- Timeline of intelligent design
This timeline of intelligent design outlines the major events in the development of
intelligent designas presented and promoted by the intelligent design movement.
Creationism and Creation science
Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy– in an upsurge of fundamentalist religious fervor, anti-evolutionary sentiment stopped U.S. public schools from teaching evolution, through state laws such as Tennessee’s 1925 Butler Act, [cite court |litigants=Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District |vol=04 |reporter= cv |opinion= 2688 |pinpoint= |court= |date= December 20, 2005] [http://www.centerforinquiry.net/uploads/attachments/Forrest_Paper.pdf Understanding the Intelligent Design Creationist Movement: Its True Nature and Goals.] (pdf) A Position Paper from the Center for Inquiry, Office of Public Policy Barbara Forrest. May, 2007.] and by getting evolution removed from biology textbooks nationwide. [http://www.talkorigins.org/origins/postmonth/mar06.html TalkOrigins Archive: Post of the Month: March 2006] , The History of Creationism by Lenny Flank.]
National Defense Education Act, responding to fears of backwardness raised by the 1957 Sputnik, promoted science and Biological Sciences Curriculum Studytextbooks teaching evolution were used in almost half of high schools, though the prohibitions were still in place and a 1961 attempt to repeal the Butler Act failed.cite web |url=http://www.talkreason.org/articles/HistoryID.cfm |title=Creationism/ID, A Short Legal History|accessdate=2007-08-18 |author=Lenny Flank |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |format= |work=Talk Reason: arguments against creationism, intelligent design, and religious apologetics |publisher= |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=]
*1961 publication of "
The Genesis Flood".cite court |litigants=McLean v. Arkansas Board of Education |vol=529 |reporter=F. Supp. |opinion= 1255 |pinpoint= |court= |date=1982 |url=http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/mclean-v-arkansas.html , Decision January 5, 1982.]
*1965 The term "scientific creationism" gained currency.
Michael Polanyiarticle argued that “machines are irreducible to physics and chemistry” and that “mechanistic structures of living beings appear to be likewise irreducible.” [http://www.evolutionnews.org/2005/12/post_6.html Evolution News & Views: Dover Judge Regurgitates Mythological History of Intelligent Design] , Discovery Institute, Posted by Jonathan Witt on December 20, 2005 4:43 PM, retrieved 2007-07-01]
Epperson v. Arkansasruled against state laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution, concluding that they violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendmentof the U.S. Constitutionwhich prohibits state aid to religion.cite court |litigants=Edwards v. Aguillard |vol= 482 |reporter=U.S. |opinion= 578 |date= 1987 |url=http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=CASE&court=US&vol=482&page=578 .] States may not alter the curriculum to conform to the beliefs of particular religious sects:
Daniel v. Watersrules that a state law requiring biology textbooks discussing "origins or creation of man and his world" to give equal treatment to creation as per " Genesis" is unconstitutional, creationists change to Creation scienceomitting explicit biblical references.
Hendren v. Campbellrules that use of the 1970 Creation Research Societytextbook "Biology: A Search For Order In Complexity", though claimed to present a balanced view of evolution and Biblical Creation, promotes a specific sectarian religious view, and is unconstitutional in public schools. "We may note that with each new decision of the courts religious proponents have attempted to modify or tailor their approach to active lobbying in state legislatures and agencies. Softening positions and amending language, these groups have, time and again, forced the courts to reassert and redefine the prohibitions of the First Amendment. Despite new and continued attempts by such groups, however, the courts are bound to determine, if possible, the purpose of the approach." [cite web |url=http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/hendren/hendren_v_campbell.html |title=Hendren v. Campbell: Decision Against a Creationist Textbook |accessdate=2007-11-09 |author= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |format= |work= |publisher= |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=]
Creation science school textbooks and the Foundation for Thought and Ethics
Foundation for Thought and Ethics(FTE) formed by ordained minister Jon Buellas a "Christian think-tank", its first activity to be the editing of a book "showing the scientific evidence for creation.". [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/7781_36_thomas_1990_the_founda_11_23_2004.asp Thomas, The Foundation for Thought and Ethics] , Thomas, John A. (July-August 1990), NCSE Reports, 10(4), pp. 18-19.]
*1981 state of Arkansas passed a law, Act 590, mandating that "
creation science" be given equal time in public schools with evolution, and defining creation science as positing the “creation of the universe, energy, and life from nothing,” as well as explaining the earth’s geology “by occurrence of a worldwide flood.” McLean v. Arkansasruling issued on January 5, 1982, is that the Act was unconstitutional, the creationists' methods were not scientific but took the literal wording of the Book of Genesis and attempted to find scientific support for it. The clear, specific definition of science used to rule that “creation science” is religion, not science, had a powerful influence on subsequent rulings.
*1982 Louisiana's "Balanced Treatment for Creation-Science and Evolution-Science in Public School Instruction" Act (Creationism Act) forbids the teaching of the theory of evolution in public schools unless accompanied by instruction in "creation science." Thus two states had passed these "equal time" laws.cite web | last = Attie1 | first =Alan D. | coauthors =Elliot Sober,
Ronald L. Numbers, Richard M. Amasino, Beth Cox4, Terese Berceau, Thomas Powell and Michael M. Cox | title =Defending science education against intelligent design: a call to action | work =Journal of Clinical Investigation 116:1134–1138. doi:10.1172/JCI28449 | publisher =A publication of the American Society for Clinical Investigation. | date = 2006 | url =http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/116/5/1134 | accessdate =2007-07-20 ]
*late 1982 as work on "
The Mystery of Life’s Origin" (see 1984) nears completion, start made on what will become "Pandas".
Percival Davisand Dean H. Kenyonproduce "Creation Biology Textbook Supplements", an early draft of the work later retitled " Of Pandas and People". [http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/dover/day6am2.html#day6am889 Barbara Forrest testimony] ] Charles Thaxtonwas the project chairman and academic editor. [http://www.dailykos.com/story/2006/3/11/8448/52824 Daily Kos: Know Your Creationists: Know Your Allies] , by DarkSyde, Mar 11, 2006, interview with Barbara Forrest.]
The ID movement begins
*1984 book "
The Mystery of Life’s Origin" by Charles Thaxtonand others, foreword by Kenyon, argues for ‘a profoundly informative intervention' by an intelligent cause, "the authors conclude that while design can be detected in biology, science cannot determine from this evidence whether the design was from a creator outside the cosmos." Barbara Forrest describes this as the beginning of the ID movement.
*1984 Kenyon's affidavit for what becomes
Edwards v. Aguillardgives "Definitions" "Creation-science means origin through abrupt appearance in complex form, and includes biological creation, biochemical creation (or chemical creation), and cosmic creation.", "Creation-science does not include as essential parts the concepts of catastrophism, a world-wide flood, a recent inception of the earth or life, from nothingness (ex nihilo), the concept of kinds, or any concepts from Genesis or other religious texts." Satements included "The creationist scientific conclusion is that empirical data currently in hand demand the inference that the first living organisms were created." and "The origin of printed texts, manufactured devices, and biomolecular systems require intelligent design and engineering knowhow (Wilder-Smith 1970). In each case the characteristic order of the system must be impressed on matter 'from the outside.'" [ [http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/edwards-v-aguillard/kenyon.html Edwards v. Aguillard: Affidavit of Creationist Dean Kenyon] ,] It claims creation and evolution the only scientific explanations of life - what Forrest calls "the dual model".:This is later described by the DI's Witt as "There Kenyon described a science open to intelligent causes but one free of religious presuppositions or assertions about the identity of the designer. He described how he did origins science, how a science open to intelligent causes ought to be done." Witt claims that this is a different creation science from Young Earth Creationism (YEC).
*1985 District Court "Aguillard v. Treen" held that there can be no valid secular reason for prohibiting the teaching of evolution, a theory historically opposed by some religious denominations. The court further concluded that "the teaching of 'creation-science' and 'creationism,' as contemplated by the statute, involves teaching 'tailored to the principles' of a particular religious sect or group of sects." (citing Epperson v. Arkansas (1968)). The District Court therefore held that the Creationism Act violated the Establishment Clause either because it prohibited the teaching of evolution or because it required the teaching of creation science with the purpose of advancing a particular religious doctrine. The court of Appeals affirmed.:DI's Witt claims that "In Edwards, the Court found Louisiana’s act entailed the teaching of religion by virtue of a specific religious construction, comprised of particular teachings clearly paralleling the ‘Book of Genesis. Thus, it was a specific set of teachings or doctrines from a religious source that constituted religion." and so didn't apply to Kenyon's definition of the term “creation science”.
Michael Denton's book: "". Prominent figures in ID credit his critical examination of Darwinism with their change of view (Behe, Johnson).
*1986 FTE copyrighted draft entitled "Biology and Creation" by Kenyon & Davis. (note
Charles Thaxtonacademic editor, not clear from when)
*Autumn 1986 FTE, under the name of "Austin Analytic Consulting", carried out survey of 300 high-school science teachers to show potential mainline publishers that a market existed for a supplementary textbook to "balance" evolution teaching in class. [cite web |url=http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/2279_31_scott_1989_new_creatio_11_23_2004.asp |title=New Creationist Book On the Way |accessdate=2007-08-18 |author= Eugenie C. Scott |authorlink= Eugenie C. Scott |date=1989 |format= |work= NCSE Resource |publisher= NCSE ] Darwinian Struggle: Instead of Evolution, A Textbook Proposes `Intelligent Design' --- Who Did the Designing, It Doesn't Say". "Wall Street Journal",
14 November 1994]
*1987 FTE copyrighted draft entitled "Biology and Origins" by Kenyon & Davis.
*1987 FTE's founder Jon Buell sought a publisher for the book, telling a Boston firm "A new independent scientific poll (report enclosed) shows almost half of the nation's biology teachers include some creation in their view of biological origins. Many more who don't still believe it should be included in science curriculum.... The U.S. Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals says that teachers are free to teach scientific information that happens to support creation if they wish. In ruling on the so-called Louisiana "Balanced Treatment Act" this Spring the U.S. Supreme Court may not affirm state-mandated teaching of creation, but they will almost certainly let stand the above academic freedom for teachers." "The enclosed projections showing revenues of Over 6.5 million in five years are based upon modest expectations for the market provided the U.S Supreme Court does not uphold the Louisiana "Balanced Act". If, by chance it should uphold it, then you can throw out these projections, the nationwide market would be explosive!" "the book will not be subject to the major criticism of creation, that the supernatural lies outside of science, because its central statement is that scientific evidence points to an intelligent cause, but that science is silent as to whether that intelligence is within or beyond the material universe. So the book is not appealing to the supernatural." [cite web |url=http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/1493_12_buell_1987_marketing_l_4_24_2006.asp |title=Buell (1987): Marketing letter from FTE to prospective publishers |accessdate=2007-08-11 |format= |work=NCSE Resource]
Edwards v. Aguillard ruling, "Pandas"
*August 1986 Amicus Curae brief by scientific organisations and 72 Nobel Prize winning scientists set out argument that the Louisiana Act's definition of "creation-science" was religious dogma, including Creation ex nihilo,
created kindsof life, worldwide deluge and young earth, the legislation described conventional "creation-science" and not the "abrupt appearance" construct presented to the court which was ill-defined and "a post hoc invention, created for the purpose of defending this unconstitutional Act." They asserted that:
*1987 Supreme Court ruled in
Edwards v. Aguillardthat the "Louisiana Creationism Act" violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment: it lacked a clear secular purpose, did not protect academic freedom as claimed, and instead of encouraging "the teaching of all scientific theories about human origins... [had the] purpose of discrediting evolution by counterbalancing its teaching at every turn with the teaching of creationism.... endorses religion by advancing the religious belief that a supernatural being created humankind... [Its] primary purpose was to change the public school science curriculum to provide persuasive advantage to a particular religious doctrine that rejects the factual basis of evolution in its entirety." However, the statement that "teaching a variety of scientific theories about the origins of humankind to school children might be validly done with the clear secular intent of enhancing the effectiveness of science instruction." left a loophole for ID. [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/rncse_content/vol24/4838_design_on_trial_in_dover_penn_12_30_1899.asp Design on Trial in Dover, Pennsylvania] by Nicholas J Matzke, NCSE Public Information Project Specialist]
*1987 FTE copyrighted draft retitled "
Of Pandas and People: The Central Questions of Biological Origins", reference to Edwards decision added in footnote, as in earlier drafts had "definition" "Creation means that the various forms of life began abruptly through the agency of an intelligent creator with their distinctive features already intact. Fish with fins and scales, birds with feathers, beaks, and wings, etc."
Creation becomes intelligent design, “cdesign proponentsists”
* 1987 (according to a 2005 apologia by the DI's Witt) Thaxton's definition of "creation-science" had been overruled at Edwards by being equated to YEC, so he needed a new term and found it in a phrase he'd picked up from a NASA scientist – intelligent design. He thought "That’s just what I need, it’s a good engineering term….. it seemed to jibe... And I went back through my old copies of Science magazine and found the term used occasionally." Soon the term "intelligent design" was incorporated into the language of the book.
*1987 In a new draft of "Pandas", approximately 150 uses of the root word "creation", such as "creationism" and "creationist", were systematically changed to refer to "intelligent design",cite court |litigants=Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District |vol=04 |reporter= cv |opinion= 2688 |pinpoint= |court= |date=
December 20 2005, .] with "creationists" being changed to "design proponents" or, in one instance, "cdesign proponentsists". [cite web |url=http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/9018_90__matzke_2006_the_story_10_3_2006.asp |title=NCSE Resource -- 9.0. Matzke (2006): The Story of the Pandas Drafts |accessdate=2007-11-14 |author=Nick Matzke |authorlink=Nick Matzke |date=2006 |publisher= National Center for Science Education
*cite web |url=http://www2.ncseweb.org/wp/?p=80 |title=Evolution Education and the Law - Blog Archive - Missing Link discovered! |accessdate=2007-11-14 |author=Nick Matzke |authorlink=Nick Matzke |date=2006 |publisher=
National Center for Science Education
*cite web |url=http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/rncse_content/vol26/9141_my_role_in_ikitzmiller_v_dov_12_30_1899.asp |title=NCSE Resource -- My Role in "Kitzmiller v Dover" |accessdate=2007-11-14 |author=Barbara Forrest |authorlink=Barbara Forrest |date=2006 |publisher=
National Center for Science Education] Accordingly, in the "definition" "creation" was changed to "intelligent design", so that it now read "Intelligent design means that various forms of life began abruptly through an intelligent agency, with their distinctive features already intact. Fish with fins and scales, birds with feathers, beaks, wings, etc." This wording was essentially unchanged when published in 1989 and in the 1993 2nd. edition.
Johnson vs. evolution
Phillip E. Johnson(in England) read Dawkins' " Blind Watchmaker", the creationist book "" by Michael Denton, then Isaac Asimov’s "Guide to Science", and found purpose in life – he read the amicus briefs in Edwards and concluded that the definition of science was loaded against creationism. [http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/dover/day6pm.html Barbara Forrest testimony 2] ] Johnson decided that the creationists had lost that case because of their unfair exclusion from science by the scientific community’s naturalistic definition of science. Consequently, creationists must redefine science to restore the supernatural.
*1987-8 Johnson met
Steven Meyerwho subsequently introduced him to "the others", starting with Denton and Paul Nelson. [http://www.arn.org/docs/johnson/le_berkeleysradical.htm Berkeley's Radical] Touchstone magazine interviews Johnson]
*June 23-26, 1988,
Charles Thaxton, editor of " Of Pandas and People", held a conference titled "Sources of Information Content in DNA" in Tacoma, Washington, [cite web |url=http://www.leaderu.com/offices/thaxton/docs/inpursuit.html |title=In Pursuit of Intelligent Causes: Some Historical Background |accessdate=2007-10-06 |author=Charles B. Thaxton |authorlink=Charles Thaxton |date=June 23-26, 1988, revised July 1988 and May 1991 ] Stephen C. Meyerwas at the conference, and later recalled that "the term came up" ("intelligent design").William Safire. The New York Times. August 21 2005. [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/21/magazine/21ONLANGUAGE.html?position=&ei=5090&en=f2de0d764cc7e0e8&ex=1282276800&adxnnl=1&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss&pagewanted=print&adxnnlx=1132902202-gyP0H4EZfG7IeNHPMWlcBw On Language: Neo-Creo] ]
*August 1988 Johnson produced draft to develop into his book ("
Darwin on Trial"). [http://www.apologetics.org/articles/positionpaper.html "Position paper on Darwinism"] , Johnson, Phillip, November 30, 1989]
*December 1988 Thaxton decided to use the label "intelligent design" instead of creationism for his new movement.
*1989 Johnson funded to speak at Seattle conference, "I soon became the leader of the group."
"Of Pandas and People" published
*1989 survey found that more than 30% of a national sample of high school biology teachers wanted to teach "creation science". [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/rncse_content/vol19/5108_a_new_tactic_for_getting_crea_12_30_1899.asp A New Tactic for Getting "Creation Science" Into Classrooms?] by Molleen Matsumura, NCSE Network Project Director, 1999]
Of Pandas and People" was published, printed by "Haughton Publishing Co." ("Horticultural Printers, Inc." of Dallas, with no other books in print). It included all of the basic arguments of "intelligent design" in essentially modern form (except for Behe's irreducible complexity argument which appeared in the 1993 edition).cite web |url=http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/8442_1_introduction_iof_pandas__11_23_2004.asp |title=NCSE Resource |accessdate=2007-09-24 |author=Nick Matzke |authorlink=Nick Matzke |coauthors= |date= 2004 |format= |work=Introduction: Of Pandas and People, the foundational work of the 'Intelligent Design' movement |publisher= NCSE] In 2004, Jon Buell of the FTE stated this was "the first place where the phrase 'intelligent design' appeared in its present use." [http://www.pandasthumb.org/archives/2005/10/i_guess_id_real.html The Panda's Thumb: I guess ID really was “Creationism’s Trojan Horse” after all] , links to Wayback Machine for pdf.]
Campaign to get intelligent design into schools
*1989 Haughton and the FTE campaigned to get "Pandas" into schools across the U.S. – mobilizing local Christian conservative groups to push school boards and individual teachers to adopt the book and also to get themselves elected to school boards and local educational committees. They claimed that intelligent design was "accepted science, a view that is held by many highly qualified scientists".
*September 12, 1989, at the Alabama hearings on approved school textbooks. "Pandas" was on the list but not in the libraries for public viewing as required. An
Eagle Forumchapter director praised "Pandas" as an exemplary scientific text presenting an alternative to modern evolutionary theory based on "intelligent design". With NCSE assistance, written criticism was sent to committee members and on October 2, a majority of the State Textbook Committee voted against Pandas, partly because of its thinly disguised religious underpinnings. This decision was subject to adoption by the State Board of Education in December. [ [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/3803_32_brande_1989_science_te_11_23_2004.asp Brande (1989): Science Textbook Adoptions in Alabama: Part I] ]
*November 1989, Haughton advertised "Pandas" in the monthly of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and other journals, claiming it had been "prepared with academic integrity" and had been "Authored by mainstream, published science educators", [http://www.textbookleague.org/53panda.htm Religious propoganda in public schools: 'Of Pandas and People'] : articles from March-April 1990, May-June 1992 and July-August 1994] and promoted it at teachers’ association conventions. [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/5403_20_scott__uno_1989_intro_11_24_2004.asp Introduction to NCSE Bookwatch Reviews for "Of Pandas and People"] by Eugenie C. Scott and Gordon E. Uno (1989)]
*November 1989, "Pandas" was promoted by members of religiously-oriented citizen pressure groups like Concerned Women for America and Citizens for Excellence in Education. It was under consideration for state adoption in both Idaho and Alabama, and to be submitted in Texas and other states in the coming months. With grass-roots promotion it also had a good chance of showing up in local districts of non-adoption states.
*December 1989 a church campaign in Alabama gathered over 11,800 signatures on a petition to add "Pandas" to the list of approved school textbooks, after weeks of urging from a Christian radio station in Tuscaloosa.Brande, Scott (Jan – Feb 1990): Science Text Adoptions in Alabama: Part II [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/6937_34_brande_1990_science_te_11_23_2004.asp NCSE Resource] ]
*December 14, 1989, at the Alabama State Board of Education meeting to consider adoption of the textbook list, Haughton Publishing made an elaborate presentation. A Birmingham businessman presented petitions with over 11,800 signatures urging the board to adopt supplementary materials presenting "Intelligent Design" as an alternative to evolution. The attorney for Haughton, Hare, charged that opponents had falsely painted Pandas as a creationist text, and said that "Intelligent Design" does not compel belief in the supernatural. The Board requested legal advice, and a January hearing was set up just to consider "Pandas".
*January 8, 1990, Buell and Thaxton were amongst speakers for "Pandas" at the hearing, but the publisher Haughton tried to withdraw and end the hearing on procedural grounds. The meeting continued, but Haughton then threatened to sue the committee members if they rejected the book rather than accepting that it had been withdrawn, as rejection would injure future sales prospects. The committee passed a resolution recognizing its withdrawal.
*Active promotion by creationists of "Pandas" for public school use continued throughout the 1990s, then after 2000 activity largely died down.
Discovery Institute founded, Johnson's views
*November 30, 1989, Johnson's "informal summary of my views" (from the book he was working on) stated "The important issue is not the relationship of science and creationism, but the relationship of science and materialist philosophy." He wanted school textbooks to acknowledge alleged problems with evolution. "More importantly, the universities should be opened up to genuine intellectual inquiry into the fundamental assumptions of Darwinism and scientific materialism. The possibility that Darwinism is false, and that no replacement theory is currently available..."
*1990 Haughton admitted sales of Pandas so far had been single-copy. Instead of attempts to get state textbook approval, the FTE was now directing efforts "outside the schools" to the grass-roots level, targeting local school boards, teacher's groups, and parents.
*May 1990 a FTE letter by Jon Buell announced a new sales campaign as they'd found it best to approach the local school system through the biology teacher. It included an 18-minute video with the endorsements of a number of scientists, educators, and an authority on First Amendment law, and a "Suggested Plan of Action" for volunteers suggesting: finding a sympathetic biology teacher (perhaps a fellow church member) who then convinces the curriculum committee and/or administration to approve use of Pandas without need for funding, then a local church purchases the books and donates them to the school. [ [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/9767_37_schadewald_1991_sellin_11_23_2004.asp Selling Pandas] , Schadewald, Robert J. (Jan-Feb 1991) NCSE Reports, 11(1), pp. 10-11.]
*1990 Discovery Institute (DI) is founded by Bruce Chapman, but lacks a defining issue.
*1990 Johnson's booklet "Evolution as Dogma: The Establishment of Naturalism" was published under the auspices of the FTE by Haughton Publishing. He claimed that science holds a metaphysical materialist viewpoint that rejects the possibility of a Creator, so cannot countenance evidence for supernatural intervention. [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/830_creationism_ideology_and_sci_6_24_1996.asp Creationism, Ideology, and Science] , by
Eugenie C. Scott, New York Academy of Sciences. "The Flight From Reason." Volume 775 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. June 24, 1996.]
*October 1990 -Johnson's article "A Reply to My Critics" stated that "Victory in the creation-evolution dispute therefore belongs to the party with the cultural authority to establish the ground rules that govern the discourse. If creation is admitted as a serious possibility, Darwinism cannot win, and if it is excluded a priori Darwinism cannot lose." He cited the logic of what he called "the Natural Academy of Sciences", as accepted by the Supreme Court at Edwards, that "creation-science" is not science because it does not rely upon naturalistic explanations, but holds "that the creation of the universe, the earth, living things, and man was accomplished through supernatural means inaccessible to human understanding". [ [http://www.arn.org/docs/johnson/pjdogma1.htm Evolution as Dogma: The Establishment of Naturalism, Phillip E. Johnson, "A Reply to My Critics"] October 1990]
Phillip A. Bishopat the University of Alabamawas told to stop proselytizing students in class and teaching "intelligent design theory" in an optional class. At Bishop v. Aronovhe sued the college on free speechand academic freedom grounds, and won at District Court but the Appeals Court found that the university had a right to set the curriculum.
Johnson's first book, "Darwin on Trial"
*1991? (publisher says 1992 [http://www.ivpress.com/cgi-ivpress/book.pl/code=1324 IVP – Darwin on Trial] Publisher (InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA) gives publication date of 1st edn. as 1992, 2nd edn. as December 1993] ) Johnson's first book, "
Darwin on Trial" described a creationist in the broadest sense as "simply a person who believes that the world (and especially mankind) was designed, and exists for a purpose." Johnson claimed that Darwinism inherently and explicitly denies such a belief and therefore constitutes a naturalistic philosophy intrinsically opposed to religion. [ [http://www.stephenjaygould.org/ctrl/gould_darwin-on-trial.html Stephen Jay Gould "Impeaching a Self-Appointed Judge" 1992] ]
It does not use the term "intelligent design" for Johnson's ideas, though it does mention at one point that "the presence of intelligent design in the cosmos is so obvious that even an atheist like Pagels cannot help noticing it...", and in the citations list includes "Of Pandas and People", saying "This book is 'creationist' only in the sense that it juxtaposes a paradigm of 'intelligent design' with the dominant paradigm of (naturalistic) evolution".
*1991: Johnson later claimed that "By the time Darwin on Trial was published, I had pretty well worked out the strategy I thought would, in time, win this campaign, and I’ve been able to convince most of the young-earth creationists and the old-earth creationists that this is the right way to proceed."
*March 1992, as Johnson recalled, "The movement we now call the Wedge made its public debut at a conference of scientists and philosophers held at Southern Methodist University in March 1992, following the publication of my book Darwin on Trial. The conference brought together as speakers some key Wedge figures, particularly Michael Behe, Stephen Meyer, William Dembski, and myself" to debate "Darwinists, headed by
Michael Ruse", on the proposition that "Darwinism and neo-Darwinism [have} an a priori commitment to metaphysical naturalism". He writes "Once it becomes clear that the Darwinian theory rests upon a dogmatic philosophy rather than the weight of the evidence, the way will be open for dissenting opinions to get a fair hearing. In a nutshell, that is the Wedge strategy."cite web |url=http://www.arn.org/docs/johnson/le_wedge.htm |title=The Wedge: Phillip Johnson |accessdate=2007-09-24 |author=Phillip E. Johnson |authorlink=Phillip E. Johnson |date= 1999 |format= |work= |publisher=Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity ] " [http://www.arn.org/docs/dardoc1.htm Challenging Darwin's Myth] " by Mark Hartwig] Barbara Forrest, [http://www.talkreason.org/articles/Wedge.cfm#I The Wedge at Work] . Talk Reason, Chapter 1 of the book "Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics" (MIT Press, 2001), Retrieved 2007-05-28.]
* From 1992 onwards, ID proponents engaged in an energetic schedule of conferences, publication, lectures (mostly at universities, where there is a ready pool of recruits), website creation, radio and TV appearances, and later blogging and podcasting.
*Mar-Apr 1992, Televangelist
James Dobson's newsletter directed his supporters to march down to the school board and demand of "Of Pandas and People" be used when evolution is taught. [ [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/1699_39_scott_1992_televangeli_11_24_2004.asp Televangelist Promotes Of Pandas and People] Scott, Eugenie C. (Mar-Apr 1992) NCSE Reports, 12(2), p. 19.]
*July 1992 in the
Scientific American, Gould reviewed Johnson's book "Darwin on Trial", making no mention of ID. [ [http://www.stephenjaygould.org/ctrl/gould_darwin-on-trial.html Stephen Jay Gould "Impeaching a Self-Appointed Judge"] Scientific American (1992)]
*1992 Johnson wrote an anti-naturalistic response, which Scientific American refused to print: Dembski, Behe, Meyer and 36 other anti-evolutionists responded by mass-mailing a copy of it to scientists and biology departments all over the U.S., along with a supporting letter in which they called themselves the "Ad Hoc Origins Committee" and "Scientists Who Question Darwinism"
*January 1993 Johnson wrote claiming that it was wrong for theists to accept evolution (without mentioning ID) "Their position, which I call theistic naturalism, starts from the premise that God refrains from interference with those parts of reality that natural science has staked out as its own territory.... the fundamental disagreement is not over the age of the earth or the method of creation; it is over whether we owe our existence to a purposeful Creator or a blind materialistic process". [ [http://www.arn.org/docs/johnson/cre_bw98.htm Creator or Blind Watchmaker? Phillip E. Johnson] Reprinted from First Things, January 1993]
*June 1993, the nascent ID movement met again at Pajaro Dunes in California, organized by Johnson, with participants including
Scott Minnich, Michael Behe, Steven Meyer, Jonathan Wells and Dean Kenyon.cite web |url=http://sciencereview.berkeley.edu/articles/issue10/evolution.pdf |title=In the matter of Berkeley v. Berkeley |accessdate=2007-11-03 |author=Michelangelo D’Agostino |date=Spring 2006 |format=pdf |work=Berkeley Science Review |publisher= |pages=31-35 (also [http://sciencereview.berkeley.edu/articles.php?issue=10&article=evolution The Berkeley Science Review: Read: Articles] )] (Paul Nelson gives list) "and this meeting is generally acknowledged as the birth of the Intelligent Design movement", Behe first presented his ideas about "irreducible complexity" [http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/2437/designhistory.htm The Birth of Intelligent Design "Theory"] ]
Pandas revised, DI meets ID
*1993 2nd. edition "
Of Pandas and People" published. References to "evolution" and "evolutionists" were changed to "Darwinism" and "Darwinists" to make the distinction between "evolution" which can mean "change in living things over time" and "Darwinism" referring to mutation and natural selection. Chapter 6 "Biochemical Similarities" was extensively revised by Behe, who added sections on the complex mechanism of blood clotting and on the origin of proteins, introducing Behe's irreducibly complexity argument in all but name. Charles Thaxton's "A Word to the Teacher" at the end of the book was supplanted by "Notes to teachers" written by M. D. Hartwig, and S. C. Meyer. [ [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/6343_60_sonleitner_the_new_ipa_11_24_2004.asp The New Pandas: Has Creationist Scholarship Improved?] Comments on 1993 Revisions by Frank J. Sonleitner (1994)] [ [http://www.textbookleague.org/53panda.htm Panda Poop] by William J. Bennetta, from "The Textbook Letter", July-August 1994.]
*December 1993, Johnson's "
Darwin on Trial" revised, with minor changes to footnotes, a new section on embryology and an epilogue.
Bruce Chapman, president and founder of the Discovery Institute, noticed an essay in the " Wall Street Journal" by Meyer about a dispute when biology lecturer Dean H. Kenyontaught intelligent design creationism in introductory classes. [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/21/national/21evolve.html?pagewanted=1&ei=5088&en=24bc7c9b16cac8a8&ex=1282276800&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss Politicized Scholars Put Evolution on the Defensive] Jodi Wilgoren. The New York Times, August 21 2005.] [cite web |url=http://www.arn.org/docs/meyer/sm_opendebatelifesorigins.htm |title=Open Debate on Life's Origins: Meyer, Stephen C. |accessdate=2007-08-27 |author= Stephen C. Meyer |authorlink=Stephen C. Meyer |date= December 6, 1993|publisher=Wall Street Journal ]
*1994 the "
Origins Resource Association" began a campaign to force creationist doctrines including ID into science classes in Livingston Parish, Louisiana: affects Barbara Forrestwho leads resistance. [ [http://www.textbookleague.org/83combt.htm#n1r Combating Creationism in a Louisiana School System] , by Barbara Forrest, from "The Textbook Letter", July-August 1997.]
Stephen C. Meyerintroduces Bruce Chapmanto idea of intelligent design approach to re-establishing spiritual values and getting funding. By 1995 Chapman and George Gilderwere negotiating with the Howard Ahmansonfamily for a grant to set up the CRSC. [http://seattleweekly.com/2006-02-01/news/discovery-s-creation.php Discovery's Creation An overview of the origin of the intelligent design movement] , By Roger Downey, "Seattle Weekly", February 1, 2006.]
* August 1994 "In a pattern that is becoming familiar all over the country, a newly elected school board... " Plan to purchase thirty copies of "Pandas" to distribute to science teachers, plus as many additional copies as teachers might request "Also, if local school control comes to pass, as advocated by Texas' new governor George Bush, we can expect creationism to be proposed again in Plano and many other communities in the state." [ [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/6190_40_matsumura_1995_texas__11_24_2004.asp Texas: "No Pandas for Plano"] , Matsumura, Molleen (Jan-Feb 1995), NCSE Reports, 15(1), p. 7.]
*November 14, 1994, the WSJ discusses "Pandas" – Phillip Johnson is reported as believing that "...a bit more candor about the nature of the designer might be in order. 'You're playing Hamlet without Hamlet if you don't say something about that,' he says." [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/6032_analysis_of_the_melvindale_sci_10_30_1998.asp Analysis of the Melvindale Science Curriculum Sub-Committee Book Recommendations] October 30, 1998] To
Eugenie Scott, it disguised religion as science, which is of questionable honesty: Johnson agreed that that a more explicit expression of the motivation of belief was in order, but countered: "The fact is they're working against enormous prejudice here, and enormous bigotry. And they're vying to put it in terms that the courts and science will allow to exist." On December 5 he wrote to the WSJ stating that scientific organizations and textbooks use "creationism" to mean literal YEC, so it's not dishonest for "Pandas" to repudiate the label in order to question the "dogmatic philosophy" of evolution "defined in scientific usage as a completely naturalistic system in which God played no discernible part." [ [http://www.asa3.org/ASA/docs/asa_doc22.txt Excerpts from the ASA Newsletter] , Mar/Apr 1995, Vol 37, #2]
John BuellFTE fund raising letter "Production of supplemental textbook for biology is already complete. The teachers are now using it in all 50 states. This book Of Pandas and People is favorably influencing the way origins is taught in thousands of public school classrooms." "Our commitment is to see the monopoly of naturalistic curriculum in the schools broken."
Theistic realism, DI takes up ID and founds CRSC
*"By the mid-1990s Johnson was collaborating with other critics of naturalistic evolution in forming the intelligent-design (ID) movement."cite web | last = Numbers | first = Ronald | authorlink =Ronald L. Numbers | title =Creationism History: Intelligent Design | work =Counterbalance Meta-Library | publisher =Counterbalance Foundation | date = | url =http://www.counterbalance.net/history/id-frame.html | accessdate = 2007-07-29 ]
*Abrahamsons get involved with DIcite news | last = Downey | first = Roger | title =Discovery's Creation | publisher =Seattle Weekly | date =
February 1, 2006| url =http://seattleweekly.com/2006-02-01/news/discovery-s-creation.php | accessdate = 2007-07-27 ]
*1995, Johnson released another book, "
Reason in the Balance: The Case against Naturalism in Science, Law and Education" opposing the methodological naturalismof sciencein which "The Creator belongs to the realm of religion, not scientific investigation", and promoting " theistic realism" which "assumes that the universe and all its creatures were brought into existence for a purpose by God", expecting "this 'fact' of creation to have empirical, observable consequences.
*1995 Behe's "Darwinism, Science or Philisophy?" published by the FTE.cite web |url=http://www.millerandlevine.com/km/evol/behe-review/index.html |title=KR Miller's Review of "Darwin's Black Box" |accessdate=2007-08-28 |author=Kenneth R. Miller |authorlink=Kenneth R. Miller |date= 1996 |format= |work=Creation / Evolution Volume 16: pp, 36-40 |publisher= |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=]
*May 1995 " 'The whole point of Darwinism is to explain the world in a way that excludes any role for a Creator,' says Johnson. 'What is being sold in the name of science is a completely naturalistic understanding of reality.' "
"If scientists are wrong about Darwinism, are they also wrong about the notion of intelligent design? Might not the notion of design be worthy of a second look?
A new breed of young Evangelical scholars thinks the anwer to both questions is yes. They are arguing persuasively that design is not only scientific, but is also the most reasonable explanation for the origin of living things. And they're gaining a hearing." [i.e. Meyer, Dembski: also Paul Nelson and Behe, describes IC]
*summer 1995 conference titled "The Death of Materialism and the Renewal of Culture", source of CRSC.
*1996, Behe released his book, "
Darwin's Black Box".
*August 10, 1996 Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture announced in Discovery Institute Press Release, to examine and confront "materialistic bias in science", "the idea that God is either dead or irrelevant". CRSC "will award research fellowships to scholars, hold conferences, and disseminate research findings among opinionmakers and the general public." Director Stephen Meyer, co-director John West working with Phillip Johnson and Michael Behe. 1996-97 full-time Discovery research fellows to be William Dembski, Paul Nelson and Jonathan Wells. [cite web |url=http://web.archive.org/web/19961103063611/http://www.discovery.org/center.html |title=Center for Renewal of Science and Culture |accessdate=2007-08-28 |author= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date=
August 10, 1996|format= |work= |publisher=Discovery Institute Press Release |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=] Founded "specifically to address the Darwinian controversy in public education" [cite web |url=http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/kansas/kangaroo2.html |title=Kansas Evolution Hearings: Jonathan Wells, Bruce Simat, Giuseppe Sermonti, and Ralph Seelke |accessdate=2007-08-23 |format= |work=] by Discovery Institute president Bruce Chapman, with help from Stephen C. Meyer. At some stage, Charles B. Thaxtonand Walter L. Bradleybecome DI fellows at the CRSC (In 2002 the name was changed to the Center for Science and Culture. [cite web |url=http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/academe/2005/JF/Feat/forr.htm |title=AAUP: Wedging Creationism into the Academy |accessdate=2007-08-27 |author=Barbara Forrest |authorlink=Barbara Forrest |coauthors= Glenn Branch |date=January-February 2005 |work=Academe Online |publisher=American Association of University Professors ] )
*1996 "Mere Creation" conference at Biola University in California, organized by CRSC to plan strategy - very important, "a major research conference bringing together scientists and scholars who reject naturalism as an adequate framework for doing science and who seek a common vision of creation united under the rubric of intelligent design." – no actual research, but produced strategy.
* June 24, 1996,
Eugenie C. Scottwrote that "phrases like 'intelligent design theory', or 'abrupt appearance theory' are used instead of 'creation science', 'creationism', and related terms. I call this newest stage of antievolutionism 'Neocreationism'."
*1997 Johnson's "
Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds" states "God is our true Creator.... I speak of a God who acted openly and who left his fingerprints all over the evidence. Does such a God really exist, or is he a fantasy like Santa Claus? That is the subject of this book." and "If we understand our own times, we will know that we should affirm the reality of God by challenging the domination of materialism and naturalism in the world of the mind."
William A. Dembski's " The Design Inference" and "Mere Creation"
The wedge strategy
*c. 1998 DI / CRSC Wedge document leaked Feb 5, 1999.
*1999 Johnson speech (does not use term ID) claimed that science when applied to questions of origins means "applied materialistic philosophy" explaining "the whole world and the cosmos... without any reference to God as the Creator, without any supernatural acts, and on the basis of invariable natural laws that were the same from the beginning", so Darwinian "evolution contradicts not just the Book of Genesis, but every word in the Bible from beginning to end. I have built an intellectual movement in the universities and churches that we call The Wedge.... the Darwinian theory isn't true.... where might you get the truth? When I preach from the Bible, as I often do at churches and on Sundays, I don't start with Genesis. I start with John 1:1. In the beginning was the word. In the beginning was intelligence, purpose, and wisdom. The Bible had that right. And the materialist scientists are deluding themselves". [ [http://www.coralridge.org/specialdocs/evolutiondebate.asp How the Evolution Debate Can Be Won] ]
*1999 Johnson's article "The Wedge" says his "own writing and speaking represents the sharp edge of the Wedge. I make the first penetration, seeking always only to legitimate a line of inquiry rather than to win a debate", with Behe, Dembski and "a lot more" following into the opening.
till need a theory, teach controversy
*1999 strategies: argue that individual teachers have a constitutional right to present creationist material, and that "evidence against evolution" should be taught in the science classroom as a way to improve teaching and learning. Attempts to teach IC and introduce "Pandas". Resources for teachers... abundantly available from both "creation science ministries" and conservative religious groups.
David DeWolf, Stephen Meyerand Mark DeForrestcoauthored a 40-page booklet, "Intelligent Design in Public School Science Curricula: A Legal Guidebook", published by the FTE. It claims Edwards v. Aguillardmandated "teaching a variety of scientific theories about the origins of humankind" subject to a "clear secular intent of enhancing.. science instruction."
Skagit County's Burlington-Edison School Districtfinds that for almost 10 years the high-school science teacher Roger DeHarthad been omitting state-approved biology textbook teaching on evolution, and using "Pandas".
*Aug. 17, 1999,
Philip Kitcher, professor of the philosophy of science at Columbia University, in online debate in Slate magazinewith Johnson, coins neo-creo: "Enter the neo-creos, scavenging the scientific literature, they take claims out of context and pretend that everything about evolution is controversial. . . . But it's all a big con."
*May 10, 2000, DI briefing of Congress, "Scientific Evidence of Intelligent Design and its Implications for Public Policy and Education," also addressed the social, moral, and political consequences of Darwinism. Creation-evolution debate had primarily been active at the state and local level, a new effort to involve Congress, took place as the Senate entered its second week of debate on overhauling federal K-12 education programs.
Nancy Pearcey"For Darwinists, religion must give way to a new science-based cosmic myth with the power to bind humans together in a new world order. She then asked what this means for morality and argued that people were right to be concerned that all the above would undercut morality." [ [http://www.agiweb.org/gap/legis106/id_update.html AGI GAP Evolution Opponents Hold Congressional Briefing] American Geological Institute, May 11, 2000]
* July 2000 Dean Kenyon and David DeWolf of CRSC: Kenyon states "Scientific creationism... is actually one of the intellectual antecedents of the Intelligent Design movement. [ [http://www.catholic.net/rcc/Periodicals/Igpress/2000-07/intrview.html Interview - Catholic World Report - XXXX 2000] ]
Rick Santorumintroduces The Santorum Amendmentto " Teach the Controversy" partially written by Johnson (and based on a law journal article written by DI activist David DeWolf) inviting , left out of bill but kept in conference report.
*December 2002 DI lobbying to get ID into Ohio science standards
Ohio House Bill 481. Bills all failed, ID excluded by name in the approved standard but it included the phrase "critically analyze aspects of evolutionary theory" used as excuse for the new " teach the controversy" strategy.cite web |url=http://www.ohioroundtable.org/issues/science_standards.html |title=Ohio State Science Standards - OHIO |accessdate=2007-08-18 |author=Melanie Elsey |date= March 10, 2004|format= |work= |publisher=Ohio Roundtable ]
*Jan 2004 Dembski"The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions About Intelligent Design" ISBN 0830823751 page 22 "Theism, whether Christian, Jewish, or Muslim, holds that God by wisdom created the world. The origin of the world and its subsequent ordering thus result from the designing activity of an intelligent agent, God.
Naturalism, on the other hand, allows no place for intelligent agency, except at the end of a blind, purposeless, material process."
*2004 ©. FTE, draft for new version of "Pandas", mentions 10th anniversary, authors listed as Michael J. Behe, Percival Davis, William A. Dembski, Dean H. Kenyon, Jonathan Wells. Contents list, preface, notes to teachers, notes to students, epilogue, but no main content.
*March 10, 2004, Ohio State Board of Education approved model lesson "
Critical Analysis of Evolution– Grade 10". [cite web |url=http://www.ohioroundtable.org/resources/Analysis_Evolution.pdf |title=Critical Analysis of Evolution – Grade 10 |accessdate=2007-08-18 |author= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= March 10, 2004|format=pdf |work= |publisher=Ohio State Board of Education |pages= |language= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote=]
*2004 Paul Nelson interviewed by a magazine called "Touchstone: A Journal of Mere Christianity" – "Easily, the biggest challenge facing the ID community is to develop a full-fledged theory of biological design. We don't have such a theory right now, and that's a real problem. Without a theory, it's very hard to know where to direct your research focus. Right now, we've got a bag of powerful intuitions and a handful of notions such as irreducible complexity and specified complexity, but as yet, no general theory of biological design."
* 2004 the school board of
Grantsburg, Wisconsin, voted to have ID taught as an alternative to evolution. By late summer 2005 letters urging reversal had been organised by a department of University of Wisconsin–Madisonand clergy nationwide, the Clergy Letter Project, resulting in the board largely reversing their decision.
* June 7, 2004, at
Dover, Pennsylvania, the Dover Area School DistrictSchool Board considered a new biology textbook. William Buckinghamobjected, wanting a textbook that gave a balanced view between creationism and evolution. He subsequently proposed " Of Pandas and People", after acrimonious debate it was left off the list on August 2.
* October 4, 2004, Buckingham announced acceptance of 50 donated copies of "Pandas". On October 18 the full School Board voted 6-3 to amend the district's curriculum to include intelligent design. Buckingham states a law firm has offered
pro bonolegal representation.
* December 12, 2004,
Phillip Johnsonstated in an interview "What the Dover board did is not what I'd recommend.... Just teach evolution with a recognition that it's controversial..."
* December 14, 2004, 11 parents,
ACLU, Americans United and Pepper Hamilton LLP file lawsuit Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, lead plaintiff Tammy Kitzmiller, the mother of a ninth grader in the biology class. On December 20, the District voted for the Thomas More Law Centerto represent it pro bono.
*May 2005 Kansas school board hearings led by
John Calvert, director of the Kansas office of the Intelligent Design Network, boycotted by mainstream scientists as an "anti-science crusade."cite web |url=http://four.fsphost.com/crevmore/critical.htm |title=Critical Analysis of Evolution |accessdate=2007-08-17 |author=Ronald L. Ecker |date=August, 2006; updated July, 2007 |format= |work=(Or, What Will They Think of Next?) |publisher=Hodge & Braddock ]
*September 26, 2005 to November 4, 2005, Kitzmiller trial before Judge
John E. Jones III
*November 2005 Kansas school board voted 6-4 for new science standards criticising evolution, redefining science, then turned out in elections.
*December 20, 2005, Kitzmiller decision; Judge Jones issued his findings of fact and decision as his .
*February 2006 Kansas school board voted 6-4 for new standards supporting evolution.
*February 2006 Ohio Governor Bob Taft requests legal review of the state's "teach the controversy" curriculum standards, Ohio State Board of Education members vote 11-4 to drop all of the "teach the controversy".
*Spring 2006 Johnson states in interview "I also don’t think that there is really a theory of intelligent design at the present time to propose as a comparable alternative to the Darwinian theory, which is, whatever errors it might contain, a fully worked out scheme. There is no intelligent design theory that’s comparable. Working out a positive theory is the job of the scientific people that we have affiliated with the movement. Some of them are quite convinced that it’s doable, but that’s for them to prove…No product is ready for competition in the educational world."
*June 2007 Behe's new book and new theory "", claims that variation for the building blocks of evolution are not due to random mutation in DNA, but instead produced by an intelligent designer. Reiterates argument for
irreducible complexity, calculating improbability on 2 or more beneficial mutations happening simulataneously, rather than one by one as evolutionary theory requires. [ [http://www.powells.com/review/2007_06_14 Powell's Books - Review-a-Day - The Edge of Evolution: The Search for the Limits of Darwinism by Michael J. Behe, reviewed by The New Republic Online] by Jerry Coyne, June 14th, 2007]
*2007, A new biology textbook intended to replace
Of Pandas and People, entitled Explore Evolution is published by Hill House Publishers. The book is authored by Stephen C. Meyer, Scott Minnichand Paul A. Nelson, Jonathan Moneymaker and Ralph Seelke. [ Stephen C. Meyer, Scott Minnich, Jonathan Moneymaker, Paul A. Nelson, and Ralph Seelke, "Explore Evolution: Stephen C. Meyer, Scott Minnich, Jonathan Moneymaker, Paul A. Nelson, and Ralph Seelke, "Explore Evolution: The Arguments for and Against Neo-Darwinism", Hill House Publishers Pty. Ltd., Melbourne and London, 2007, ISBN 0947352473.] [ [http://www.exploreevolution.com/about_the_authors.php "About the Authors"] , [http://www.exploreevolution.com/ Explore Evolution official website] ] [http://www.worldmag.com/articles/13142 "When the Base Cracks: Teach the Controversy"] , Mark Bergin, World Magazine, July 21, 2007.]
William A. Dembskiand Jonathan Wells rewrote " Of Pandas and People" as a college textbook, " The Design of Life". [ William A. Dembskiand Jonathan Wells, "The Design of Life", Foundation for Thought and Ethics, to appear, fall 2007.] When asked in a December interview whether his research concluded that God is the Intelligent Designer, Dembski stated "I believe God created the world for a purpose. The Designer of intelligent design is, ultimately, the Christian God."cite web |url=http://www.citizenlink.org/content/A000006139.cfm |title=CitizenLink: Friday Five: William A. Dembski |accessdate=2007-12-15 |author=Devon Williams |date=2007-12-14 |publisher=Focus on the Family, a California non profit religious corporation ]
*April, 2008, the pro-intelligent design movie is debuted.
Freiler v. Tangipahoa Parish Board of Education
Selman v. Cobb County School District
* [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/5359_71_miller_1999_iof_panda_12_6_2004.asp 7.1. Miller, Kenneth R., (1999) Of Pandas and People: A Brief Review]
* [http://www.talkdesign.org/faqs/naturalism.html A Philosophical Premise of 'Naturalism'?] by Mark Isaak 2002
* [http://www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk/dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Catalano/box/behe.shtml Behe's empty box] on
Richard Dawkins' site, Last Updated: Wednesday, November 28, 2001
** [http://www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk/dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Catalano/box/anselm.shtml Anselm Atkins on Behe] : letter to a friend on "Black Box".
* [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/articles/2280_issue_04_volume_2_number_2__2_27_2003.asp#Creationist%20Misunderstanding, Creation/Evolution Issue 04 (Volume 2, Number 2 - Spring 1981)] ,
National Center for Science Education
* [http://www.ncseweb.org/resources/rncse_content/vol17/7685_history_forum_addresses_creati_12_30_1899.asp History Forum Addresses Creation/Evolution Controversy] – development of creationism in early 20th century etc
* [http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/354/21/2277 NEJM – Intelligent Judging — Evolution in the Classroom and the Courtroom] , George J. Annas, J.D., M.P.H., "The New England Journal of Medicine" Volume 354:2277-2281, May 25, 2006, Number 21.
* [http://www.researchintelligentdesign.org/wiki/Intelligent_Design_Timeline Intelligent design timeline] , ResearchID.org, a pro-intelligent design wiki
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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