Chola regiment in Eastern Deccan preparing to invade Orissa. Thus there is no truth in the proposition of "Chola Throne" ties with "Vengi".
Some of Chola Inscriptions of Raja Raja note how during a war against Vengi, the king himself took initiative and killed a certain ruler called Bheema ruling that area because " he felled one of his commanders". Thus even if Cholas had reigned supreme in Eastern Deccan it was certainly a military vision and the small province of Vengi most probably served as a military base for Cholas who frequently sent in expeditions to Orissa and Western Deccan. We know about such base building activities down south in Pandyan country and also near Suchindram and Colombo in Lanka where the Cholas are known to have built naval bases and also " some temples for Lord Vishnu ".
One of the last conquests of Rajaraja was the naval conquest of the ‘old islands of the sea numbering 12,000’, the Maldives.
We have no further details regarding this expedition, however this is a sufficient indication of the abilities of the Chola Navy, which was utilised effectively under Rajendra I. Chola Navy also had played a major role in the invasion of Lanka.
The increasing realisation of the importance of a good Navy and the desire to neutralise the emerging Chera Naval power were probably the reasons for the Kandalur campaign in the early days of Rajaraja’s reign.
Nagapattinam on the Bay of Bengal was the main port of the Cholas and could have been the navy headquarters.Bay of Bengal called as Chola lake
Rajaraja’s reign is commemorated by the Siva temple in Thanjavur, called Raajarajeswaram. The temple is now recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, forming part of the Great Living Chola Temples site.
The construction of the temple is said to have been completed on the 275th day of the 25th year of his reign. After its commemoration the temple and the capital had close business relations with the rest of the country and acted as a centre of both religious and economic activity. Year after year villages from all over the country had to supply men and material for the temple maintenance.
From the 23rd to the 29th year of Rajaraja’s rule his dominions enjoyed peace and the king apparently devoted his energies to the task of internal administration. The building of the Rajarajesvara temple in Thanjavur and the various endowments and gifts to it must have occupied a prominent place in the king’s mind during these years.
Rajaraja carried out a revenue and settlement during the final years of his reign. Inscriptions found in the Thanjavur temple bear testimony to the accuracy of this operation. Land as small in extent as 1/52,428,800,000 of a ‘veli’ (a land measure) was measured and assessed to revenue. The revenue survey enabled for the confiscation of lands of the defaulting landlords.
Rajaraja also perfected the administrative organisation by creating a strong and centralised machinery and by appointing local government authorities. He installed a system of audit and control by which the village assemblies and other public bodies were held to account while not curtailing their autonomy.
Rajaraja created a powerful standing army and a considerable navy which achieved even greater success under his son Rajendra. The prominence given to the army from the conquest of the Pandyas down to the last year of the king’s reign is significant, and shows the spirit with which he treated his soldiers. A number of regiments are mentioned in the Tanjore inscriptions and it is evident that Rajaraja gave his army its due share in the glory derived from his extensive conquests.
In most of the foregoing names the first portion appears to be the surnames or titles of the king himself or of his son. That these regiments should have been called after the king or his son is indicative of the attachment the Chola king bore towards his army.
It is possible that these royal names were pre-fixed to the designations of these regiments after they had distinguished themselves in some engagement or other. It is worthy of note that there are elephant troops, cavalry and foot soldiers among these regiments. To some of these regiments, the management of certain minor shrines of the temple was entrusted and they were expected to provide for the requirements of the shrine. Others among them took money from the temple on interest, which they agreed to pay in cash. We are not, however, told to what productive purpose they applied this money. At any rate all these transactions show that the king created in them an interest in the temple he built.
Officials and Feudatories
Rajendra Chola was made co-regent during the last years of Rajaraja’s rule. He was also the Mahadandanayaka Panchavan Maharaya – supreme commander- of the northern and northwestern dominions. Uttarangudaiyan Kon Vidividangan alias Villavan Muvendavelan was one of the top officers (Perundaram) of Rajaraja. He figures in many of his inscriptions most notably when he and other top officers take a vow to light lamps and make other donations if they escaped from being disgraced during the military operations towards the end of Rajaraja's reign.
Paluvettaraiyars from the region of Thiruchirapalli were closely associated with the Cholas from the time of Parantaka I when he married a Paluvettaraiyar princess, were occupying a high position in the Chola administration. They were apparently enjoying full responsibility and administration of the region of Paluvur. One of the names of these feudal chieftains found in inscriptions were Adigal Paluvettaraiyar Kandan.He built a massive temple in Gangai konda cholapuram a mile stone of chola architecture. Madurantakan Gandaradityan who served in Rajaraja’s court as an important official in the department of temple affairs. He conducted enquiries into temple affairs in various parts of the country, punishing defaulters.
The other names of officials found in the inscriptions are the Bana prince Narasimhavarman, a general Senapathi Sri Krishnan Raman, the Samantha chief Vallavarayan Vandiyadevan, the revenue official Irayiravan Pallavarayan and Kuruvan Ulagalandan who organised the country-wide land surveys.
Due to Rajaraja's desire to record his military achievements in every one of his inscriptions he handed down to posterity some of the important events of his life. As far as we know at present, Rajaraja was the first king of South India to introduce this innovation into his inscriptions. Before his time powerful kings of the Pallava, Pandya and Chola dynasties had reigned in the South, and some of them had made extensive conquests. But none of them seems to have considered leaving a record on stone of his military achievements.
The idea of Rajaraja to add a short account of his military achievements at the beginning of every one of his inscriptions was entirely his own. His action in this respect is all the more laudable because his successors evidently followed his example and have left us more or less complete records of their conquests. But for the historical introductions, which are often found at the beginning of the Tamil inscriptions of Chola, kings the lithic records of the Tamil country would be of very little value, and consequently even the little advance that has been made in elucidating the history of Southern India would be difficult.
An inscription by Rajaraja in Tamil, found in the Mulbagal district of Karnataka, shows his accomplishments as early as the 19th year. An excerpt from such a Meikeerthi, an inscription recording great accomplishments, follows:
ஸ்வஸ்திஸ்ரீ் திருமகள் போல பெருநிலச் செல்வியுந் தனக்கேயுரிமை பூண்டமை மனக்கொளக் காந்தளூர்ச் சாலைக் களமறூத்தருளி வேங்கை நாடும் கங்கைபாடியும் நுளம்பபாடியும் தடிகை பாடியும் குடமலை நாடும் கொல்லமும் கலிங்கமும் எண்டிசை புகழ்தர ஈழ மண்டலமும் இரட்டபாடி ஏழரை இலக்கமும் திண்டிறல் வென்றி தண்டால் கொண்டதன் பொழில் வளர் ஊழியுள் எல்லா யாண்டிலும் தொழுதகை விளங்கும் யாண்டே செழிஞரை தேசுகொள் ஸ்ரீ்கோவிராஜராஜகேசரி பந்மரான ஸ்ரீராஜராஜ தேவர்
“ In the 19th year of the reign of sri-Kōv-IRājarāja-IRājakēsaripanmar who,- while his heart rejoiced that like the goddess of fortune, the goddess of great earth had also become his great wife- during his long life of growing gracefulness, was pleased to destroy the ships at Kāndalūr Sālai; conquered with his heroic and victorious army Vēngai-nādu, Gangapadi, Nulambapadi, Tadigai-vali, Kollam, Kalingam, Kudumalai-nādu and after having crossed the deep sea, the impregnamble N..njiram, and deprived the Sēlinār(the Pandyas) of their splendour at the very time when their greatness, which was adored everywhere on earth, became conspicuous;-. ”
The historical side of Rajaraja’s intellectual nature is further manifested in the order he issued to have all the grants made to the Thanjavur temple engraved on stone. Rajaraja not only was particular about recording his achievements, but also was equally diligent in preserving the records of his predecessors. For instance, an inscription of his reign found at Tirumalavadi near Thruchi records an order of the king to the effect that the central shrine of the Vaidyanatha temple at the place should be rebuilt and that, before pulling down the walls, the inscriptions engraved on them should be copied in a book. The records were subsequently re-engraved on the walls from the book after the rebuilding was finished.
An ardent follower of Saivism (one of the 4 major streams of Hinduism), Rajaraja was nevertheless tolerant towards other faiths and creeds. He also had several temples for Vishnu constructed. He also encouraged the construction of the Buddhist Chudamani Vihara at the request of the Srivijaya king Sri Maravijayatungavarman. Rajaraja dedicated the proceeds of the revenue from the village of Anaimangalam towards the upkeep of this Vihara.
Personal Life and Family
Rajaraja was born Arulmozhi Vendar and was the third child of Parantaka Sundara Chola.
Rajaraja Chola's mother, Vaanavan Maadevi, was the daughter of Thirukkovilur king, Malayamaan Thirumudi Kaari.
His elder brother Aditya II was assassinated c. 969 CE. He had great respect for his elder sister Ālvār Sri Parāntakan Sri Kundavai Pirāttiyār or more popularly referred to as Kundavai Pirāttiyār. We also know of at least one daughter of Rajaraja called Rajaraja Kundavai Alvar who he named after his sister. Rajaraja had a number of wives.The mother of Rajendra I, the only known son of Rajaraja, was Vaanathi, Princess of Kodumbaalur. Rajaraja must have had at least three daughters of whom the names of two are said to be Kundavi. Rajaraja was succeeded by Rajendra Chola I. His natal star was Sadhayam. It was celebrated as Sadhaya-nal vizha, a 7 day festival culminating on his star birthday during the king and his son's reign. Rajaraja also bore the title Telungana Kula Kala. He was also known as Rajaraja Sivapada Sekhara (he who had the feet of Lord Shiva as his crown).
Historic novels featuring Rajaraja Chola-I
- Arulmozhi Varman, is the hero of Kalki Krishnamurthy’s historical novel Ponniyin Selvan. Its plot revolves around the mysteries surrounding the assassination of Aditya Karikalan and the subsequent accession of Uttama to the Chola throne. Kalki imagines Arulmozhi sacrificing his rightful claim to the throne by crowning Uttama during his own coronation.
- Arulmozhi Varman, is the hero of Vembu Vikiraman’s historical novel Nandipurathu Nayagi. The plot of the story revolves around the ascension of Uttama Chola to the throne and Raja Raja's tour to the distant sea countries.
- Rajaraja Cholan – Drama, written by Aru. Ramanathan, called as Kathal Ramanathan. (TKS Group made numerous Stage Shows on this Drama and later it was taken as Movie acted by Shivaji Ganesan). This drama as a book Published by Prema Pirasuram, Chennai. is made as a Study Material in South Indian Universities.
- Balakumaran has also written the story Udaiyar based on the life of Rajaraja Chola. While Kalki's novel describes his life at his youth at the time of the death of Aditya Karikala, Bala Kumaran deals with Rajaraja Chola's life after he becomes the emperor.
- In January 2007, Kaviri Mainthan – a novel set in the Chola period and a sequel to Ponniyin Selvan was written by Anusha Venkatesh, published by The Avenue Press.
- Sujatha wrote a novel "Kandalur Vasantha Kumaran Kathai", which deal with the situations leading Raja raja to invade Kandhalur, a sea port.
- Gokul Seshadri has written a novel "Rajakesari", which deals with the after effects of Kandhalur invasion, in Rajaraja Chola's life. Also there is an incomplete novel "Cherar Kottai" by the same author, which deals with the Kandhalur invasion by Rajaraja Chola.
Raja Raja Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
- ^ http://www.hindu.com/fr/2009/11/27/stories/2009112751290700.htm
- ^ Subramanian, T. S. (18 May 2010). "Four Chola inscriptions found near Kancheepuram". The Hindu (India). http://www.thehindu.com/arts/history-and-culture/article432582.ece.
- ^ Sethuraman, N”Rajarajan Pirantha, Mudisudia, Neetha Naatkal”, in “Arunmozhi” ed., N Kasinathan, Tamil Nadu
- ^ a b c KAN Sastri, A History of South India, p163
- ^ "Rajaraja began his conquests by attacking the confederation between the rulers of the Pandya and Krala kingdoms and of Ceylon" – KAN Sastri, History of South India p 164
- ^ a b c KAN Sastri, The Colas
- ^ Chakravarti, Prithwis Chandra (December 1930). "Naval Warfare in ancient India". The Indian Historical Quarterly 4 (4): 645–664. "The naval supremacy of the Colas continued under the immediate successors of Rajendra. Rajadhiraja, as stated above, not only defeated and destroyed the Chera fleet at Kandalur but sent out his squadrons on an expedition against Ceylon."
- ^ KAN Sastri
- ^ a b KAN Sastri The Colas
- ^ Codrington, H.W (1926). A Short History of Ceylon. London: Macmillan & Co.. ISBN 9780836955965. OCLC 2154168. http://lakdiva.org/codrington/chap04.html.
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- ^ South Indian inscriptions: Volume 2, Parts 1–2
- ^ Epigraphia Indica, Volume 16, page 74
- ^ Studying early India: archaeology, texts and historical issues, page 198
- ^ The world in the year 1000, page 311
- ^ Epigraphia Indica, Volume 30, page 248
- ^ Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Volume 21, page 200
- ^ Smith, Vincent Arthur (1904). The Early History of India. The Clarendon press. pp. 336–358.
- ^ 'Rajaraja is supposed to have conquered twelve thousand old isands... a phrase meant to indicate the Maldives – Keay p215
- ^ Kearney, p70
- ^ KAN Sastri, the Cholas
- ^ Vasudevan, p44
- ^ Vasudevan, p46
- ^ Vasudevan, pp62-63
- ^ "varalaaru.com". varalaaru.com. http://www.varalaaru.com/Default.asp?articleid=32.
- ^ Epigraphia Carnatica, Volume 10, Part 1, page 107
- ^ Early Chola art, page 183
- ^ A Topographical List of Inscriptions in the Tamil Nadu and Kerala States: Thanjavur District, page 180
- ^ Śāṅkaram
- ^ The journal of Oriental research, Madras: Volume 7, By Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute
- ^ Proceedings of the First International Seminar on Dravidian Linguistics and the Fourteenth All India Conference of Dravidian Linguistics
- ^ Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference-Seminar of Tamil Studies, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, January 1981, Volume 1
- ^ "Temples of South India (ISBN 978-81-212-1022-5)". V.V.Suba Reddy,. Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=5ApDibKnyuYC&dq=The+Chola+temples&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
- ^ "A Journey through India's past: Great Hindu kings after Harshavardhana (ISBN 81-7211-256-4)". Chandra Mauli Mani. Northern Book Center, New Delhi. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=tUxtA7-InsoC&dq=brihadisvara+temple&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 25 August 2010.
32. Lost temples of India details the life of Raja Raja Chola. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SnANjdReAlY&playnext=1&list=PLF536E03081FC8AAA&index=5
- Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2000). A History of South India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195660686-8.
- Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1984). The Colas. Madras: University of Madras.
- Keay, John (2000). India, a History. London: Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-00-638784-5.
- Vasudevan, Geeta (2003). Royal Temple of Rajaraja: An Instrument of Imperial Cola Power. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 0-00-638784-5.
- Kearney, Milo (2003). The Indian Ocean in World History. Routledge. ISBN 0415312779.
- Epigraphia Carnatica, Volume 10, Part 1, Mysore archaeological series By Benjamin Lewis Rice, Mysore (India : State). Archaeological Dept, Mysore Archaeological Survey, Mangalore, Basel Mission Press, 1905
- "Discovery Channel movie clip about Rajaraja". http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-5096103596865842301&q=rajaraja&total=39&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0.
- The political structure of early medieval South India By Kesavan Veluthat
- Śāṅkaram: recent researches on Indian culture : Professor Srinivasa Sankaranarayanan festchrift
- South Indian inscriptions: Volume 2, Parts 1–2 By Eugen Hultzsch, India. Archaeological Survey, India. Dept. of Archaeology
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