- Brunello di Montalcino
Brunello di Montalcino ("brew NEL lo de mon tal CHEE no") is a red
Italian wineproduced in the vineyards surrounding the town of Montalcinolocated about convert|70|mi|km southwest of Florencein the Tuscany wineregion. Brunello, roughly translated as "nice dark one" in the local dialect, K. MacNeil "The Wine Bible" pg 382-384 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1563054345 ] is the unofficial name of the clone of Sangiovese(also known as "Sangiovese Grosso" J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 106-107 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906 ] ) grown in the Montalcino region. In 1980, the Brunello di Montalcino was awarded the first " Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita" (DOCG) designation and today is one of the Italy's best-known and most expensive wines. M. Ewing-Mulligan & E. McCarthy "Italian Wines for Dummies" pg 159-161 Hungry Minds 2001 ISBN 0764553550 ]
One of the first records of "Brunello" was a red wine that was made in the Montalcino area in the early 14th century. In 1831,
marchese Cosimo Ridolfi(who was later appointed Prime Minister of Tuscany by the Grand Duke Leopold II) praised the merits of the red wines of Montalcino above all others in Tuscany. In 1865, an agricultural fair in Montalcino noted that the prize winning wine of the event was a "select red wine" known as a Brunello. In the mid 1800s, a local farmer named Clemente Santiisolated certain plantings of Sangiovese vines in order to produce a 100% varietalwine that could be aged for a considerable period of time. In 1888, his grandson Ferruccio Biondi-Santi-a veteran soldier who fought under Giuseppe Garibaldiduring the "Risorgimento"-released the first "modern version" of "Brunello di Montalcino" that was aged for over a decade in large wood barrels. H. Johnson "Vintage: The Story of Wine" pg 423 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0671687026 ] H. Johnson & J. Robinson "The World Atlas of Wine" pg 179 Mitchell Beazley Publishing 2005 ISBN 1840003324 ]
By the end of
World War II, Brunello di Montalcino had developed a reputation as one of Italy's rarest wines. The only commercial producer recorded in government documents was the Biondi-Santifirm who had declared only four vintages up to that point-1888, 1891, 1925 and 1945. The high price and prestige of these wines soon encouraged other producers to emulate Biondi-Santi success. By the 1960s there were 11 producers making Brunello-a figure that would more than doubled to 25 by 1970 and again to 53 by 1980. In 1968, the region was granted "Denominazione di Origine Controllata" (DOC) status. Under the influence of Biondi-Santi, DOC regulations specified that Brunello di Montalcino was to be 100% Sangiovese. In years prior, many Brunello producers were blending Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlotand other grape varieties. In 1980, the Montalcino region was the first Italian wine region to be awarded "Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita" (DOCG) designation. By the turn of the 21st century, there were nearly 200 producers of Brunello di Montalcino, mostly small farmers and family estates, producing nearly 330,000 cases a year.
Climate and geography
Montalcino has one of the warmest and driest climates in
Tuscanywith the grapes in the area ripening up to a week earlier than in nearby Vino Nobile di Montepulcianoand Chianti Classico. It is the most arid Tuscan DOCG, receiving an average annual rainfall of around 28 inches (700 mm)-in contrast to the Chianti region which receives an average of 35 inches (900 mm). The northern slopes receive fewer hours of sunlight and are generally cooler than the southern slopes. Vineyards planted on the northern slopes ripen more slowly and tend to produce wines that are racier and more aromatic. Vineyards on the southern and western slopes receive more intense exposure to sunlight and more maritimewinds which produces wines with more power and complexity. The top producers in the area have vineyards on both slopes, and make use of a blend of both styles. Suckling, James. "Brunello di Montalcino: The Wines", "Wine Spectator", p.42, July 31, 2007 ]
The town of Montalcino is a small medieval village located about 1,850 feet (564 m) above sea level in the
province of Siena. The wine district is centered to the northeast of the village in densely wooden and hilly terrain. Monte Amiata, the highest peak in Tuscany, provides a sheltering influence from the southeast and tempers the region's climate and rainfall. Compared to the nearly 41,000 acres (16,592 ha) of planted land in Chianti, Montalcino is a relatively small wine region with around 3,000 acres (1,214 ha) planted. Vineyards in Montalcino are planted are varied soils-including limestone, clay, schist, volcanic soiland a crumbly marlknown as " galestro"-at altitudes ranging from 490ft (149 m) to 1,640 feet (500 m). This diversity in " terroir" contributes to the vast range in quality and potential complexity of Brunello di Montalcino.
Winemaking and regulations
Brunello di Montalcino is made 100% from Sangiovese. Traditionally, the wine goes through an extended maceration period where color and flavor are extracted from the skins. Following fermentation the wine is then aged in oak. Traditionally, the wines are aged 3 years or more "in botte"-large
Slovenian oak casks that impart little oak flavor and generally produce more austere wines. Some winemakers will use small French barriquewhich impart a more pronounced vanillaoak flavor and add a certain fruitiness to the wine. There is a middle ground where the wine is aged in small barrique for a short time and then spends a longer sojourn in the traditional botte.
Most producers will separate their production between a "normale" and "riserva" bottling. The "normale" bottles are released on the market 50 months after harvest and the "riserva" are released a year afterward. The current aging requirements were established in 1998 and dictate that Brunellos are to be aged in oak for 2 years and at least 4 months in a bottle before release. Winemakers who intentionally stray from these rules and regulations can possibly receive a conviction of commercial fraud accompanied by an imprisonment sentence of up to six years. [cite web | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/23/dining/23brunello.html | title='Bolt From the Blue' on a Tuscan Red | author=Povoledo, Elisabetta | publisher=New York Times |date=2008-04-23 |accessdate=2008-04-24]
In 2008, reports surfaced that Italian authorities are looking into claims that several major Brunello producers are adulterating their wines. The prosecutor handling the investigation has said he may bring commercial fraud charges that could result in imprisonment for the violators. In particular, the producers in question are suspected of adding wine made from non-approved grapes to their Brunello in order to make it more appealing to the international market. [cite news | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/23/dining/23brunello.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1&sq=brunello&st=nyt&scp=1 | title=‘Bolt From the Blue’ on a Tuscan Red | publisher=The New York Times Company | work
The New York Times| author=Elisabetta Povoledo | date=2008-04-23] As of May, 2008, the investigation continues, and the U.S. government has even threatened to block imports of Brunello that do not come with proof that they are in fact 100% Sangiovese. [cite news | url=http://thepour.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/13/brunello-di-montalcino | title=Washington Takes On Brunello | publisher=The New York Times Company | work The New York Times| date=2008-05-13] The Italian press has dubbed the scandal " Brunellopoli". [cite web | url=http://vinowire.simplicissimus.it/2008/03/28/antinori-argiano-and-frescobaldi-implicated-in-brunellopoli-brunello-scandal/ | publisher=Vino Wire | work=Vino Wire | title=Antinori, Argiano, and Frescobaldi named in “Brunellopoli” Brunello Scandal | date=2008-03-28 | accessdate=2008-05-27]
Grapes and wines
The Sangiovese grape is the most widely planted grape in the Montalcino region and is the only permitted grape in the Brunello di Montalcino DOCG. The particular clones of Sangiovese are unique to the Montalcino region and have developed in adaption to that area's specific "terroir". The altitude and climate of the Montalcino region has provided an area where Sangiovese ripens more fully and consistently than anywhere else in Tuscany. These factors contribute to the body, color, extract and
tannins commonly associated with Brunello di Montalcino. In contrast to Chianti, the other famous Sangiovese based wine of Tuscany, Brunello di Montalcinos have a more fleshy texture with common aromas and flavors of blackberry, black cherry, black raspberry, chocolate, leatherand violets.
Brunello is often compared with the
Pinot noirwines of Burgundy with its smooth tannins and ripe, fruit driven character. The high acidity of the wine allows it to pair well with food, especially grilled meat and game. A large portion of Brunello sold in the United Statesis purchased in restaurants. The wine has become particularly popular in America with nearly 1 out of every 3 bottles of Brunello di Montalcino being sold in US. Suckling, James. "Brunello di Montalcino: The Wines", "Wine Spectator", p.43, July 31, 2007 ] Brunello di Montalcino are known for their ability to age with well made examples from exceptional vintages often showcasing development for several decades. Master of Wine Mary Ewing-Mulligannotes that most Brunello's often need at least 10 years before they shed their youthfulness and start to harmonious its flavors.
In addition to Brunello di Montalcino, producers in the Montalcino region can produce wine under
Rosso di Montalcino, Sant'Antimo and Moscadello di Montalcino DOCs as well as the generic " Indicazione geografica tipica" designation of Toscana IGT. Moscadello di Montalcino is a sweet white wine made from Muscat. The style was once widely produced in Montalcino but fell out of style following World War II. In the early 1980s, the wine estate of Castello Banfiattempted to revive the style by planting Muscat. The Sant'Antimo DOC was named for the 9th century abbey built by Charlemagne. In the 1970s, producers in Montalcino were influenced by the success of the " Super Tuscan" style of wine that was gaining international recognition for Chiantiproducers who deviated from DOC regulations with winemakingtechniques such blending Cabernet Sauvignon with Sangiovese. In 1996, Italian authorities approved the Sant'Antimo DOC to allow Montalcino producers to produce DOC designated wines that were not 100% Sangiovese. These wines include blended "Bianco" and "Rosso" wines as well as varietally labeled Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, Pinot grigio, Pinot neroand Sauvignon blanc.
Rosso di Montalcino
The Rosso di Montalcino DOC was established in 1984 as a means of giving Brunello di Montalcino producers the flexibility to continue the tradition of long aging of the region's flagship wine. Rosso di Montalcino is made from 100% Sangiovese grown in the same delineated region as Brunello di Montalcino. However, the wine is required to spend only six months aging in oak and 1 year total aging before release. This allows Brunello producers to make an earlier releasing wine that can generate cash flow while their Brunello di Montalcino age for their complete duration. In less than ideal vintages some producers will relegate all their grapes to Rosso di Montalcino production and not make a Brunello. Wineries can also declassify their Brunello that has already been aging 2-3 years and release it as Rosso di Montalcino if the wine is not developing to their expectations. Rosso di Montalcino is typically lighter, fresher and more approachable upon release though some producers will make wines with more Brunello like characteristics. These "Baby Brunellos" are often 1/3 to 1/2 the price of Brunello di Montalcino.
* [http://www.montalcino.net/ Rosso and Brunello di Montalcino from Tuscany]
* [http://www.italianmade.com/wines/DOC-info10006.cfm Map highlighting the Montalcino region]
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