- List of scientists opposing the mainstream scientific assessment of global warming
This is a list of scientists who have made statements that conflict with the mainstream scientific understanding of global warming as summarized by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and endorsed by other scientific bodies.
The listed notable scientists have made statements since the publication of the Third Assessment Report which disagree with one or more of the principal conclusions of the IPCC. Each scientist has published at least one peer-reviewed article in the natural sciences. The article need not have been written in recent years nor be in a field relevant to climate. She or he has made an attributable statement of disagreement in some forum (and is not merely included on a petition, survey, or list).
Climate scientists agree that the global average surface temperature has risen over the last century. The scientific consensus and scientific opinion on climate change were summarized in the 2001 Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main conclusions on global warming were as follows:
- The global average surface temperature has risen 0.6 ± 0.2 °C since the late 19th century, and 0.17 °C per decade in the last 30 years.
- "There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities", in particular emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane.
- If greenhouse gas emissions continue the warming will also continue, with temperatures projected to increase by 1.4 °C to 5.8 °C between 1990 and 2100.[A] Accompanying this temperature increase will be increases in some types of extreme weather and a projected sea level rise. On balance the impacts of global warming will be significantly negative, especially for larger values of warming.
Scientists questioning the accuracy of IPCC climate projections
Scientists in this section have made comments that it is not possible to project global climate accurately enough to justify the ranges projected for temperature and sea-level rise over the next century. They may not conclude specifically that the current IPCC projections are either too high or too low, but that the projections are likely to be inaccurate due to inadequacies of current global climate modeling. Their views on climate change are usually described in more detail in their biographical articles.
- Freeman Dyson, Professor Emeritus of the School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study; Fellow of the Royal Society: "First, the computer models are very good at solving the equations of fluid dynamics but very bad at describing the real world. The real world is full of things like clouds and vegetation and soil and dust which the models describe very poorly. Second, we do not know whether the recent changes in climate are on balance doing more harm than good. The strongest warming is in cold places like Greenland. More people die from cold in winter than die from heat in summer. Third, there are many other causes of climate change besides human activities, as we know from studying the past. Fourth, the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is strongly coupled with other carbon reservoirs in the biosphere, vegetation and top-soil, which are as large or larger. It is misleading to consider only the atmosphere and ocean, as the climate models do, and ignore the other reservoirs. Fifth, the biological effects of CO2 in the atmosphere are beneficial, both to food crops and to natural vegetation. The biological effects are better known and probably more important than the climatic effects. Sixth, summing up the other five reasons, the climate of the earth is an immensely complicated system and nobody is close to understanding it."
- For more information on Dyson's views on this topic, see Dyson on global warming
- Richard Lindzen, Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Atmospheric Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and member of the National Academy of Sciences:"We are quite confident (1) that global mean temperature is about 0.5 °C higher than it was a century ago; (2) that atmospheric levels of CO2 have risen over the past two centuries; and (3) that CO2 is a greenhouse gas whose increase is likely to warm the earth (one of many, the most important being water vapor and clouds). But – and I cannot stress this enough – we are not in a position to confidently attribute past climate change to CO2 or to forecast what the climate will be in the future.". "[T]here has been no question whatsoever that CO2 is an infrared absorber (i.e., a greenhouse gas – albeit a minor one), and its increase should theoretically contribute to warming. Indeed, if all else were kept equal, the increase in CO2 should have led to somewhat more warming than has been observed."
- Garth Paltridge, Visiting Fellow ANU and retired Chief Research Scientist, CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research and retired Director of the Institute of the Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre: "There are good and straightforward scientific reasons to believe that the burning of fossil fuel and consequent increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide will lead to an increase in the average temperature of the world above that which would otherwise be the case. Whether the increase will be large enough to be noticeable is still an unanswered question."
- Hendrik Tennekes, retired Director of Research, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute: "The blind adherence to the harebrained idea that climate models can generate 'realistic' simulations of climate is the principal reason why I remain a climate skeptic."
- Antonino Zichichi, emeritus professor of nuclear physics at the University of Bologna and president of the World Federation of Scientists:"Models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are incoherent and invalid from a scientific point of view".
Scientists arguing that global warming is primarily caused by natural processes
Scientists in this section have made comments that the observed warming is more likely attributable to natural causes than to human activities. Their views on climate change are usually described in more detail in their biographical articles.
- Khabibullo Abdusamatov, mathematician and astronomer at Pulkovo Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences:"Global warming results not from the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, but from an unusually high level of solar radiation and a lengthy – almost throughout the last century – growth in its intensity."
- Sallie Baliunas, astronomer, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics:"Most of the increase in the air's concentration of greenhouse gases from human activities--over 80 percent--occurred after the 1940s. That means that the strong early 20th century warming must be largely, if not entirely, natural.""The coincident changes in the sun's changing energy output and temperature records on earth tend to argue that the sun has driven a major portion of the 20th century temperature change." "[T]he recent warming trend in the surface temperature record cannot be caused by the increase of human-made greenhouse gases in the air."[not in citation given]
- George V. Chilingar, Professor of Civil and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Southern California:"The authors identify and describe the following global forces of nature driving the Earth’s climate: (1) solar radiation ..., (2) outgassing as a major supplier of gases to the World Ocean and the atmosphere, and, possibly, (3) microbial activities ... . The writers provide quantitative estimates of the scope and extent of their corresponding effects on the Earth’s climate [and] show that the human-induced climatic changes are negligible."
- Ian Clark, hydrogeologist, professor, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa:"That portion of the scientific community that attributes climate warming to CO2 relies on the hypothesis that increasing CO2, which is in fact a minor greenhouse gas, triggers a much larger water vapour response to warm the atmosphere. This mechanism has never been tested scientifically beyond the mathematical models that predict extensive warming, and are confounded by the complexity of cloud formation – which has a cooling effect. ... We know that [the sun] was responsible for climate change in the past, and so is clearly going to play the lead role in present and future climate change. And interestingly... solar activity has recently begun a downward cycle."
- Chris de Freitas, Associate Professor, School of Geography, Geology and Environmental Science, University of Auckland:"There is evidence of global warming. ... But warming does not confirm that carbon dioxide is causing it. Climate is always warming or cooling. There are natural variability theories of warming. To support the argument that carbon dioxide is causing it, the evidence would have to distinguish between human-caused and natural warming. This has not been done."
- David Douglass, solid-state physicist, professor, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester:"The observed pattern of warming, comparing surface and atmospheric temperature trends, does not show the characteristic fingerprint associated with greenhouse warming. The inescapable conclusion is that the human contribution is not significant and that observed increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases make only a negligible contribution to climate warming."
- Don Easterbrook, emeritus professor of geology, Western Washington University:"Glaciers advanced from about 1890–1920, retreated rapidly from ~1925 to ~1945, readvanced from ~1945 to ~1977, and have been retreating since the present warm cycle began in 1977. ... Because the warming periods in these oscillations occurred well before atmospheric CO2 began to rise rapidly in the 1940s, they could not have been caused by increased atmospheric CO2, and global warming since 1900 could well have happened without any effect of CO2. If the cycles continue as in the past, the current warm cycle should end soon and global temperatures should cool slightly until about 2035, then warm about 0.5°C from ~2035 to ~2065, and cool slightly until 2100."
- William M. Gray, Professor Emeritus and head of The Tropical Meteorology Project, Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University:"This small warming is likely a result of the natural alterations in global ocean currents which are driven by ocean salinity variations. Ocean circulation variations are as yet little understood. Human kind has little or nothing to do with the recent temperature changes. We are not that influential." "I am of the opinion that [global warming] is one of the greatest hoaxes ever perpetrated on the American people."
- William Happer, physicist specializing in optics and spectroscopy, Princeton University:"All the evidence I see is that the current warming of the climate is just like past warmings. In fact, it's not as much as past warmings yet, and it probably has little to do with carbon dioxide, just like past warmings had little to do with carbon dioxide"
- William Kininmonth, meteorologist, former Australian delegate to World Meteorological Organization Commission for Climatology:"There has been a real climate change over the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries that can be attributed to natural phenomena. Natural variability of the climate system has been underestimated by IPCC and has, to now, dominated human influences."
- David Legates, associate professor of geography and director of the Center for Climatic Research, University of Delaware:"About half of the warming during the 20th century occurred prior to the 1940s, and natural variability accounts for all or nearly all of the warming." "Many records reveal that the 20th century is likely not the warmest nor a uniquely extreme climatic period of the last millennium, although it is clear that human activity has significantly impacted some local environments."
- Tad Murty, oceanographer; adjunct professor, Departments of Civil Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa:[Global warming] "is the biggest scientific hoax being perpetrated on humanity. There is no global warming due to human anthropogenic activities. The atmosphere hasn’t changed much in 280 million years, and there have always been cycles of warming and cooling. The Cretaceous period was the warmest on earth. You could have grown tomatoes at the North Pole"
- Tim Patterson, paleoclimatologist and Professor of Geology at Carleton University in Canada:"There is no meaningful correlation between CO2 levels and Earth's temperature over this [geologic] time frame. In fact, when CO2 levels were over ten times higher than they are now, about 450 million years ago, the planet was in the depths of the absolute coldest period in the last half billion years. On the basis of this evidence, how could anyone still believe that the recent relatively small increase in CO2 levels would be the major cause of the past century's modest warming?"
- Ian Plimer, Professor emeritus of Mining Geology, The University of Adelaide: "Natural climate changes occur unrelated to carbon dioxide contents. We've had many, many times in the recent past where we've rapidly gone into a greenhouse and the carbon dioxide content has been far, far lower than the current carbon dioxide content... It looks as if carbon dioxide actually follows climate change rather than drives it".
- Tom Segalstad, head of the Geology Museum at the University of Oslo:"The IPCC's temperature curve (the so-called 'hockey stick' curve) must be in error, because the Medieval warm period (the "Climate Optimum") and the Little Ice Age both are absent from their curve, on which the IPCC bases its future projections and recommended mitigation. All measurements of solar luminosity and 14C isotopes show that there is at present an increasing solar radiation which gives a warmer climate (Willson, R.C & Hudson, H.S. 1991: The Sun's luminosity over a complete solar cycle. Nature 351, 42-44; and Coffey, H.E., Erwin, E.H. & Hanchett, C.D.: Solar databases for global change models. www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/SOLAR/solarda3.html). Warmer climate was previously perceived as an optimum climate and not catastrophic. ... On a wet basis the Earth's atmosphere consists by mass of ~73.5% nitrogen, ~22.5% oxygen, ~2.7% water, and ~1.25% argon. CO2 in air is in minimal amount, ~0.05% by mass, and with minimal capacity (~2%) to influence the "Greenhouse Effect" compared to water vapor"
- Nicola Scafetta, research scientist in the physics department at Duke University:"At least 60% of the warming of the Earth observed since 1970 appears to be induced by natural cycles which are present in the solar system. A climatic stabilization or cooling until 2030–2040 is forecast by the phenomenological model."
- Nir Shaviv, astrophysicist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem:"[T]he truth is probably somewhere in between [the common view and that of skeptics], with natural causes probably being more important over the past century, whereas anthropogenic causes will probably be more dominant over the next century. ... [A]bout 2/3's (give or take a third or so) of the warming [over the past century] should be attributed to increased solar activity and the remaining to anthropogenic causes."
- Fred Singer, Professor emeritus of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia:"The greenhouse effect is real. However, the effect is minute, insignificant, and very difficult to detect." “It’s not automatically true that warming is bad, I happen to believe that warming is good, and so do many economists.”"The current warming cycle is not unusual. ... The Earth consistently goes through a climate cycle marked by alternating warmer and cooler periods over 1,500 years (plus or minus 500 years)."
- Willie Soon, astrophysicist, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Willie Soon has received over $1,000,000 from petroleum and coal interests since 2001. "[T]here's increasingly strong evidence that previous research conclusions, including those of the United Nations and the United States government concerning 20th century warming, may have been biased by underestimation of natural climate variations. The bottom line is that if these variations are indeed proven true, then, yes, natural climate fluctuations could be a dominant factor in the recent warming. In other words, natural factors could be more important than previously assumed."
- Roy Spencer, principal research scientist, University of Alabama in Huntsville:"I predict that in the coming years, there will be a growing realization among the global warming research community that most of the climate change we have observed is natural, and that mankind’s role is relatively minor".
- Philip Stott, professor emeritus of biogeography at the University of London:"...the myth is starting to implode. ... Serious new research at The Max Planck Society has indicated that the sun is a far more significant factor..."[dead link]
- Henrik Svensmark, Danish National Space Center:"Our team ... has discovered that the relatively few cosmic rays that reach sea-level play a big part in the everyday weather. They help to make low-level clouds, which largely regulate the Earth’s surface temperature. During the 20th Century the influx of cosmic rays decreased and the resulting reduction of cloudiness allowed the world to warm up. ... most of the warming during the 20th Century can be explained by a reduction in low cloud cover."
- Jan Veizer, environmental geochemist, Professor Emeritus from University of Ottawa:"At this stage, two scenarios of potential human impact on climate appear feasible: (1) the standard IPCC model ..., and (2) the alternative model that argues for celestial phenomena as the principal climate driver. ... Models and empirical observations are both indispensable tools of science, yet when discrepancies arise, observations should carry greater weight than theory. If so, the multitude of empirical observations favours celestial phenomena as the most important driver of terrestrial climate on most time scales, but time will be the final judge."
Scientists arguing that the cause of global warming is unknown
Scientists in this section have made comments that no principal cause can be ascribed to the observed rising temperatures, whether man-made or natural. Their views on climate change are usually described in more detail in their biographical articles.
- Syun-Ichi Akasofu, retired professor of geophysics and Founding Director of the International Arctic Research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks:"[T]he method of study adopted by the International Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) is fundamentally flawed, resulting in a baseless conclusion: Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. Contrary to this statement ..., there is so far no definitive evidence that 'most' of the present warming is due to the greenhouse effect. ... [The IPCC] should have recognized that the range of observed natural changes should not be ignored, and thus their conclusion should be very tentative. The term 'most' in their conclusion is baseless."
- Claude Allègre, geochemist, Institute of Geophysics (Paris):"The increase in the CO2 content of the atmosphere is an observed fact and mankind is most certainly responsible. In the long term, this increase will without doubt become harmful, but its exact role in the climate is less clear. Various parameters appear more important than CO2. Consider the water cycle and formation of various types of clouds, and the complex effects of industrial or agricultural dust. Or fluctuations of the intensity of the solar radiation on annual and century scale, which seem better correlated with heating effects than the variations of CO2 content."
- Robert C. Balling, Jr., a professor of geography at Arizona State University:"[I]t is very likely that the recent upward trend [in global surface temperature] is very real and that the upward signal is greater than any noise introduced from uncertainties in the record. However, the general error is most likely to be in the warming direction, with a maximum possible (though unlikely) value of 0.3 °C. ... At this moment in time we know only that: (1) Global surface temperatures have risen in recent decades. (2) Mid-tropospheric temperatures have warmed little over the same period. (3) This difference is not consistent with predictions from numerical climate models."
- John Christy, professor of atmospheric science and director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, contributor to several IPCC reports:"...I see neither the developing catastrophe nor the smoking gun proving that human activity is to blame for most of the warming we see. Rather, I see a reliance on climate models (useful but never "proof") and the coincidence that changes in carbon dioxide and global temperatures have loose similarity over time." "...the data show a small underlying positive trend that is consistent with CO2 climate forcing with no-feedback. ... The global warming hypothesis states that there are positive feedback processes leading to gains g that are larger than 1, perhaps as large as 3 or 4. However, recent studies suggest that the values of g is much smaller."
- Petr Chylek, Space and Remote Sensing Sciences researcher, Los Alamos National Laboratory: "Carbon dioxide should not be considered as a dominant force behind the current warming...how much of the [temperature] increase can be ascribed to CO2, to changes in solar activity, or to the natural variability of climate is uncertain"
- David Deming, geology professor at the University of Oklahoma:"The amount of climatic warming that has taken place in the past 150 years is poorly constrained, and its cause – human or natural – is unknown. There is no sound scientific basis for predicting future climate change with any degree of certainty. If the climate does warm, it is likely to be beneficial to humanity rather than harmful. In my opinion, it would be foolish to establish national energy policy on the basis of misinformation and irrational hysteria."
Scientists arguing that global warming will have few negative consequences
Scientists in this section have made comments that projected rising temperatures will be of little impact or a net positive for human society and/or the Earth's environment. Their views on climate change are usually described in more detail in their biographical articles.
- Ivar Giaever, Nobel Laureate in physics and professor emeritus at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: "In the APS it is ok to discuss whether the mass of the proton changes over time and how a multi-universe behaves, but the evidence of global warming is incontrovertible? The claim (how can you measure the average temperature of the whole earth for a whole year?) is that the temperature has changed from ~288.0 to ~288.8 degree Kelvin in about 150 years, which (if true) means to me is that the temperature has been amazingly stable, and both human health and happiness have definitely improved in this 'warming' period."   
- Craig D. Idso, faculty researcher, Office of Climatology, Arizona State University and founder of the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change:"The rising CO2 content of the air should boost global plant productivity dramatically, enabling humanity to increase food, fiber and timber production and thereby continue to feed, clothe, and provide shelter for their still-increasing numbers ... this atmospheric CO2-derived blessing is as sure as death and taxes." (May 2007)
- Sherwood Idso, former research physicist, USDA Water Conservation Laboratory, and adjunct professor, Arizona State University:"[W]arming has been shown to positively impact human health, while atmospheric CO2 enrichment has been shown to enhance the health-promoting properties of the food we eat, as well as stimulate the production of more of it. ... [W]e have nothing to fear from increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and global warming." (2003) "If strong positive feedbacks existed, the Earth would likely exhibit a radically unstable climate, significantly different from what has characterized the planet over the eons." The warming of the last hundred years is seen to be basically a recovery from the global chill of the Little Ice Age, which was a several-hundred-year period of significantly cooler temperatures than those of the present that persisted until the end of the nineteenth century."
- Patrick Michaels, Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute and retired research professor of environmental science at the University of Virginia:"Scientists know quite precisely how much the planet will warm in the foreseeable future, a modest three-quarters of a degree (Celsius), plus or minus a mere quarter-degree ... a modest warming is a likely benefit... human warming will be strongest and most obvious in very cold and dry air, such as in Siberia and northwestern North America in the dead of winter." (October 16, 2003)
The lists above only include living scientists. The following are deceased. Their views on climate change are usually described in more detail in their biographical articles.
- August H. "Augie" Auer Jr. (1940–2007), retired New Zealand MetService Meteorologist and past professor of atmospheric science at the University of Wyoming, believed that the cause of global warming was unknown: [Computer modeling results gave] "usually an envelope of figures, one which said the planet could warm 6 deg in the next 100 years and the other end of the envelope was perhaps half a deg in 100 years. And you know which one would be quoted" [in the media] ... "So if you multiply the total contribution 3.6 by the man-made portion of it, 3.2, you find out that the anthropogenic contribution of CO2 to the global greenhouse effect is 0.117 percent, roughly 0.12 percent, that's like 12c in $100." "'It's miniscule ... it's nothing,'".
- Reid Bryson (1920–2008), Emeritus Professor of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, believed global warming was primarily caused by natural processes:"It’s absurd. Of course it’s going up. It has gone up since the early 1800s, before the Industrial Revolution, because we’re coming out of the Little Ice Age, not because we’re putting more carbon dioxide into the air."
- Marcel Leroux (1938–2008) former Professor of Climatology, Université Jean Moulin, believed global warming was primarily caused by natural processes:"The possible causes, then, of climate change are: well-established orbital parameters on the palaeoclimatic scale, ... solar activity, ...; volcanism ...; and far at the rear, the greenhouse effect, and in particular that caused by water vapor, the extent of its influence being unknown. These factors are working together all the time, and it seems difficult to unravel the relative importance of their respective influences upon climatic evolution. Equally, it is tendentious to highlight the anthropic factor, which is, clearly, the least credible among all those previously mentioned."
- Frederick Seitz (1911–2008), solid-state physicist and former president of the National Academy of Sciences believed global warming was primarily caused by natural processes: "The first thing to note is that the 100 years of global warming occurred in two stages--a temperature rise of approximately a half-degree Fahrenheit early in the century from 1910 to 1940, and another half-degree temperature rise toward the end of the century in the 1980s and 1990s. Between these two periods of warming, from the 1940s to the 1970s, the Earth actually cooled somewhat. Greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide cannot cool the planet; they can only warm it... The fact that the cooling in the 1950s and 1960s is a feature of the temperature records of both hemispheres indicates that the absence of the predicted global warming cannot be due to aerosols."
- Scientific opinion on climate change
- Global warming controversy
- Global warming conspiracy theory
- Global warming alarmism
- Hockey stick controversy
- List of authors from the IPCC AR4 WGI report
- List of climate scientists
- Merchants of Doubt
- Oregon petition
- ^ In its 2007 assessment report, IPCC projected likely temperature rise for various hypothetical levels of future greenhouse gas emissions, known as "emissions scenarios". They reported that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C (2 to 5.2 °F) for the lowest emissions scenario used in the report, and 2.4 to 6.4 °C (4.3 to 11.5 °F) for the highest.
- ^ Anderegg, William R L; James W. Prall, Jacob Harold, and Stephen H. Schneider (2010). "Expert credibility in climate change". PNAS. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2010/06/04/1003187107.full.pdf+html. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- ^ Doran consensus article 2009
- ^ Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis p.5 – IPCC
- ^ Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis p.7 – IPCC
- ^ Climate Change 2001:Working Group I: The Scientific Basis p.8 – IPCC
- ^ Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability p.958 – IPCC
- ^ Freeman Dyson, in correspondence with editor Steve Connor (25 February 2011), "Letters to a heretic: An email conversation with climate change sceptic Professor Freeman Dyson", The Independent, http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/letters-to-a-heretic-an-email-conversation-with-climate-change-sceptic-professor-freeman-dyson-2224912.html
- ^ The Press Gets It Wrong Our report doesn't support the Kyoto treaty.[dead link] Lindzen, Richard Opinion Journal (The Wall Street Journal) June 2001
- ^ There is no consensus on Global Warming[dead link] appeared in The San Francisco Examiner July 2006 and in The Wall Street Journal, June 26, 2006, Page A14
- ^ The Climate Science Isn't Settled in The Wall Street Journal online, November 30, 2009.
- ^ Paltridge, FGarth (2009). the Climate Caper. Connor Court Publishing. ISBN 978-1-921421-25-9. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=FXNzPgAACAAJ&dq=climate+caper&ei=DCDQSuylA5-qkASewLz1DQ.
- ^ A Skeptical View of Climate Models[dead link] Tennekes, Hendrik from Science & Environmental Policy Project www.his.com/~sepp
- ^ Global Warming Natural, Says Expert Zenit April 2007
- ^ a b Dr. Roy W., Spencer (2010). The Great Global Warming Blunder. Encounter Books. ISBN 1594033730.
- ^ Roy Spencer. Global Warming 101
- ^ Russian academic says CO2 not to blame for global warming Russian News & Information Agency, January 2007
- ^ Russian scientist issues global cooling warning Russian News & Information Agency August 2006
- ^ http://www.ogoniok.com/4933/24/ Page in Russian, Go here  for a translation.
- ^ a b Sallie Baliunas. Warming Up to the Truth
- ^ Global Warming Science vs. Computer Model Speculation: Just Ask the Experts Capitalism Magazine, August 2002
- ^ L. F. Khilyuk1 and G. V. Chilingar (August 2006). On global forces of nature driving the Earth’s climate. Are humans involved?. 50. Environmental Geology.
- ^ Ian Clark (March 22, 2004). "Letter to the editor of The Hill Times". National Resources Stewardship Project. Archived from the original on February 10, 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090210070155/http://www.nrsp.com/clark_letter_22-03-04.html. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- ^ Chris de Freitas (May 9, 2006). "Chris de Freitas: Evidence must prevail". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on May 23, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060523043056/http://www.climatescience.org.nz/assets/2006510223000.CSC_News_3.PDF. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- ^ Phillip V Brennan (December 10, 2007). "New Study Explodes Human-Global Warming Story". Newsmax.com. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080511202654/http://www.newsmax.com/insidecover/global_warming/2007/12/10/55974.html. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- ^ The Cause of Global Warming and Predictions for the Coming Century Easterbrook, Don
- ^ Viewpoint: Get off warming bandwagon Gray, William BBC November 2000
- ^ The Tempest Achenbach, Joel The Washington Post May 2006
- ^ Raymond Brusca (January 12, 2009). "Professor denies global warming theory". http://www.dailyprincetonian.com/2009/01/12/22506/.
- ^ William Kininmonth, Climate Change: A Natural Hazard, archived from the original on August 28, 2007, http://web.archive.org/web/20070828232605/http://lavoisier.com.au/papers/articles/climatechange.pdf, retrieved August 26, 2011
- ^ Climate Science: Climate Change and Its Impacts[dead link] National Center for Policy Analysis May 2006
- ^ Legates, David R.; Soon, Willie; Baliunas, Sallie; Idso, Craig; Idso, Sherwood (2003). "Reconstructing climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years" (PDF). Energy & Environment 14: 233–296. doi:10.1260/095830503765184619. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.124.3216&rep=rep1&type=pdf. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- ^ Global warning? Controversy heats up in the scientific community[dead link] Robinson, Cindy Carleton University Spring 2005
- ^ Scientists respond to Gore's warnings of climate catastrophe Harris, Tom Canada Free Press June 2006
- ^ Read the Sunspots Patterson, Timothy Financial Post June 2007
- ^ Wild weather ignites climate change debate
- ^ Segalstad, Tom. "What is CO2 – friend or foe?". http://www.co2web.info/Segalstad_ISMA_CO2.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
- ^ Scafetta webpage
- ^ "Climate Change and Its Causes, A Discussion About Some Key Issues”
- ^ Carbon Dioxide or Solar Forcing? ScienceBits
- ^ Singer, S. Fred (April 22, 2005). "'Flat Earth Award' nominee's challenge to Chicken Littles". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0422/p08s01-coop.html.
- ^ a b Singer, S. Fred; Avery, Dennis T. (September 2005). "The Physical Evidence of Earth’s Unstoppable 1,500-Year Climate Cycle". National Center for Policy Analysis. http://www.ncpa.org/pdfs/st279.pdf.
- ^ The Denial Machine CBC's Denial machine @ 19:23 – Google Video Link
- ^ "US climate skeptic Soon funded by oil, coal firms". Reuters. 28 June 2011. http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFN1E75Q1ZO20110628. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- ^ William J Cromie (April 24, 2003). "Global warming is not so hot: 1003 was worse, researchers find". Harvard University Gazette. http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/2003/04.24/01-weather.html. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- ^  Testimony of Roy W. Spencer before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee on July 22, 2008
- ^ Essay 1: 'Global Warming' as Myth A Parliament of Things
- ^ Svensmark, Henrik (1998). "Influence of Cosmic Rays on Earth's Climate" (PDF). Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 (22): 5027–5030. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.5027. http://ruby.fgcu.edu/courses/twimberley/EnviroPhilo/InfluenceOf.pdf. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- ^ Celestial climate driver: a perspective from four billion years of the carbon cycle and here  In J. Veizer, , Geoscience Canada, March 2005
- ^ On the Fundamental Defect in the IPCC’s Approach to Global Warming Research[dead link] Climate Science: Roger Pielke Sr. Research Group Weblog, June 15, 2007
- ^ "Climat: la prévention, oui, la peur, non" (in French). L'Express. May 10, 2006. Archived from the original on November 17, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061117230538/http://www.lexpress.fr/idees/tribunes/dossier/allegre/dossier.asp?ida=452950. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- ^ The Increase in Global Temperature: What it Does and Does Not Tell Us Balling, Robert George C. Marshall Institute, Policy Outlook September 2003
- ^ Christy, John (2007-11-01). "My Nobel Moment". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB119387567378878423.html?mod=opinion_main_commentaries. Retrieved 2007-11-02.
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- ^ Petr Chylek (April 2002). "A Long Term Perspective on Climate Change". Heartland.org. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070929090808/http://downloads.heartland.org/2329bo.pdf. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
- ^ Testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works December 2006
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- ^ "Nobel Prize-Winning Physist Resigns Over Global Warming". Fox News. 2011-09-14. http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2011/09/14/nobel-prize-winning-physicist-resigns-from-top-physics-group-over-global/. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
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- Naomi Oreskes, Erik M. Conway (2010), "The Denial of Global Warming", Merchants of Doubt, Bloomsbury Publishing USA, pp. 169-215, ISBN 9781596916104
- Laurence Solomon (2010), The deniers, Richard Vigilante Books, ISBN 9780980076370
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- "Contrarian Scientists", The Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society, Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 151, ISBN 9780199566600
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) — Consensus, mainstream assessment of climate change
- Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) — Compilation of some non-consensus views and study references
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