Burschenschaft

Burschenschaft

German "Burschenschaften" (abbreviated: "B!" , plural: "B!B!" ) are a special type of "Studentenverbindungen" (student fraternities). Burschenschaften were founded in the 19th century as associations of university students inspired by liberal and nationalistic ideas.

History

Beginnings 1815- c. 1918

The first one, called "Urburschenschaft" (original B!), was founded on June, 12, 1815 at Jena as an association of "all" German university students inspired by liberal and patriotic ideas. Its original colors were red-black-red with a golden oak leaves cluster, which were based on the Lützow Free Corps. The colors were the basis of the German national colors black-red-gold. Even today, these colors are worn by many Burschenschaften.

The Burschenschaften were student associations that engaged in numerous social functions. However, their most important goal was to foster loyalty to the concept of a united German national state as well as strong engagement for freedom, rights, and democracy. They were banned by Klemens Wenzel von Metternich of Austria when he issued the reactionary Carlsbad Decrees in 1819.

Many Burschenschafter took part in the Hambacher Fest in 1832 and the democratic Revolution in 1848/49. After this revolution had been suppressed, plenty of leading Burschenschafter, such as Friedrich Hecker and Carl Schurz, went abroad. After the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, the "Burschenschaften" movement faced a severe crisis, as one major goal had been attempted to some extent - German unification. In the 1880s, a renaissance movement, the "Reformburschenschaften", led by the ideas of Küster, raised and many new "B!B!" were founded.

1918-1945

In 1935, all Burschenschaften were dissolved by the Nazi government or transformed and fused with other Studentenverbindungen into so-called "Kameradschaften" (comradeships). Both some Nazis (e.g. Ernst Kaltenbrunner) and Nazi opponents (Karl Sack, Hermann Kaiser) were members of Burschenschaften.

Postwar

In the 1950s, most B!B! were refounded and some of them had to be transferred into other cities, since Germany lost great parts of its territories after the Second World War. The allied victors had forbidden refounding B!B! originally, but this could not be upheld. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Burschenschaften, as many other student fraternities, underwent a crisis: a lack of new members and strong attacks by the liberal student community.

Today

Roughly 160 Burschenschaften still exist today and most of them are organized in the Deutsche Burschenschaft-organization in the Federal Republic of Germany and Austria or in the Neue Deutsche Burschenschaft-organization founded in 1996 as a collective for liberal B!B! in Germany. Aside from these two bigger organizations there are some smaller and non-organised B!B!. There are also some Burschenschaften in Chile, organized in the BCB (Bund Chilenischer Burschenschaften), in contact with the German and Austrian organizations. Most Burschenschaften are "pflichtschlagend", i.e. their members must absolve a number of Mensuren. Academic fencing is still an important part of their self-understanding as well as political education.

Former US interior secretary Carl Schurz was a famous Burschenschafter.

Controversy

It is affirmed that members of Burschenschaften are often affiliated with conservative parties. Burschenschaften themselves do not tend to a single party or group of parties.

ee also

*The Revolutions of 1848 in the German states - (Burschenschaften were student groups which played a part in beginning of the Prussian Revolution)

External links

* [http://www.burschenschaft.de/portrait/portrait_englisch.htm English information about the German Burschenschaften]


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Burschenschaft — Burschenschaft …   Deutsch Wörterbuch

  • Burschenschaft — Bur schen*schaft , n.; pl. { schaften}. [G.] In Germany, any of various associations of university students formed (the original one at Jena in 1815) to support liberal ideas, or the organization formed by the affiliation of the local bodies. The …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Burschenschaft — Burschenschaft. Nach dem Kriege von 1815 vereinigten sich zu Jena mehrere Studenten, um den Landsmannschaften u. der daraus hervorgehenden Trennung des vaterländischen Sinnes entgegen zu wirken, zugleich aber das wüste, akademische Leben im… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Burschenschaft — Burschenschaft. Unter dem erhebenden Eindruck des Befreiungskrieges gründeten Jenaer Studenten, deren viele Mitkämpfer dieses Krieges gewesen waren, gegenüber den in überlebten Formen und Händeln, vielfach auch in Roheit befangenen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Burschenschaft — Burschenschaft, eine zuerst 12. Juni 1815 in Jena begründete Vereinigung von Studierenden zur Pflege vaterländischen Sinnes und zur Besserung des rohen Studentenlebens der Landsmannschaften, verbreitete sich von Jena aus über fast sämtliche… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Burschenschaft — Burschenschaft, die (vergl. Burse), nannte man die 1815 aus dem frühern Tugendbund hervorgehende Studentenverbindung, welche zuerst in Jena wissenschaftliche und patriotische Bestrebungen an die Stelle des von Zachariä gezeichneten… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Burschenschaft — ist Burschen schafft, sagt Kamptz. – Simrock, 12284 …   Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon

  • Burschenschaft — „Großer Burschenschafterzirkel“. Die ineinander verschlungenen Buchstaben E, F und V stehen für den Wahlspruch der Urburschenschaft Ehre, Freiheit, Vaterland. Burschenschaften sind eine tradierte Form einer Studentenverbindung. Sie finden sich… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Burschenschaft — Bụr|schen|schaft 〈f. 20; seit 1815〉 studentische Verbindung * * * Bụr|schen|schaft, die; , en: Farben tragende [waffenstudentische] Korporation: einer B. angehören. Dazu: Bụr|schen|schaf|ter, Bụr|schen|schaft|ler, der; Bụr|schen|schaf|te|rin …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Burschenschaft — Couleurs et casquette de la Burschenschaft de l Université Friedrich Alexander d Erlangen Nuremberg sur une carte postale ancienne Une Burschenschaft est une forme de société d étudiants des pays germaniques, baptisée en référence à la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Burschenschaft —    A German student organization that emerged at the time of the Wars of Liberation against Napoleon between 1813 and 1815. The Burschenschaft ’s twin goals of the formation of a German nation state and political freedom were disappointed by the… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914


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