Hafsid dynasty


Hafsid dynasty

Hafsid was a dynasty ruling Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia) from 1229 to 1574.

History

After the split of the Hafsids from the Almohads under Abu Zakariya (1229-1249), Abu Zakariya organised the administration in Ifriqiya (the Roman province of Africa in modern Maghreb; today's Tunisia, eastern Algeria and western Libya) and built Tunis up as the economic and cultural centre of the empire. At the same time, many Muslims from Andalucia fleeing the Spanish "Reconquista" of Castile and Aragon were absorbed. His successor Muhammad I al-Mustansir (1249-1277) took the title of "caliph".

In the 14th century the empire underwent a temporary decline. Although the Hafsids succeeded for a time in subjugating the empire of the Abdalwids of Tlemcen for a time, but between 1347 and 1357 it was twice conquered by the Merinids in Morocco. These however could not defeat the Bedouin, so that the Hafsids were able to regain their empire. As at the same time epidemics of plague caused a considerable fall in population, the rule of the Hafsids was weakened further.

Under the Hafsids, piracy against Christian shipping grew stronger in the 14th century, particularly under Abd al-Aziz II (1394-1434). The profits were used for a great building programme and for the support of art and culture. However piracy also provoked retaliation from Aragon and Venice, which several times attacked Tunisian coastal cities. Under Utman (1435-1488) the Hafsids reached their last zenith, as the caravan trade through the Sahara and with Egypt was developed, as well as sea trade with Venice and Aragon. The Bedouins and the cities of the empire became largely independent, so that the Hafsids controlled only Tunis and Constantine.

In the 16th century the Hafsids increasingly became caught up in the power struggle between Spain and the Ottoman Empire-supported Corsairs. The latter conquered Tunis in 1574 and toppled the Hafsids, who had at times accepted Spanish sovereignty over them.

Hafsid rulers

*Abd al-Wahid (1207-1216)
*Abd-Allah (1224-1229)
*Abu Zakariya (1229-1249)
*Muhammad I al-Mustansir (1249-1277)
*Yahya II al-Watiq (1277-1279)
*Ibrahim I (1279-1283)
*Ibn Abi Umara (1283-1284)
*Abu Hafs Umar I (1284-1295)
*Muhammad I (1295-1309)
*Abu Bakr I (1309)
*Aba al-Baqa Khalid an-Nasir (1309-1311)
*Aba Yahya Zakariya al-Lihyani (1311-1317)
*Muhammad II (1317-1318)
*Abu Bakr II (1318-1346)
*Abu Hafs Umar II (1346-1349)
*Ahmad I (1349)
*Ishaq II (1350-1369)
*Abu al-Baqa Khalid (1369-1371)
*Ahmad II (1371-1394)
*Abd al-Aziz II (1394-1434)
*Muhammad III (1434-1436)
*Uthman (1436-1488)
*Abu Zakariya Yahya (1488-1489)
*Abd al-Mu'min (Hafsid) (1489-1490)
*Abu Yahya Zakariya (1490-1494)
*Muhammad IV (1494–1526)
*Muhammad V (1526-1543)
*Ahmad III (1543–1570)
*Muhammad VI (1574-1574)


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