- Jinmeiyō kanji
The jinmeiyō kanji (人名用漢字, lit. Chinese characters for use in personal names) are a set of 861 Chinese characters known as the "name kanji" in English. They are a supplementary set of characters that can be legally used in registered personal names in Japan, despite not being in that country's set of "commonly used characters" (jōyō kanji). As a rule, registered personal names may contain only jōyō kanji, jinmeiyō kanji, katakana and hiragana. Jinmeiyō Kanji is sometimes used to mean only the 861 characters, or to mean the 2997 characters in both the Jinmeiyō and Jōyō sets. All characters outside the Jinmeiyō list in the large sense (2997 characters) are known as Hyōgaiji.
A ministerial decree of 1946 limited the number of officially sanctioned kanji for public use to the 1850 tōyō kanji. Only kanji on this list were acceptable as registered names, despite the fact that the list excluded many kanji frequently used in names up to that point. However, on May 25, 1951, the cabinet extended the set of characters usable in names by specifying the first 90 jinmeiyō kanji.
Over the years, the Minister of Justice has increased the number of name kanji, and has a plan for further addition in response to requests from parents. As of April 30, 2009, there were 985 jinmeiyō kanji, but this number was reduced to 861 in late 2010 when 124 jinmeiyō characters were transferred to the jōyō kanji list.
Before September 27, 2004, there were 2232 government-designated jinmeiyō kanji used in personal and geographical names, with plans to increase this list by 578 kanji in the near future. This was the largest increase since World War II. The plan had not been without controversy, however. For example, the Chinese characters for "cancer", "hemorrhoids", "corpse" and "excrement", as well as parts of compound words (words created from two or more Chinese characters) meaning "curse", "prostitute", and "rape", are among the proposed additions to the list. This is because no measures were taken to determine the appropriateness of the kanji proposed, with the committee deciding that parents could make such decisions themselves. However, the government will seek input from the public before approving the list. Some of these kanji have led to speculation that the "odd" kanji being added to the names list are being done so in an attempt to make a de-facto expansion of the Jōyō Kanji List, rather than with the serious idea that anyone will use them in names. The idea of reducing the number of kanji in use has been a politically contentious issue, with many believing that kanji are culturally Japanese and that people should use them frequently.
- 1 List of the jinmeiyō kanji (人名用漢字別表)
- 2 List of the traditional kanji tolerated in names
- 3 See also
- 4 External links
- 5 References
List of the jinmeiyō kanji (人名用漢字別表)
Separated by year of introduction.
May 25, 1951
First 92 characters of jinmeiyō kanji were published:
丑 丞 乃 之 也 亘 亥 亦 亨 亮 伊 匡 卯 只 吾 呂 哉 嘉 圭 奈 宏 寅 巌 巳 庄 弘 弥 彦 悌 敦 昌 晃 晋 智 暢 朋 桂 桐 楠 橘 欣 欽 毅 浩 淳 熊 爾 猪 玲 琢 瑞 睦 磯 祐 禄 禎 稔 穣 綾 惣 聡 肇 胤 艶 蔦 藤 蘭 虎 蝶 輔 辰 郁 酉 錦 鎌 靖 須 馨 駒 鯉 鯛 鶴 鹿 麿 亀
Seven of them were later transferred to the jōyō kanji: 仙 尚 杉 甚 磨 斉 龍, the last one becoming 竜 (dragon).
July 30, 1976
28 kanji were added, for a total of 120 characters.
佑 允 冴 喬 怜 旭 杏 梓 梢 梨 沙 渚 瑠 瞳 紗 紘 絢 翠 耶 芙 茜 藍 那 阿 隼 鮎 葵
One was later transferred to the jōyō kanji: 悠.
October 1, 1981
Introduction of the jōyō kanji list, which includes the 8 characters mentioned above; those 8 are thus deleted from the jinmeyō kanji list. 54 other characters are added for a total of 166 name characters.
伍 伶 侑 尭 孟 峻 嵩 嶺 巴 彬 惇 惟 慧 斐 旦 昂 李 栗 楓 槙 汐 洵 洸 渥 瑛 瑶 璃 甫 皓 眸 矩 碧 笹 緋 翔 脩 苑 茉 莉 萌 萩 蓉 蕗 虹 諒 赳 迪 遥 遼 霞 頌 駿 鳩 鷹
March 1, 1990
118 kanji were added for a total of 284 characters.
伎 伽 侃 倖 倭 偲 冶 凌 凜 凪 捺 於 旺 昴 晏 晟 晨 暉 曙 朔 凱 勁 叡 叶 唄 啄 奎 媛 嬉 宥 崚 嵐 嵯 巽 彗 彪 恕 憧 拳 捷 杜 柊 柚 柾 栞 梧 椋 椎 椰 椿 楊 榛 槻 樺 檀 毬 汀 汰 洲 湧 滉 漱 澪 熙 燎 燦 燿 爽 玖 琳 瑚 瑳 皐 眉 瞭 碩 秦 稀 稜 竣 笙 紬 絃 綜 綸 綺 耀 胡 舜 芹 茄 茅 莞 菖 菫 蒔 蒼 蓮 蕉 衿 袈 裟 詢 誼 諄 邑 醇 采 雛 鞠 颯 魁 鳳 鴻 鵬 麟 黎 黛
December 3, 1997
1 kanji was added, for a total of 285 characters.
February 23, 2004
1 kanji was added, for a total of 286 characters.
June 7, 2004
1 kanji was added, for a total of 287 characters.
June 11, 2004
No addition to the jinmeiyō kanji was made on this date. However, a plan for 578 additions was put forward to the council on jinmeiyō kanji of the legislative council of the Ministry of Justice. The list included certain characters in strong demand by parents for use in their children's names, such as:
- 苺 (ichigo, "strawberry")
- 遙 (haruka, "distant", traditional variant)
- 煌 (akira, "scintillating")
- 牙 (kiba, "fang")
Many others were included not for their potential uses in names (as is noted), but rather because of their frequent use and are easy to read and write. Examples include:
- 糞 (kuso, "excrement")
- 呪 (noroi, "curse")
- 屍 (shikabane, "corpse")
- 癌 (gan, "cancer")
At this same council, the decision was made to call for suggestions on characters to be included or excluded via the Ministry of Justice website, until July 9, 2004.
July 12, 2004
3 kanji were added, for a total of 290 characters.
毘 瀧 駕
July 23, 2004
No additions were made. After sharp protests, the council decided to withdraw nine characters from the 489 whose inclusion had been discussed. These nine characters were:
- 糞 (see above)
- 呪 (see above)
- 屍 (see above)
- 癌 (see above)
- 姦 (kashimashii, "rape, seduction")
- 淫 (midara, "obscene")
- 怨 (urami, "resentment")
- 痔 (ji, "hemorrhoids")
- 妾 (mekake, "concubine")
The 480 other characters still remained under consideration for inclusion, with one additional character added to them, namely 掬 (kiku, "to draw up water with one's hands").
September 27, 2004
484 characters and variant forms of 209 jōyō kanji were added, bringing the total number of the jinmeiyō kanji to 983.
April 30, 2009
2 more characters for a total number of 985 characters.
November 30, 2010
In late 2010, the Japanese government added 196 characters to the jōyō kanji list. The list now includes 129 characters previously classified as jinmeiyō kanji, 11 of which are currently used in Japanese prefectures or nearby countries:
- 茨 (ibara in 茨城県 Ibaraki Prefecture)
- 媛 (hime in 愛媛県, Ehime Prefecture)
- 岡 (oka in 静岡県, Shizuoka Prefecture)
- 韓 (kan in 韓国, South Korea)
- 熊 (kuma in 熊本, Kumamoto)
- 埼 (sai in 埼玉県, Saitama Prefecture)
- 栃 (tochi in 栃木県 Tochigi Prefecture)
- 奈 (na in 奈良, Nara)
- 梨 (nashi in 山梨県 Yamanashi Prefecture)
- 阪 (saka in 大阪, Osaka)
- 阜 (fu in 岐阜県, Gifu Prefecture)
At the same time, 5 characters deleted from the jōyō kanji list were added to the jinmeiyō kanji list:
- 勺 (shaku, an old unit of measure approx. 18ml in volume, or 0.033m² in area)
- 錘 (sui or tsumu, a spindle or weight)
- 銑 (sen, pig iron)
- 脹 (chō or fuku[reru], to swell or bulge; mostly used in the compound 膨脹, normally rewritten with 張 instead)
- 匁 (momme, a unit of weight approx 3.75g)
List of the traditional kanji tolerated in names
List of characters tolerated in names. The majority are versions that are not simplified (thus antiquated, kyūjitai) from those officially authorized. For more information, please refer to the Ministry of Justice Family Registry unified character information page (in Japanese).
The 631 jinmeiyō kanji
丑丞乃之乎也云亘些亦 亥亨亮仔伊伍伽佃佑伶 侃侑俄俠俣俐倭俱倦倖 偲傭儲允兎兜其冴凌凜 凧凪凰凱函劉劫勁勺勿
匁匡廿卜卯卿厨厩叉叡 叢叶只吾吞吻哉哨啄哩 喬喧喰喋嘩嘉嘗噌噂圃 圭坐尭坦埴堰堺堵塙壕 壬夷奄奎套娃姪姥娩嬉
孟宏宋宕宥寅寓寵尖尤 屑峨峻崚嵯嵩嶺巌已巳 巴巷巽帖幌幡庄庇庚庵 廟廻弘弛彗彦彪彬徠忽 怜恢恰恕悌惟惚悉惇惹
惺惣慧憐戊或戟托按挺 挽掬捲捷捺捧掠揃摑摺 撒撰撞播撫擢孜敦斐斡 斧斯於旭昂昊昏昌昴晏 晃晒晋晟晦晨智暉暢曙
曝曳朋朔杏杖杜李杭杵 杷枇柑柴柘柊柏柾柚桧 栞桔桂栖桐栗梧梓梢梛 梯桶梶椛梁棲椋椀楯楚 楕椿楠楓椰楢楊榎樺榊
榛槙槍槌樫槻樟樋橘樽 橙檎檀櫂櫛櫓欣欽歎此 殆毅毘毬汀汝汐汲沌沓 沫洸洲洵洛浩浬淵淳渚 淀淋渥湘湊湛溢滉溜漱
漕漣澪濡瀕灘灸灼烏焰 焚煌煤煉熙燕燎燦燭燿 爾牒牟牡牽犀狼猪獅玖 珂珈珊珀玲琢琉瑛琥琶 琵琳瑚瑞瑶瑳瓜瓢甥甫
畠畢疋疏皐皓眸瞥矩砦 砥砧硯碓碗碩碧磐磯祇 祢祐祷禄禎禽禾秦秤稀 稔稟稜穣穹穿窄窪窺竣 竪竺竿笈笹笙笠筈筑箕
箔篇篠簞簾籾粥粟糊紘 紗紐絃紬絆絢綺綜綴緋 綾綸縞徽繫繡纂纏羚翔 翠耀而耶耽聡肇肋肴胤 胡脩腔脹膏臥舜舵芥芹
芭芙芦苑茄苔苺茅茉茸 茜莞荻莫莉菅菫菖萄菩 萌萊菱葦葵萱葺萩董葡 蓑蒔蒐蒼蒲蒙蓉蓮蔭蔣 蔦蓬蔓蕎蕨蕉蕃蕪薙蕾
蕗藁薩蘇蘭蝦蝶螺蟬蟹 蠟衿袈袴裡裟裳襖訊訣 註詢詫誼諏諄諒謂諺讃 豹貰賑赳跨蹄蹟輔輯輿 轟辰辻迂迄辿迪迦這逞
逗逢遥遁遼邑祁郁鄭酉 醇醐醍醬釉釘釧銑鋒鋸 錘錐錆錫鍬鎧閃閏閤阿 陀隈隼雀雁雛雫霞靖鞄 鞍鞘鞠鞭頁頌頗顚颯饗
馨馴馳駕駿驍魁魯鮎鯉 鯛鰯鱒鱗鳩鳶鳳鴨鴻鵜 鵬鷗鷲鷺鷹麒麟麿黎黛 鼎
Traditional variants of jōyō kanji (212)
亞(亜) 惡(悪) 爲(為) 逸(逸) 榮(栄) 衞(衛) 謁(謁) 圓(円) 緣(縁) 薗(園) 應(応) 櫻(桜) 奧(奥) 橫(横) 溫(温)
價(価) 禍(禍) 悔(悔) 海(海) 壞(壊) 懷(懐) 樂(楽) 渴(渇) 卷(巻) 陷(陥) 寬(寛) 漢(漢) 氣(気) 祈(祈) 器(器)
僞(偽) 戲(戯) 虛(虚) 峽(峡) 狹(狭) 響(響) 曉(暁) 勤(勤) 謹(謹) 駈(駆) 勳(勲) 薰(薫) 惠(恵) 揭(掲) 鷄(鶏)
藝(芸) 擊(撃) 縣(県) 儉(倹) 劍(剣) 險(険) 圈(圏) 檢(検) 顯(顕) 驗(験) 嚴(厳) 廣(広) 恆(恒) 黃(黄) 國(国)
黑(黒) 穀(穀) 碎(砕) 雜(雑) 祉(祉) 視(視) 兒(児) 濕(湿) 實(実) 社(社) 者(者) 煮(煮) 壽(寿) 收(収) 臭(臭)
從(従) 澁(渋) 獸(獣) 縱(縦) 祝(祝) 暑(暑) 署(署) 緖(緒) 諸(諸) 敍(叙) 將(将) 祥(祥) 涉(渉) 燒(焼) 奬(奨)
條(条) 狀(状) 乘(乗) 淨(浄) 剩(剰) 疊(畳) 孃(嬢) 讓(譲) 釀(醸) 神(神) 眞(真) 寢(寝) 愼(慎) 盡(尽) 粹(粋)
醉(酔) 穗(穂) 瀨(瀬) 齊(斉) 靜(静) 攝(摂) 節(節) 專(専) 戰(戦) 纖(繊) 禪(禅) 祖(祖) 壯(壮) 爭(争) 莊(荘)
搜(捜) 巢(巣) 曾(曽) 裝(装) 僧(僧) 層(層) 瘦(痩) 騷(騒) 增(増) 憎(憎) 藏(蔵) 贈(贈) 臟(臓) 卽(即) 帶(帯)
滯(滞) 瀧(滝) 單(単) 嘆(嘆) 團(団) 彈(弾) 晝(昼) 鑄(鋳) 著(著) 廳(庁) 徵(徴) 聽(聴) 懲(懲) 鎭(鎮) 轉(転)
傳(伝) 都(都) 嶋(島) 燈(灯) 盜(盗) 稻(稲) 德(徳) 突(突) 難(難) 拜(拝) 盃(杯) 賣(売) 梅(梅) 髮(髪) 拔(抜)
繁(繁) 晚(晩) 卑(卑) 祕(秘) 碑(碑) 賓(賓) 敏(敏) 冨(富) 侮(侮) 福(福) 拂(払) 佛(仏) 勉(勉) 步(歩) 峯(峰)
墨(墨) 飜(翻) 每(毎) 萬(万) 默(黙) 埜(野) 彌(弥) 藥(薬) 與(与) 搖(揺) 樣(様) 謠(謡) 來(来) 賴(頼) 覽(覧)
欄(欄) 龍(竜) 虜(虜) 凉(涼) 綠(緑) 淚(涙) 壘(塁) 類(類) 禮(礼) 曆(暦) 歷(歴) 練(練) 鍊(錬) 郞(郎) 朗(朗)
Traditional variants of jinmeiyō kanji (18)
亙（亘） 凛（凜）堯（尭）巖（巌）晄（晃）檜（桧）槇（槙）渚（渚）猪（猪）琢（琢）禰（祢）祐（祐）禱（祷）祿（禄）禎（禎） 穰（穣） 萠（萌） 遙（遥）
- Inmyongyong chuga hanjapyo
- List of Jōyō Kanji (Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs)
- List of Jinmeiyō Kanji (Japanese Ministry of Justice)
- ^ Akihiko Shiraishi, 「柿」など９字追加、「鷹」は選外 新常用漢字の修正案 ("New draft table adds 196 everyday-use kanji") in Asahi Shimbun, 23 October 2009, retrieved 25 October 2009.
- ^ Japan Times, Get set for next year's overhaul of official kanji, 21 October 2009, retrieved 27 February 2010.
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