- Brazil–United States relations
Brazilian-American relations are characterized as fairly warm and friendly. The
United Stateshas increasingly regarded Brazilas a significant power, especially in its role as a stabilizing force and skillful interlocutor in Latin America. [ [http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/docs/RL33456.pdf http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/docs/RL33456.pdf] ] As a significant political and economic power, Brazil has traditionally preferred to cooperate with the United States on specific issues rather than seeking to develop an all-encompassing, privileged relationship with the United States [ [http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/docs/RL33456.pdf US Congress Report on Brazil-U.S. Relations] ] .
The United States was the first country to establish a
consulatein Brazil in 1808, following the transfer of the Portuguese royal court to Rio de Janeiroand the subsequent opening of the ports to foreign ships. However, it was not until after World War IIthat the United States became Brazil's most important trading partner and foreign investor. During the presidency of Eurico Gaspar Dutra( 1946-51), Brazil's foreign policy was aligned closely with that of the United States. Brazil outlawed the PCB ( Brazilian Communist Party) in 1947and broke off relations with the Soviet Union. Getulio Vargas's return to power in 1951signaled a cooling of relations. Vargas blamed the U.S. for his ouster in 1945 and appealed to Brazilian nationalism, which was growing in many sectors, including the armed forces.
Juscelino Kubitschek( 1956-61) improved relations with the United States, while strengthening relations with Latin America and Europe. His industrial development policy attracted huge direct investments by foreign capital, much from the United States. He proposed an ambitious plan for United States development aid in Latin America, the Pan-American Operation. The outgoing administration of President Dwight Eisenhowerfound the plan of no interest, but the administration of President John F. Kennedyappropriated funds in 1961for the Alliance for Progress.
Relations again cooled slightly after President
Janio Quadrosannounced his new independent foreign policy in January 1961. Quadros also made overtures to Cubaand decorated Cuban revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara with Brazil's highest honor. In late 1963, Washington, alarmed that Brazil might become a hostile, nonaligned power like Egypt, reduced foreign aidto Brazil.
March 31, 1964a military coup overthrew the government of President Joao Goulart. The exact role of the United States in that event remains controversial, as the U.S. immediately recognized the new interim government (before Goulart had even fled Brazilian territory); a United States naval task force was anchored close to the port of Vitoria; the United States government made an immediate large loan to the new Castelo Branco government ( 1964-67); and the new military president adopted a policy of total alignment with the United States. The presidents that followed pursued an independent foreign policy while maintaining friendly relations with the Unites States.
The Nixon administration remained basically sympathetic to Brazilian hopes for growth and world power status, and considered Brazil to be one of the developing nations most sympathetic to the United States. In
1976, Secretary of State Henry Kissingerand Minister of Foreign Relations Antonio Azeredo da Silveira signed a memorandum of understanding that the two powers would consult on all issues of mutual concern and would hold semiannual meetings of foreign ministers. Only the major Western allies had such an agreement with the United States.
The Carter administration marked a definite cooling of the Brazilian-American relations. The confrontation involved two very sensitive issues - human rights and
nuclear proliferation. In 1967Brazil had signed a contract with Westinghouse to build a 626- megawatt nuclear power plantat Angra dos Reisto be complete in 1977. However the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission renounced its guarantee of delivery of enriched uranium, and prohibited Westinghouse from constructing enrichment and reprocessing plants in Brazil.
Brazil, desiring independent control of the full cycle from ore to kilowatts, signed a broad nuclear agreement with
West Germanyin June 1975. It involved furnishing technology and equipment for eight nuclear power plants, plus enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Despite safeguard provisions, some thought this agreement opened the door for Brazil to construct nuclear weapons, if desired. The Ford administration reacted mildly to the agreement, but from his first day in office, President Carter sought to prevent its implementation. In 1975 Brazil renounced the United States-Brazil Military Assistance Agreement, which had been in effect since 1952, in a clear response to the position of the Carter administration. Formal relations between the two armed forces have still not been reestablished.
In the early
1980s, tension in the American-Brazilian relations centered on economic questions. Retaliation for unfair trade practices loomed on the horizon and threatened Brazilian exports of steel, orange juice, commuter aircraft, shoesand textiles. When President Sarney took office in 1985, political issues, such as Brazil's arms exports to Libyaand Iran, again surfaced. Brazil's foreign debt moratorium and its refusal to sign the Non-Proliferation Treatycaused the United States to put Brazil on its mandated blacklist, thereby restricting Brazil's access to certain U.S. technologies.
On taking office in March,
1990President Collor sought a quick reapproachment with the United States in order to begin an aggressive policy of inserting Brazil into the world economy and placing it at the negotiating table of world powers. The Franco administration maintained an independent stance and reacted coolly to proposals by the Clinton administration for a Latin American free-trade zone.
Relations with the Cardoso government in (
1995- 2003) were good. Cardoso made a very successful trip to Washington and New York in 1995and the Clinton administration was very enthusiastic regarding the passage of constitutional amendments that opened the Brazilian economy to increasing international participation.
The Bush administration has come to view Brazil as a strong partner whose cooperation must be sought in order to solve regional and global problems. Current issues of concern to both Brazil and the United States include
counter-narcoticsand terrorism, energy security, trade, environmental issues, human rights and HIV/AIDS.
The current bilateral relations are considered fairly close, despite the differing political approaches of President Lula and President Bush on some issues. On
June 20, 2003, President Lula made an official visit to the United States, and he and President Bush resolved "to create a closer and qualitatively stronger [bilateral] relationship." On November 6, 2005, President Bush visited Brasiliaand the two leaders reaffirmed the good relations between the countries and pledged to work together to advance peace, democracy, and a successful conclusion of the Doha roundof global trade talks. President Bush thanked Brazil for exercising leadership in the world and in the hemisphere, including Brazil's role in the peacekeeping force in Haiti( MINUSTAH), and worldwide efforts to control HIV/AIDS. [ [http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/11/20051106-2.html Joint Statement on the Occasion of the Visit by President George W. Bush to Brazil] ]
Brazilian and American officials signed an agreement to promote greater
ethanolproduction and use throughout the world. The agreement was reached after President Bush's visit to Brazil on March 9, 2007and by a visit from President Lula to Camp Davidon March 31, 2007.
*cite web |title=U.S.-Brazil Relations |publisher=U.S. Department of State |date=
*cite web |title=The Future of U.S.-Brazilian Relations |publisher=Woodrow Wilson Center |date=
*cite web |title=United States-Brazil Relations |publisher=Latin American Studies |date=
*cite web |title=U.S.-Brazil: A New Era of Bilateral Cooperation |publisher=U.S. Department of State |date=
*cite web |title=The U.S. And Brazil |publisher=Voice of America |date=
*cite web |title=Brazil-U.S. Economic Relations |publisher=Center for Strategic & International Studies |date=
2001-04-15|url=http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/issues200104.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-06-06
*cite web |title=Brazilian Trade Policy and the United States |publisher=Congressional Research Service |date=
2006-02-03|url=http://iepecdg.com/DISK%201/Arquivos/Leiturassugeridas/RL33258_20060203-17112006.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-06-06
*cite web |title=U.S. Congressional Report on Brazil-U.S. Relations |publisher=Congressional Research Service |date=
2007-02-28|url=http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/docs/RL33456.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-06-06
Foreign relations of Brazil
Foreign relations of the United States
* [http://www.mre.gov.br/ingles/index.htm Ministry of Foreign Relations of Brazil] en icon
* [http://www.state.gov U.S. Department of State]
* [http://www.brasilemb.org Brazilian Embassy in Washington] en icon
* [http://www.embaixada-americana.org.br U.S. Embassy in Brasilia]
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