- Chichibabin pyridine synthesis
The Chichibabin pyridine synthesis (pronounced ' (chē')-chē-bā-bēn) is a method for synthesizing pyridine rings. In its general form, the reaction can can be described as a condensation reaction of aldehydes, ketones, α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds, or any combination of the above, in ammonia or ammonia derivatives. It was reported by Aleksei Chichibabin in 1924. The following is the overall form of the general reaction:
The elementary contributing steps of the reaction mechanism can be classified as more familiar name reactions, including an immine synthesis, a base-catalyzed aldol condensation, and initiating the ring-synthesis step, a Michael reaction.
Fundamental reaction steps
Detailed reaction mechanism
Alkyl-substituted pyridines show widespread uses among multiple fields of applied chemistry, including the polymer and pharmaceutical industries. For example, 2-methylpyridine, 4-methylpyridine and 2-ethyl-5-methylpyridine exhibit widespread use in syntheses of latexes, ion-exchange matrixes, and photography materials.
One of the chief limitations of practical application of the traditional Chichibabin pyridine synthesis is it's consistently low product yield. With the exception of two experimental runs, Chichibabin himself was unable to obtain product yields in excess of 20% across a variety of reactants, solvents, and other experimental conditions. This, in concert with the high prevalence of byproducts, which would require a multitude of purification steps to isolate pure pyridine product, render unaltered forms of Chichibabin's method unsuitable for applied chemistry.
The high proportion of byproducts and low yield are explained by the easily-reversible nature of the aldol condensation, and carbonyl chemistry in general. For instance, the following side-reactions could lead to byproduct formation:
Immine formation steps:
2.Nucleophilic attack of ammonia on the enamine or imine
Aldol condensation step
3.(In the case of asymmetric ketones), abstraction of the non-preferred β-Hydrogen
4.Enolate ion attack of the enamine or imine carbon
5.Enolate ion attack of an unintended aldehyde- or keto-carbonyl
Pyridine synthesis step
6. Immine attack of carbonyl-, rather than γ-carbon
7. Immine attack at an enamine or imine carbon
In the case of simple aldehydes and, and particularly in the case of α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds, polymerization of starting materials can occur frequently and is shown to significantly decrease yields.
Ways to overcome limitations
Evidence of this mechanism in-vivo
In vivo, deamination of the α-amino group of amino acids produces small amounts of ammonia. Researchers found that protein-incorporated allysine, (deaminated lysine) from bovine ligamentum nuchae elastin fibers appeared to be pyridine cross-linked. The structures of these cross-linked amino acids had 3,4,5- and 2,3,5-trisubstituted pyridine skeletons, specifically pyridinated desmosine (DESP) and pyridinated isodesmosine (IDP).
Extrapolating from an in-vitro elastin model under physiological conditions, the researchers found that the ratios of IDP to DESP corresponded extremely closely with values based on both a calculation of a theoretical Chichibabin pyridine synthesis of 3 mol allysine and 1 mol ammonia, and reported ratios of 2,3,5- to 3,4,5-trisubstituted pyridine ratios of a Chichibabin pyridine synthesis involving phenylacetaldehyde. They concluded with relative certainty that the pyridine cross-links found in elastin were, in fact, due to an in-vitro Chichibabin pyridine synthesis of ammonia and allysine.
- Chichibabin Reaction
- Gattermann-Skita synthesis
- Hantzsch pyridine synthesis
- Ciamician-Dennstedt rearrangement
- ^ a b c d e f g h Frank, R.L.; Seven, R. P. (1949). "Pyridines. IV. A Study of the Chichibabin Synthesis". Journal of the American Chemical Society 71 (8): 2629–2635. doi:10.1021/ja01176a008.
- ^ a b Tscihtschibabin, A.E. (1924). "Über Kondensation der Aldehyde mit Ammoniak zu Pyridinebasen". Journal für praktische Chemie 107: 122. doi:10.1002/prac.19241070110. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k90877m/f132.chemindefer.
- ^ Jie Jack Li (2009). "Chichibabin pyridine synthesis". Name Reactions. pp. 107–109. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-01053-8_51. ISBN 3540402039.
- ^ a b c M Weiss (1952). "Acetic Acid—Ammonium Acetate Reactions. An Improved Chichibabin Pyridine Synthesis". Journal of the American Chemical Society 74 (1): 200. doi:10.1021/ja01121a051.
- ^ a b Sagitullin, R.S.; Shkil, G.P.; Nosonova, I.I.; Ferber, A.A. (1996). Chichibabin pyridine synthesis. "Synthesis of pyridine bases by the Chichibabin method (review)". Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds 32 (2): 127–140. doi:10.1007/BF01165434.
- ^ Krishna Mohan, K.V.V.; Reddy, K.S.K.; Narender, N.; Kulkarni, S.J. (2008). "Zeolite catalysed synthesis of 5-ethyl-2-methylpyridine under high pressure". Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 298 (1–2): 99–102. doi:10.1016/j.molcata.2008.10.010.
- ^ a b Umeda, H; Takeuchi, M.; Suyam, K (2001). "Two New Elastin Cross-links Having Pyridine Skeleton". Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 (16): 12579–12587. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009744200. PMID 11278561.
- ^ Farley, C.; Eliel, E. (1956). "Chichibabin Reactions with Phenylacetaldehyde. II". Journal of the American Chemical Society 78 (14): 3477–3484. doi:10.1021/ja01595a057.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pyridine — Pyridine … Wikipedia
Chichibabin reaction — Not to be confused with Chichibabin pyridine synthesis. The Chichibabin reaction (pronounced (chē ) chē bā bēn) is a method for producing 2 aminopyridine derivatives by the reaction of pyridine with sodium amide. It was reported by Aleksei… … Wikipedia
Pyridine — Structures de la pyridine Général Nom IUPAC Azine … Wikipédia en Français
Síntesis de piridina de Chichibabin — La Síntesis de piridina de Chichibabin es un método para sintetizar anillos de piridina. En su forma general, la reacción puede ser descripta como una reacción de condensación entre aldehídos, cetonas o compuestos Carbonilos α,β Insaturados o… … Wikipedia Español
Aleksei Chichibabin — For the poet, see Boris Chichibabin. Aleksei Chichibabin … Wikipedia
List of organic reactions — Well known reactions and reagents in organic chemistry include Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also Ext … Wikipedia
List of Russian chemists — A sculpture in honor of Dmitry Mendeleev and his Periodic table in Slovakia. This list of Russian chemists includes the famous chemists and material scientists of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor… … Wikipedia
List of Russian people — The Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod, featuring the statues and reliefs of the most celebrated people in the first 1000 years of Russian history … Wikipedia
Scientific phenomena named after people — This is a list of scientific phenomena and concepts named after people (eponymous phenomena). For other lists of eponyms, see eponym. NOTOC A* Abderhalden ninhydrin reaction Emil Abderhalden * Abney effect, Abney s law of additivity William de… … Wikipedia
110-86-1 — Pyridine Pyridine Structures de la pyridine Général Nom IUPAC Azine … Wikipédia en Français