- Administrative division of Congress Poland
administrative divisionof Congress Polandchanged several times. Immediately after its creation, 1815-1816, the Congress Kingdom of Poland was divided into departments, a relic from the times of the French-dominated Duchy of Warsaw. In 1816 the administrative divisions were reformed into the more traditionally Polish voivodeships, obwóds and powiats. In 1837, in the aftermath of the November Uprisingearlier that decade, the administrative division was reformed once again, bringing Congress Poland closer to the structure of the Russian Empire, with the introduction of guberniyas ( governorate, Polish spelling "gubernia"), gradually transforming Congress Poland into the " Vistulan Country". Over the next several decades, various smaller reforms were carried out, either changing the smaller administrative units or merging/splitting various guberniyas.
January 16, 1816the administrative division was reformed from the departments of the Duchy of Warsawinto the more traditionally Polish voivodeships, obwóds and powiats.
There were 8 voivodeships:
Augustów Voivodeship(capital in Suwałki)
Kraków Voivodeship(despite the name of this province, the city of Kraków was not included; Kraków was a free city until the Kraków Uprisingof 1846; the capital was first Miechów, then Kielce).
Mazowsze Voivodeship(capital in Warsaw)
Podlasie Voivodeship(capital in Siedlce)
Sandomierz Voivodeship(capital in Radom)
On 7 March 1837 the Congress Poland voivodeships were renamed as 8
Avgustov Governorate(with capital in Łomża)
Kalish Governorate(with capital in Kalisz)
Krakov Governorate(with capital in Kielce)
Lublin Governorate(with capital in Lublin)
Masovia Governorate(with capital in Warsaw)
Plotsk Governorate(with capital in Płock)
Podlyase Governorate(with capital in Siedlce)
Sandomir Governorate(with capital in Radom)
powiats were renamed okręgs, and obwóds were renamed powiats.
In 1844 several governorates were merged with others, and some others renamed. 5 governorates remained:
Lublin Governorate(roughly consisting of the former Lublin and Podlyase Governorates)
Radom Governorate(roughly the former Krakov and Sandomir Governorates)
Warsaw Governorate(roughly the former Masovia and Kalisz Governorates)
The 1867 reform, initiated after the failure of the
January Uprising, was designed to tie the Congress Kingdom (now "de facto" the Vistulan Country) more tightly to the administration structure of the Russian Empire. It dividied larger governorates into smaller ones and introduced a new lower level entity, gminas. This time 10 governorates were formed:
Kalish Governorate- Калишская (Kalishskaya)
Keltse Governorate- Келецкая (Keletskaya) - split off from Radom Governorate
Lublin Governorate- Люблинская ( Lublinskaya)
Lomzha Governorate- Ломжинская (Lomzhinskaya) - split off from the former Avgustov Governorate
Petrokov Governorate- Петроковская (Petrokovskaya) - split off from parts of Radom and Warsaw Governorates
Plotsk Governorate- Плоцкая (Plotskaya)
Radom Governorate- Радомская ( Radomskaya)
Sedlets Governorate- Седлецкая (Sedletskaya)
Suvalki Governorate- Сувалкская (Suvalskaya) - the former Augustów Governorate less the new Łomża Governorate)
Warsaw Governorate- Варшавская (Varshavskaya)
A minor reform of 1893 transferred some territory from the Plotsk and Lomzha Governorates to Warsaw Governorate.
The 1912 reform created a new governorate -
Kholm Governorate- from parts of the Sedlets and Lublin Governorates. However this was split off from the Vistulan Countryand made part of the Southwestern Kraiof the Russian Empire.
* [http://www.jewishgen.org/InfoFiles/Poland/Q2.htm What is the history of the gubernias of Poland?]
*pl icon Zygmunt Gloger, [http://univ.gda.pl/~literat/glogre/0015.htm Geografia historyczna ziem dawnej Polski, Rodział 15: W wieku XIX]
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