Urokinase


Urokinase

drugbox
IUPAC_name = Human urokinase



Caption = The protease domain from urokinase in complex with and inhibitor
CAS_number = 9039-53-6
ATC_prefix = B01
ATC_suffix = AD04
ATC_supplemental =
PubChem =
DrugBank = BTD00030
C=1376 | H=2145 | N=383 | O=406 | S=18
molecular_weight = 31126.5 g/mol
bioavailability =
protein_bound =
metabolism =
elimination_half-life =
pregnancy_category =
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protein
Name = plasminogen activator, urokinase
caption =


width =
HGNCid = 9052
Symbol = PLAU
AltSymbols =
EntrezGene = 5328
OMIM = 191840
RefSeq = NM_002658
UniProt = P00749
PDB =
ECnumber = 3.4.21.31
Chromosome = 10
Arm = q
Band = 24
LocusSupplementaryData =

Urokinase (Abbokinase), also called urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA), is a serine protease (EC number|3.4.21.73). Urokinase was originally isolated from human urine, but is present in several physiological locations, such as blood stream and the extracellular matrix. The primary physiological substrate is plasminogen, which is an inactive zymogen form of the serine protease plasmin. Activation of plasmin triggers a proteolysis cascade which, depending on the physiological environment participate in thrombolysis or extracellular matrix degradation. This links urokinase to vascular diseases and cancer.

Molecular characteristics

Urokinase is a 411 residue protein, consisting of three domains: the serine protease domain, the kringle domain and the growth factor domain. Urokinase is synthesized as a zymogen form (prourokinase or single chain urokinase), and is activated by proteolytic cleavage between L158 and I159. The two resulting chains are kept together by a disulfide bond.

Interaction partners

The most important inhibitors of urokinase are the serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2), which inhibits the protease activity irreversibly. In the extracellular matrix urokinase is tethered to the cell membrane by its interaction to the urokinase receptor.

Urokinase and cancer

Elevated expression levels of urokinase and several other components of the plasminogen activation system are found to be correlated with tumor malignancy. It is believed that the tissue degradation following plasminogen activation, facilitates tissue invasion and thus contributes to metastasis. This makes urokinase an attractive drug target and inhibitors have been sought to be used as anticancer agents. However incompatibilities between the human and murine system hampers clinical evaluation of these agents. Through its interaction with the urokinase receptor, urokinase affects several other aspects of cancer biology such as cells adhesion, migration and cellular mitotic pathways.

Clinical applications

Urokinase is used clinically as a thrombolytic agent in the treatment of severe or massive deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and occluded intravenous or dialysis cannulas. It is also administered intrapleurally to improve the drainage of complicated pleural effusions and empyemas. Recently, Alteplase has replaced urokinase as a thrombolytic drug in infarctation.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Urokinase — Vorhandene Strukturdaten: siehe UniPr …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Urokinase — Le domaine protéase de l urokinase complexée à un inhibiteur. Général Nom IUPAC Human urokinase Synonymes EC …   Wikipédia en Français

  • urokinase — ● urokinase nom féminin Enzyme produite par le rein et excrétée dans l urine …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • urokinase — ☆ urokinase [yoor΄ō kī′nās΄, yoor΄ōkin′ās΄ ] n. [ URO 1 + KINASE] an enzyme found as a trace in human urine, used for dissolving blood clots …   English World dictionary

  • Urokinase — U|ro|ki|na|se [↑ ur (1) u. ↑ Kinase] aus Harn oder Nierenzellkulturen gewinnbare, auch gentechnologisch herstellbare Serin Proteinase, die in zwei aktiven Formen (MG 54 000 bzw. 31 000) vorliegt. U. löst im Blutgerinnungssystem die… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • urokinase — noun Date: 1952 an enzyme that is produced by the kidney and found in urine, that activates plasminogen, and that is used therapeutically to dissolve blood clots (as in the heart) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • urokinase — Serine protease from kidney that is a plasminogen activator. Contains EGF like domain …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • urokinase — /yoor euh kuy nays, nayz/, n. Biochem., Pharm. an enzyme, present in the blood and urine of mammals, that activates plasminogen and is used medicinally to dissolve blood clots. [1955 60; URO 1 + KINASE] * * * …   Universalium

  • urokinase — noun An enzyme, found in the urine, which converts plasminogen to plasmin, and is used in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis …   Wiktionary

  • urokinase — SYN: plasminogen activator. * * * uro·ki·nase .yu̇r ō kī .nās, .nāz n an enzyme that is produced by the kidney and is found in human urine, that activates plasminogen, and that is used therapeutically to dissolve blood clots (as in the heart) * * …   Medical dictionary