- Tuvaluan language
nativename=te ggana Tuvalu
Tuvalu, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand
speakers= 10,670 in Tuvalu. 13,051 total.
Tuvaluan is a Nuclear Polynesian language of the Ellicean group spoken in
Tuvalu. It is more or less distantly related to all other Polynesian languages, such as Hawaiian, Māori, Tahitian, Samoan, and Tongan, and most closely related to the languages spoken on the Polynesian Outliers in Micronesia and Northern and Central Melanesia. Tuvaluan has borrowed considerably from Samoan, the language of Christian missionaries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. There are about 13,000 Tuvaluan speakers worldwide.
Like all other Polynesian languages, Tuvaluan descends from an ancestral language, which historical linguists refer to as "Proto-Polynesian," which was spoken around 3000 years ago.
The sound system of Tuvaluan consists of five
vowels (i, e, a, o, u) and 10 or 11 consonants (p, t, k, m, n, g, f, v, s, h, l), depending on the dialect. All sounds, including consonants, come in short and long forms, which are contrastive.
There are four possible articles in Tuvaluan: definite singular "te", indefinite singular "se" or "he" (depending on the dialect), definite plural zero form, and indefinite plural "ne" or "ni" (depending on the dialect). The verb can be either clause-initial or clause-medial, and the order of subject, direct object, and indirect object is relatively free. The
adjectivegenerally follows the noun, the possessor follows the possessed.
Tuvaluan is divided into two groups of
dialects, Northern Tuvaluan, comprising dialects spoken on the islands of Nanumea, Nanumaga, and Niutao(as well as Niulakita), and Southern Tuvaluan, comprising dialects spoken on the islands of Funafuti, Vaitupu, Nukufetauand Nukulaelae. All dialects are mutually intelligible, and differ in terms of phonology, morphology, and lexicon. The Funafuti- Vaitupudialects (which are very close to one another) is the "de-facto" national language, although speakers of the Northern dialects often use their own dialect in public contexts outside of their own communities. The inhabitants of one island of Tuvalu, Nui, speak a dialect of Gilbertese, a Micronesian language only very distantly related to Tuvaluan.
Tuvaluan is mutually intelligible with
Tokelauan, spoken by the approximately 1,700 inhabitants of the three atolls of Tokelauand on Swains Island, as well as the several thousand Tokelauan migrants living in New Zealand.
The Bible was translated into Tuvaluan in 1987. The
Jehovah's Witnessorganisation Watchtower, publish their Watchtower Magazine on a monthly basis in Tuvaluan. Apart from this, there are very few Tuvaluan language books available. There is, however, a newspaper published in Tuvaluan, called Sikuleo o Tuvalu.
Afaese Manoa( 1942-) wrote the song Tuvalu mo te Atua, adopted in 1978as the country's national anthem.
Although Tuvaluan does not have a longstanding written tradition, there is a considerable corpus of oral traditions. The legend of the
Caves of Nanumangahas attracted international attention.
2000, "Tuvaluan: A Polynesian Language of the Central Pacific", Routledge
1995, "Literacy, Emotion, and Authority: Reading and Writing on a Polynesian Atoll", Cambridge University Press
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ELL Ethnologue]
*Donald Gilbert Kennedy,
1945[http://www.tuvaluislands.com/lang-tv.htm Tuvaluan Grammar]
* Caves of Nanumanga
* [http://www.watchtower.org/vl/index.html Tuvaluan Watchtower website]
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Tuvaluan — can mean:* an Austronesian language, spoken in Tuvalu, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru and New Zealand; see Tuvaluan language, * something to do with the Oceanian island nation of Tuvalu; see Tuvalu * the people of this country; see Tuvaluan people … Wikipedia
Tuvaluan — 1. noun a) A person from Tuvalu or of Tuvaluan descent. b) language mostly spoken in Tuvalu 2. adjective Of, from, or pertaining to Tuvalu, the Tuvaluan people or the Tuvaluan language … Wiktionary
Tuvaluan — /too və looˈən/ adjective Of or relating to the island group of Tuvalu in the SW Pacific, its people or their language noun 1. A native or citizen of Tuvalu 2. The language of Tuvalu … Useful english dictionary
Tuvaluan — [ˌtu:və lu:ən, tu: vα:lʊən] noun 1》 a native or inhabitant of Tuvalu, a country made up of a number of islands in the SW Pacific. 2》 the Austronesian language of Tuvalu. adjective relating to Tuvalu or its language … English new terms dictionary
Tokelauan language — Tokelauan is an Austronesian language.peakersIt is spoken by about 1,700 people on the atolls of Tokelau, and by the few inhabitants of Swains Island in neighbouring American Samoa. It is a member of the Samoic family of Polynesian languages. It… … Wikipedia
Tuvalu — This article is about the country. For other uses, see Tuvalu (disambiguation). Tuvalu … Wikipedia
Nanumea — Atoll Nanumea atoll from space … Wikipedia
Afaese Manoa — (1942 ) is a Tuvaluan writer and musician. National Anthem of TuvaluManoa is the author of words and music to an anthem, Tuvalu mo te Atua , in the Tuvaluan language. The English title of the anthem is Tuvalu for the Almighty .Offical Adoption by … Wikipedia
Kioa — is an island in Fiji, an outlier to Vanua Levu, one of Fiji s two main islands. Situated opposite Buca Bay, Kioa is a freehold by settlers from Tuvalu, who came between 1947 and 1983. Kioa is one of two islands in Fiji populated by South Sea… … Wikipedia
Outline of Tuvalu — The … Wikipedia