- Antifascist Circle
The "Antifascist Circle" is a logo designed by [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Stepanowitsch_Tschachotin Sergei Tschachotin] - former assistant to the physiologist
Ivan Pavlov- in 1931 [Friedrich-Wilhelm Witt, "Die Hamburger Sozialdemokratie in der Weimarer Republik". Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Jahre 1929/30 - 1933" ("Hamburg Social Democracy in the Weimar Republic". With special consideration of the years 1929/30 - 1933"), Hannover 1971, p. 136, Sergei Tschachotin, "Dreipfeil gegen Hakenkreuz" ("Three Arrows Against the Swastika"), Kopenhagen 1933 (Source: Biography of S. Tschachotin) - Book was reviewed by Dieter Rebentisch in the periodical, "Archiv für Sozialgeschichte" ("Archives for Social History") #12 (1972), p. 679-???, ISSN 0066-6505] [Dr. Richard Albrecht, PhD., " [http://www.amazon.de/Dreipfeil-gegen-Hakenkreuz-Symbolkrieg-Deutschland/dp/3638389510/ “Dreipfeil gegen Hakenkreuz” - Symbolkrieg in Deutschland 1932] " ("“Three Arrows Against the Swastika” - symbol war in Germany 1932". Historical Case-Study in Anti-Nazi-Propaganda Within Germany and Western Europe, 1931-35"), pub. January 2005] for the 1930s German anti-fascist organization Iron Front. The logo (three arrows, pointing south-west/to the lower left inside a circle) was designed to be able to easily cover up Nazi swastikas. The meaning of the three arrows have been interpreted differently. One claim is that they stood for the opponents of the Iron Front and democracy: communism, monarchismand Nazism. Another claim is that they stand for the three columns of the German workers' movement: a party, a trade union and the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold.
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