Legal education in the Philippines


Legal education in the Philippines

Legal education in the Philippines is developed and offered by Philippine law schools, supervised by the Legal Education Board, and regulated by the Commission on Higher Education and the Supreme Court of the Philippines.

Law degree programs are considered graduate programs in the Philippines. As such, admission to law schools requires the completion of a bachelor's degree, with a sufficient number of credits or units in certain subject areas.

Graduation from a Philippine law school constitutes the primary eligibility requirement for the Philippine Bar Examinations, the national licensure examination for practicing lawyers in the country. The bar examination is administered by the Supreme Court during the month of September every year.

Members of the bar in the Philippines are required to take mandatory continuing legal education in order to continue practicing their profession.

Legal education in the Philippines normally proceeds along the following route:

* Undergraduate education (usually 4 years)
* Law school (usually 4 years)
* Admission to the bar (usually by taking a Philippine bar exam)
* Legal practice and mandatory continuing legal education

History

The University of Santo Tomas established its faculties of canon law and civil law in 1733. From 1734 to 1800, of only 3,360 students, only 29 graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law, 8 with the degree of Licentiate in Civil Law and 3 with the degree of Doctor of Civil Law in that university. [Jorge Coquia. "The Legal Profession". Rex Book Store, 1993.]

In 1899, after the Malolos Constitution was ratified, the "Universidad Literia de Filipinas" was established in Malolos, Bulacan. It offered Law as well as Medicine, Surgery and Notary Public. In 1899, Felipe Calderon founded the Escuela de Derecho de Manila and adopted the name Manila Law College in 1924. The University of the Philippines opened its College of Law in 1910. There were around 50 Filipino and American students. [Jorge Coquia. "The Legal Profession". Rex Book Store, 1993.] Justice Sherman Moreland of the Supreme Court of the Philippines was named its first Dean, but after he ultimately declined the position, he was replaced by George A. Malcolm, who is recognized as the college's first permanent dean.

Legal Systems

The Philippine legal system is an amalgamation of the world's major systems which are the Roman Civil Law and the Canon Law of the Catholic Church inherited from the Spanish, English Common Law from the United States, and Islamic Law.

Law degree programs

Law degrees in the Philippines may be classified into three types--professional, graduate level, and honorary.

Professional law degrees

In order to be eligible to take the bar examinations, one must complete one of the two professional degrees: The Bachelor of Laws (Ll.B.) program or the Juris Doctor (J.D.) program. Advanced degrees are offered by some law schools, but are not requirements for admission to the practice of law in the Philippines.

*Bachelor of Laws (Ll.B.) - The Ll.B. is the most common law degree offered and conferred by Philippine law schools. It is a standard four-year law program covering all bar exam subjects. Almost all law schools follow a standard LL.B. curriculum, wherein students are exposed to the required bar subjects. Other schools, like the University of the Philippines College of Law, allow students to substitute electives for bar review subjects offered in the fourth year of study. [Curriculum models, Philippine Association of Law Schools, 2006.]

*Juris Doctor (J.D.) - The J.D. program is a four-year law program. Like the standard Ll.B. program, the J.D. curriculum covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations. Unlike the Ll.B., the J.D. program requires students to finish the core bar subjects in 2 1/2 years, take elective subjects, undergo an apprenticeship, and prepare and defend a thesis.Cesar Villanueva, Philippine Leadership Crisis and the J.D. Program. [http://ateneolaw.ateneo.edu/index.php?p=93&PHPSESSID=3de3cb420701c7a80495dc7f3ea2679c] ] The J.D. degree was first conferred by the Ateneo Law School in 1991. Aside from the Ateneo, other law schools offer the J.D.: the University of Batangas College of Law, the Far Eastern University Institute of Law. [Curriculum models, Philippine Association of Law Schools, 2006.] , and just recently, the University of the Philippines College of Law [ [http://law.upd.edu.ph/news.php] ]
**Juris Doctor-Master of Business Administration, (J.D.-M.B.A.), - The J.D.-M.B.A. program is a double degree program in law and management offered at the graduate level. It was introduced and is so far only offered by the La Salle-FEU MBA-JD Program, a consortium of Far Eastern University Institute of Law and De La Salle Graduate School of Business. Under this program, the requirements of the J.D. and M.B.A. programs are satisfied by the taking of concurrent units of study, allowing students to complete the program in five instead of six years. [Curriculum models, Philippine Association of Law Schools, 2006.]

Graduate law degrees

Beyond the J.D. or Ll.B., members of the Philippine bar have the option of pursuing graduate degrees in law.

*Master of Laws (LL.M.) - The Ll.M. is a graduate law degree offered to holders of basic law degrees (LL.B. and J.D.). It is generally offered to law graduates and lawyers of any nationality. Only five Philippine law schools so far conduct the program--University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law, which first offered the program; University of Manila College of Law; Manuel L. Quezon University College of Law; San Beda Graduate School of Law; and PLM Graduate School of Law of the "Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila" (University of the City of Manila). LL.M. programs were once offered by the Ateneo Law School, the Far Eastern University Institute of Law, the Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation), and the University of the Philippines College of Law but were eventually phased out due to lack of enrollment and funding. [Curriculum models, Philippine Association of Law Schools, 2006.]

* Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.) - The D.C.L. program is a doctoral program in law offered to holders of the LL.M degree. Candidates who hold only LL.B. degrees may be admitted upon completion of prerequisite LL.M. subjects. The D.C.L. was pioneered by the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law. Their program structure is highly similar to the D.C.L. offered in the Complutense University of Madrid. [Official Prospectus, Law Department, University of Santo Tomas Graduate School, 2006.] The PLM Graduate School of Law has already opened its own D.C.L. program. [List of programs, "Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila" (University of the City of Manila), 2007.]

Honorary law degrees

Some Philippine universities also confer the honorary Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degree. It is given to famous individuals who, in the discretion of the awarding institution, were found to have made significant contributions to a certain field, or to the improvement of society or development of the conditions of mankind in general. Honorary law doctorates in the past include:
*King Juan Carlos I of Spain (LL.D., "honoris causa", University of Santo Tomas)Honoris causa list, University of Santo Tomas, 2007.]
*UNESCO Director General Koichiro Matsuura (LL.D., "honoris causa", University of Santo Tomas)Honoris causa list, University of Santo Tomas, 2007.]
*former International Court of Justice Judge Cesar Bengzon (LL.D., "honoris causa", Ateneo de Manila University and University of Santo Tomas) List of Honorary Degree Awardees, Ateneo de Manila University. Last updated 2007.] Honoris causa list, University of Santo Tomas, 2007.]
*former United Nations General Assembly President Carlos P. Romulo (Ll.D., "honoris causa", University of Santo Tomas and University of the East)Honoris causa list, University of Santo Tomas, 2007.] Honoris causa list, University of the East, 2007.]
*former Philippine President Corazon Aquino (LL.D., "honoris causa", University of the Philippines and University of Santo Tomas)Honoris causa list, University of the Philippines, 2007.] Honoris causa list, University of Santo Tomas, 2007.]
*former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos (LL.D., "honoris causa", University of the East)Honoris causa list, University of the Philippines, 2007.]
*former Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay (LL.D., "honoris causa", University of the East)Honoris causa list, University of the East, 2007.]
*former Philippine Chief Justice Artemio Panganiban (LL.D., "honoris causa", University of Iloilo)Honoris causa list, University of Iloilo, 2007.]
*Canadian Chief Justice Beverly McLachlin, P.C. (LL.D., "honoris causa", Ateneo de Manila University)
*former Philippine First Lady Aurora Aragon Quezon (LL.D., "honoris causa", University of Santo Tomas)Honoris causa list, University of Santo Tomas, 2007.]
*former Philippine First Lady Imelda Marcos (LL.D., "honoris causa", University of the Philippines).Honoris causa list, University of the Philippines, 2007.]
*Philippine Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago (LL.D., "honoris causa", Centro Escolar University and Xavier University)Honoris causa list, Centro Escolar University, 2007.] Honoris causa list, Xavier University, 2007.]
*former Philippine Senator Raul Manglapus (LL.D., "honoris causa", Ateneo de Manila University)
*former Philippine Commission on Elections Chairman Christian Monsod (LL.D., "honoris causa", Ateneo de Manila University)

Practicality

While advanced law degrees (LL.M., D.C.L., S.J.D., LL.D.) may elevate a lawyer's standing in academic settings, the basic law degree (LL.B., J.D.) remains the most important academic qualification to be admitted to the practice of law in the Philippines. [Ricardo B. Teruel. "Practical Lawyering in the Philippines". Revised Edition. Central Professional Books, 1999.]

Ecclesiastical law degrees

A few Roman Catholic seminaries and graduate schools offer degree programs in Canon Law, an ecclesiastical program that is not required in the Philippine Bar Examinations.The University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Canon Law runs the oldest academic programs of this kind. Its Licentiate of Canon Law (J.C.L.) and Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D.) programs are open to priests, nuns, theologians, and even to lay people (i.e., trial court judges, law deans, family lawyers etc.). Judges of the Roman Catholic Marriage Tribunal typically hold academic degrees in the field. [Official prospectus, University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Canon Law, 2006.] Degrees in canon law, strictly speaking, are not considered law degrees in the Philippines.

Developments

There is a move among members of the Philippine Association of Law Schools (PALS) to convert their Ll.B. programs into J.D. curricula. There are currently two possible directions for the change: First, the conversion of Ll.B. programs through adopting a model substantially similar to the J.D. curriculum introduced by the Ateneo de Manila Law School (the J.D. Programs of the FEU-La Salle consortium and the University of Batangas Law School are of this mold), and second, simply changing the name of the degree conferred from “Ll.B.” to “J.D.” while essentially retaining the same course offerings as those in the DECS Model Law Curriculum (DECS Order No. 27, series of 1989).

Admission to the practice of law

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines has given the Supreme Court the sole power to admit individuals to the practice of law in the Philippines. [Section 5, Article VIII, The Philippine Constitution, 1987.] This power is exercised through a Bar Examination Committee, an ad hoc academic group tasked to formulate questions, administer proceedings, grade examinations, rank candidates, and release the results of the Philippine Bar Examination.

To be eligible to take the national bar exam, a candidate must be a Filipino citizen, at least twenty-one years of age, and holder of a bachelor's degree and a law degree obtained from a government recognized law school in the Philippines. Graduates of law schools from other countries must obtain a law degree from the Philippines to qualify for the Philippine Bar. [Section 2, 5-6; Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.]

Philippine Bar Examinations

The Philippine Bar Examinations is the national licensure exam for admission to the practice of law. It is conducted during the four Sundays of September of every year. It is arguably the hardest and the most media-covered of all government licensure examinations in the country. [Alexander L. Lacson. "A Nation Under Lawyers." "The Practice: Business and Leisure Magazine for Lawyers". August-September 2004 Issue.] It is also reputedly one of the hardest bar examinations in the world. [Reports made by members of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Session of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, September 2005.]

For candidates intending to practice Islamic law in the Philippines, the "Special Bar Exams for Shari’a Court Lawyers" is given every two years. The Supreme Court Bar Office conducts the exam while the Office of Muslim Affairs determines the qualification and eligibility of candidates to the exams. [Court En Banc Resolution, Supreme Court of the Philippines, September 20, 1983.]

Attorneys-at-law

To be a full-fledged lawyer in the Philippines and be eligible to use the title "Attorney", a candidate must graduate from a Philippine law school, take and pass the Philippine Bar Examinations, take the Attorney's Oath, and sign his name in the "Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court". ["The Legal Profession", a lecture delivered by Associate Justice Edgardo F. Sundiam of the Philippine Court of Appeals, Ateneo School of Law, June 2006.]

The full names of lawyers are found in the "Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court", and in a similar list included in a Supreme Court publication entitled "Law List." [ [http://www.supremecourt.gov.ph Official Website, Supreme Court of the Philippines. Last accessed June 2007.] ]

Legal Education Board

The Legal Education Board supervises all law schools and continuing legal education providers in the Philippines. [Republic Act No. 7662, approved on December 23, 1993.] The Board is headed by a Chairman who is a retired justice of a collegiate court (i.e., Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Sandiganbayan, Court of Tax Appeals, etc.). Regular members of the Board include a representative from each of the following: [Republic Act No. 7662, approved on December 23, 1993.]

*Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP)
*Philippine Association of Law Schools (PALS)
*Philippine Association of Law Professors (PALP)
*active law practitioners
*bonafide law students

The Board has made legal reforms which include--the stricter selection of law students and law professors; improvements in quality of instruction and facilities of law schools; provisions for legal apprenticeship of law students; and the requirement of attendance to continuing legal education seminars for practicing attorneys. [Republic Act No. 7662, approved on December 23, 1993.]

Mandatory Continuing Legal Education

Lawyers with names appearing in the "Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court", unless disbarred, are all members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP). [Bar Matter No. 850, Resolution of the Supreme Court En Banc, August 22, 2000, as amended on October 2, 2001, providing for the rules on Mandatory Continuing Legal Education (MCLE) for Active Members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP).]

However, to be IBP members of good standing, lawyers are required to complete, every three years, at least thirty-six hours of continuing legal education seminars approved by the Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Committee (MCLE). Members who fail to comply shall pay a non-compliance fee, and shall be listed as a delinquent member. [Supreme Court Administrative Order No. 113-2003.]

The Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Office, established by the Supreme Court, is the official government agency tasked to implement compliance with the MCLE requirement. [Supreme Court Administrative Order No. 113-2003.]

Philippine law schools

There are one-hundred-five (105) law schools [Milagros Santos-Ong, Office of the Director of Library Services, Supreme Court of the Philippines. May 2006.] [Milagros Santos-Ong, "Philippine Legal Research", Central Professional Books, 2007.] legitimately operating throughout the Philippines. These include independent law schools, resident colleges, and affiliated units of much larger private and public universities: [Directory of Members, Philippine Association of Law Schools, June 2007.]

Notable law schools

Oldest law schools

The fourteen oldest law schools are as follows: [Jorge Coquia. "The Legal Profession". Rex Book Store, 1993.]

*University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law, established in 1734, is the oldest law school in the Philippines. In 1734, the University of Santo Tomas opened a Faculty of Civil Law and a Faculty of Canon Law. From 1734 to 1800 (66 years), out of 3,360 students, only 40 students graduated from various law programs: 29 in Bachelor of Civil Law, 8 in Licentiate in Civil Law, and 3 in Doctor of Law, reflecting the rigid training in these courses. The school has produced four Philippine Presidents, three Vice Presidents, and six Chief Justices of the Philippine Supreme Court.

*Universidad Literia Filipinas, established in 1898, was the second oldest law school in the country. It is no longer operating. The university was established in Malolos, Bulacan and offered progams in law and notary public. The school later moved to Tarlac.

*Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation) was established in 1899. Don Felipe Calderon, author of the 1899 Malolos Constitution, founded the school. In 1924, the school was renamed the Manila Law School. It was further renamed Manila Law College Foundation.

*University of the Philippines College of Law, established in 1910, is the flagship law school of state colleges and universities in the Philippines. In 1910, the College of Law of the University of the Philippines opened with fifty {50) Filipino and American students. Justice Sherman Moreland of the Philippine Supreme Court was named as the first dean, but after he ultimately declined the post, he was replaced by George A. Malcolm, the first permanent dean of the College. The school has dominated past and present memberships in the Philippine Supreme Court and other collegiate courts.

*Philippine Law School was established in 1915. Former Presidents Diosdado Macapagal and Carlos P. Garcia attended the school.

*University of Manila College of Law was established in 1918. Cecilia Muñoz Palma, the first woman to be appointed Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court and the President of the 1986 Constitutional Commission, earned her Master of Laws from this institution.

*Far Eastern University Institute of Law, established in 1934, is the alma mater of former Supreme Court Chief Justice Artemio Panganiban, former Philippine President Corazon Aquino, former Philippine Court of Appeals Presiding Justices Oscar Herrera and Salome A. Montoya, and Sandiganbayan senior associate justice Edilberto Sandoval.

*Southern College of Law was established in 1935. It is no longer operating.

*Ateneo de Manila Law School, established in 1936, is the alma mater of former Chief Justice Claudio Teehankee, 1986 Constitutional Commissioner Fr. Joaquin Bernas, S.J.., and former Philippine Vice President Teofisto Guingona.

*Arellano Law College (now Arellano Law Foundation) was established in 1938. Popular broadcaster and former Leyte Representative Ted Failon, former Court of Appeals Presiding Justice Manuel Gaviola, former Senator Francisco Sumulong, and former Congressman Jose Zafra attended the school.

*Francisco Law School was established in 1940. It is now defunct.

*Manuel L. Quezon University was established in 1947.

*San Beda College of Law, was founded in 1948. Famous alumni include former Senator and Education Secretary Raul Roco, former Senator Rene Saguisag, and former Supreme Court Associate Justice Florenz D. Regalado who holds the highest bar exam grade in the history of the Philippine Bar Examinations.

*University of the East College of Law, was established in 1950. Famous graduates include Manila Mayor and former Senator Alfredo Lim, Supreme Court Associate Justice Dante Tinga, Philippine Court of Appeals Associate Justices Demetrio G. Demetria, Japar B. Dimaampao, Arturo G. Tayag and Normandie B. Pizarro, former Commission on Elections (COMELEC) Commissioner Virgilio Garcillano, and newly appointed COMELEC Commissioner Moslemen Macarambon.

Bar Performance

The performance of law schools in the annual bar exam can be measured using two criteria:

Bar passing rate

The bar passing rate is the proportion of successful bar exam passers in relation to the total number of bar exam takers coming from a particular law school. The national bar passing rate (proportion of all bar exam passers in relation to all bar exam takers) changes every year, and has gone from an all-time high of 75.17% in 1954 to an all-time low of 16.59% in 1999. ["Bar Passing Percentage from 1946 to 2003." "The Practice: Business and Leisure Magazine for Lawyers". August-September 2004 Issue.]

Law schools with the highest average bar passing rates include:
*Ateneo de Manila Law School - 89.19%
*San Beda College of Law - 85.27%
*University of the Philippines College of Law - 85.19%
*Ateneo de Davao College of Law - 65.57%
*University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law - 56.70%
*University of San Carlos - 54.45% passing rate
*Arellano University - 46.18% passing rate
*Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, College of Law - 41.26%
*Xavier University - 37.45%
*Lyceum of the Philippines University - 32.40%
*St. Louis University - 31.38%
*Far Eastern University Institute of Law - 26.25%cite web
url = http://services.inquirer.net/print/print.php?article_id=63096
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] [Statistical Data of Philippine Bar Examinations, Office of the Bar Confidant, Supreme Court of the Philippines, 1997-2006.]

In the 2006 bar examinations, Basilan State University's lone bar candidate passed, giving the school a 100% passing rate. [2006 Bar Examination Results, Office of the Bar Confidant, Supreme Court of the Philippines.]

Bar topnotchers

Bar topnotchers are bar examinees who garnered the highest bar exam grades in a particular year. Every year, the Supreme Court releases the "bar top ten" list. The list contains the names of bar examinees who obtained the ten highest grades. It is possible for more than ten examinees to place in the top ten because numerical ties in the computation of grades usually occur.<;ref>List of Bar Topnotchers from 1913 to 2006, Office of the Bar Confidant, Supreme Court of the Philippines.]

Schools which have produced bar topnotchers (1st placers) [List of Bar Topnotchers from 1913 to 2006, Office of the Bar Confidant, Supreme Court of the Philippines.] include:

*University of the Philippines College of Law - forty-nine (49) bar topnotchers
*Ateneo de Manila Law School - nineteen (19) bar topnotchers
*Philippine Law School - seven (7) bar topnotchers
*University of Manila - six (6) bar topnotchers
*San Beda College of Law - six (6) bar topnotchers
*Far Eastern University Institute of Law - four (4) bar topnotchers
*University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law - three (3) bar topnotchers
*University of the Cordilleras (formerly Baguio Colleges Foundation) College of Law - two (2) bar topnotchers
*Manila Law College Foundation (formerly Escuela de Derecho de Manila) - one (1) bar topnotcher
*Manuel L. Quezon University College of Law - one (1) bar topnotcher
*Divine Word College - one (1) bar topnotcher
*University of the East College of Law - one (1) bar topnotcher

Two bar examinees topped the bar exams without graduating from any Philippine law school:

*Jose Diokno - former Senator of the Philippines; 1st placer, 1945 bar exams
*Carolina C. Griño-Aquino - former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court; 1st placer, 1950 bar exams

In the past, non-law school graduates were allowed to take the bar. However, the Revised Rules of Court and Supreme Court Circulars allow only Philippine law graduates to take the bar, necessarily excluding non-law graduates and foreign law graduates from taking part in the exercise.

Law schools with prestigious alumni

The quality of law schools is often measured by the prestige, influence, or wealth of famous law alumni. [Alexander L. Lacson. "A Nation Under Lawyers." "The Practice: Business and Leisure Magazine for Lawyers". August-September 2004 Issue.]

Some of the law schools and their famous alumni include:

*Ateneo de Manila Law School alumni: [List of members, Ateneo de Manila Law Alumni Association, 2006.]
**Teofisto Guingona - former Vice President of the Philippines
**Claudio Teehankee - former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Adolfo Azcuna - Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Renato Corona - Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Jose Miguel Arroyo - First Gentleman of the Philippines
**Fr. Joaquin G. Bernas, S.J. - Member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission
**Alan Peter Cayetano - Senator of the Philippines
**Ignacio Bunye - Presidential Spokesman
**Arturo D. Brion - Secretary of Labor and Employment
**Rolando Andaya Jr. - Secretary of Budget and Management
**Sergio Apostol - Chief Presidential Legal Counsel
**Ernesto Maceda - former Senate President
**Hernando Perez - former Secretary of Justice
**Merceditas Gutierrez - Philippine Omdudsman; former Secretary of Justice
**Agnes Devanadera - Acting Secretary of Justice; former Solicitor-General; former Government Corporate Counsel
**Evelio Javier, former Governor of Antique

*Far Eastern University Institute of Law alumni: [List of members, Far Eastern University Law Alumni Association, 2006.]
**Corazon Aquino - former President of the Philippines
**Artemio Panganiban - former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Court of Appeals Presiding Justice and Remedial Law expert Oscar Herrera
**Jose Nolledo - Member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission, Delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention
**Salome Montoya - former Presiding Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Eliezer R. De los Santos - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Juan Q. Enriquez Jr. - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Edilberto Sandoval - Associate Justice of the Sandiganbayan (Philippine Anti-Graft Court)
**Manuel Collantes - former Secretary of Foreign Affairs and Ambassador to the United Nations
**Sedfrey Ordonez - former Solicitor General, Secretary of Justice, Ambassador to the United Nations, and Chairman of the Commission on Human Rights
**Edgar Ilarde - former Senator of the Philippines
**Wenceslao Lagumbay - former Senator of the Philippines
**Neptali Gonzales Jr. - former Mayor of Mandaluyong City and Majority Floor Leader of the Philippine House of Representatives
**Diosdado "Dado" Arroyo - youngest son of President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, Camarines Sur Representative

*San Beda College of Law alumni: [List of members, San Beda Law Alumni Association, 2006.]
**Florenz D. Regalado - former Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court; holder of the highest bar exam grade
**Raul Roco - former Senator, Secretary of Education, IBP President, and 1998 & 2004 Presidential candidate
**Rene Saguisag - former Senator of the Philippines
**Antonio Eduardo Nachura - Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court, former Solicitor General
**Antonio Martinez - Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Romeo Callejo - Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Justo P. Torres, Jr. - former Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Bienvenido L. Reyes - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Noel G. Tijam - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Jose C. Mendoza - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Jose C. Reyes Jr. - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Fernanda Lampas-Peralta - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Eloy Bello Jr. - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Eduardo Joson - former Governor of Nueva Ecija

*University of the Philippines College of Law alumni (Associate Justices not included): [List of members, University of the Philippines Law Alumni Association, 2006.]
**Jose P. Laurel - former President of the Philippines
**Manuel Roxas - former President of the Philippines
**Elpidio Quirino - former President of the Philippines
**Ferdinand Marcos - former President of the Philippines
**Pia Cayetano - Senator of the Philippines
**Jose Yulo - former Chief Justice of the Philippines
**Ricardo Paras - former Chief Justice of the Philippines
**Cesar Bengzon - former Chief Justice of the Philippines
**Fred Ruiz Castro - former Chief Justice of the Philippines
**Enrique Fernando - former Chief Justice of the Philippines
**Felix Makasiar - former Chief Justice of the Philippines
**Querube Makalintal - former Chief Justice of the Philippines
**Pedro Yap - former Chief Justice of the Philippines
**Ramon Aquino - former Chief Justice of the Philippines
**Marcelo Fernan - former Chief Justice of the Philippines
**Hilario Davide Jr. - former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Reynato Puno - current Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Cecilia Muñoz Palma - President of the Philippine Constitutional Commission of 1986 and first woman Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court

*University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law alumni: [List of members, University of Santo Tomas Law Alumni Association, 2006.]
**Manuel L. Quezon - former President of the Philippines
**Sergio Osmeña - former President of the Philippines
**Jose P. Laurel - former President of the Philippines
**Diosdado Macapagal - former President of the Philippines
**Emmanuel Pelaez - former Vice President of the Philippines
**Fernando Lopez - former Vice President of the Philippines
**Arturo Tolentino - former Vice President of the Philippines
**Cayetano Arellano - former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Victorino Mapa - former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Manuel Araullo - former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Ramon Avanceña - former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Roberto Concepcion - former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Andres Narvasa - former Chief Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court and Chairman, Preparatory Commission for Constitutional Reform
**Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez- Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court
**Rosalinda Asuncion Vicente - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Monina Arevalo Zenarosa - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Diosdado Peralta- Associate Justice of the Sandiganbayan (Philippine Anti-Graft Court)
**Raul Gonzalez - Secretary of Justice and former Tanodbayan {Special Prosecutor)
**Arturo Buena - former Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court and Presiding Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
**Bernardo Pardo - former Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court and Commission on Elections Chairman
**Alfredo Benipayo - former Commission on Elections Chairman, Solicitor General, and Supreme Court Administrator

External links

* [http://www.supremecourt.gov.ph Supreme Court of the Philippines]
* [http://www.ibp.org.ph Integrated Bar of the Philippines]
* [http://www.ched.gov.ph Commission on Higher Education, Republic of the Philippines]
* [http://www.supremecourt.gov.ph/bar/bar%20topnotchers/index.php List of Philippine Bar Topnotchers, 1913-2007]

ee also

*Philippine Bar Examinations
*Integrated Bar of the Philippines
*Supreme Court of the Philippines

References

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  • Education in the People's Republic of China — This article is about education in the People s Republic of China. See Education in Hong Kong and Education in Macau for education in Hong Kong and Macau, respectively. For education in the Republic of China (Taiwan), see Education in the… …   Wikipedia

  • Legal system of the Republic of Turkey — Republic of Turkey This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the Republic of Turkey …   Wikipedia

  • Integrated Bar of the Philippines — Infobox Organization name = Integrated Bar of the Philippines image border = size = 70px caption = Integrated Bar of the Philippines logo formation = 1973 type = headquarters = Manila location = Philippines membership = 40,000 language = Filipino …   Wikipedia

  • National Library of the Philippines — Pambansang Aklatan ng Pilipinas Biblioteca Nacional de Filipinas …   Wikipedia

  • Human trafficking in the Philippines — Human trafficking and the prostitution of children is a significant issue in the Philippines, often controlled by organized crime syndicates. [Citation url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia pacific/6507495.stm date=1 April, 2007 title= Chairman… …   Wikipedia

  • Portal:Government of the Philippines — This portal is outdated. Please update this portal to reflect recent events or newly available information. Please see the talk page for more information. (August 2010) …   Wikipedia

  • Street children in the Philippines — is a significant problem.According to the 1998 report, entitled Situation of the Youth in the Philippines, there are about 1.5 million street children in the Philippines. [http://gvnet.com/streetchildren/Philippines.htm Street Children… …   Wikipedia