Basalawarmi


Basalawarmi

Basalawarmi (died January 6 1382), commonly known by his hereditary title, the Prince of Liang, was a descendant of Kublai Khan and a Yuan Dynasty loyalist who fought against the ascendant Ming Dynasty in China.

Before the fall of the Yuan

Before the Yuan Dynasty's fall in 1368, Basalawarmi had been the Yuan Viceroy of Yunnan, a province in southwestern China; his governorship also extended over some parts of modern-day Guizhou. He held the title of Prince of Liang, a hereditary title passed down from one of his forebears, a son of Kublai Khan.cite journal | last=Parker | first=E. H. | title=The Old Thai or Shan Empire of Western Yunnan | journal=The China Review | volume = 20.6 | year=1893 | pages=p. 345 | url=http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/26/2600224.pdf] Following the Ming Dynasty's overthrow of the Yuan, from his capital city of Kunming, Basalawarmi began leading one of the last pockets of Mongol resistance to Ming rule in China.

Defeat and death

The Hongwu Emperor initially sent a diplomat, Wang Wei, to attempt to negotiate with Basalawarmi in 1372, but Basalawarmi executed Wang Wei in 1374 after negotiations broke down. The Hongwu Emperor then dispatched the generals Fu Youde and Ma Hua to deal with Basalawarmi. In 1381, Ma Hua attacked Basalawarmi from Guiyang while Fu Youde's deputies, Mu Ying and Lan Yu, attacked from another direction. The combined Ming forces, which numbered 300,000 men, met Basalawarmi's 100,000 units. Basalawarmi's forces were decisively defeated. Following his defeat, Basalawarmi drowned his wife, ordered his ministers to commit suicide, and committed suicide himself on January 6, 1382. [cite book | author=Twitchett, Denis, and John K. Fairbank | title=The Cambridge History of China | publisher=Cambridge University Press | date=2004 | pages=vol. 7, p. 25, 143-146] cite book | last=Crossley | first=Pamela | authorlink=Pamela Crossley | coauthors=Helen F. Siu, and Donald S. Sutton | title=Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China | publisher=University of California Press | date=2006 | pages=p. 143] cite book | author=Dillon, Michael | title=China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement, and Sects | publisher=Curzon Press | date=1999 | pages=p. 34]

Zheng He

Zheng He, the renowned Ming eunuch admiral and head of the Ming "treasure fleet", would rise to his position indirectly because of Basalawarmi's resistance to the Ming. Zheng He was born in Yunnan in 1371 while Basalawarmi ruled the province. The Ming army that had been sent to deal with Basalawarmi captured and castrated Zheng He at the age of 11 and brought him to the Ming imperial court. [cite web | title=Chronology of Zheng He: His Life and Voyages and Related Events | url=http://www.chengho.org/aboutus.htm | publisher=International Zheng He Society | date=2006-09-25 | accessdate=2007-06-13 | quote=1382 15th yr Hongwu: Ma He’s father, Ma Haji, passed away. Ming army occupied Yunnan and defeated the remnants of Yuan forces led by prince of Liang. Ma He aged 11 was captured and castrated.]

Mythical account

In "The Deer and the Cauldron", a novel written by Jin Yong, the main character retells a humorous mythical account of Basalawarmi's defeat. In this legend, Basalawarmi is said to have hundreds of war elephants, obtained from what is now modern-day Myanmar, in his army. The Ming general Ma Hua defeats Basalawarmi by unleashing ten thousand mice which drive Basalawarmi's war elephants to terror, alluding to the widespread myth that elephants are afraid of mice. Basalawarmi himself is not presented favorably; he is described as a drunken, fat, and cowardly old man.

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ming conquest of Yunnan — Date 1381 1382 Location Yunnan Result Ming victory …   Wikipedia

  • Zheng He — Not to be confused with Zhang He, the Three Kingdoms general. Zheng He Statue from a modern monument to Zheng He at the Stadthuys Museum in Malacca Town, Malaysia. Born 1371 Yunnan, China …   Wikipedia

  • Ukhaantu Khan, Emperor Huizong of Yuan — Emperor Huizong of Yuan (Chinese: 元惠宗, 1320 1370), also known as Ukhaantu Khan (Classical Mongolian: IPA|Uqaɤantu qaɤan; Khalkha Mongolian: Ухаант хаан Uhaant haan ), born Toghun Temür, was the Emperor of China and ruled as Emperor or Khaan of… …   Wikipedia

  • King of Liang — The King of Liang or Prince of Liang is the English translation of several different titles, applied to different regions and during different eras, in ancient China.King of Liang (Henan and Shanxi, Zhou and Han Dynasties)Liang is the eastern… …   Wikipedia

  • Yuan Dynasty — Great Yuan 大元 Dai Ön Ulus ← …   Wikipedia

  • CN-53 — 云南省 Yúnnán Shěng Abkürzung: 滇 (Pinyin: Diān) Hauptstadt Kunming Fläche   Gesamt   Anteil an der VR China Rang 8 von 33 394 000 km² 4,11 %   …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Junnan — 云南省 Yúnnán Shěng Abkürzung: 滇 (Pinyin: Diān) Hauptstadt Kunming Fläche   Gesamt   Anteil an der VR China Rang 8 von 33 394 000 km² 4,11 %   …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jünnan — 云南省 Yúnnán Shěng Abkürzung: 滇 (Pinyin: Diān) Hauptstadt Kunming Fläche   Gesamt   Anteil an der VR China Rang 8 von 33 394 000 km² 4,11 %   …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Yun-Nan — 云南省 Yúnnán Shěng Abkürzung: 滇 (Pinyin: Diān) Hauptstadt Kunming Fläche   Gesamt   Anteil an der VR China Rang 8 von 33 394 000 km² 4,11 %   …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Yunnan — 云南省 Yúnnán Shěng Abkürzung: 滇 (Pinyin: Diān) Hauptstadt Kunming Fläche   Gesamt   Anteil an der VR China Rang 8 von 33 394.100 km² …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.