Higher education in Orissa

Higher education in Orissa

"See Also List of Colleges and Universities in Orissa, India"

Historically, Orissa has been at the forefront of education and research. The ruins of a major ancient university, Puspagiri, were recently discovered in Orissa. Scholars from far away lands, such as Greece, Persia and China used to study philosophy, astronomy, mathematics and science at this famed University. Along with Takshashila and Nalanda universities, Puspagiri was among the oldest universities in the world. All three universities were mentioned by the Chinese traveler Huien Tsang (Xuanzang), who visited India in the 7th century, but unlike the others, the whereabouts of Puspagiri university were unknown until recently. As of 2007, the ruins of this university have not been fully excavated yet. [cite web
title=Orissa's treasures
date=February 2005
] [cite web
title=Orissa: Introduction

At the present time, due to the prevailing disparity in the allocation of resources to the various states in India, [cite web
title=Central institutions and regional disparity
date=9 January 2006
] [cite web
title=Social Policy: Towards Inclusive Institutions
journal=World Bank
] cite web
title=Cry to end higher education divide
date=1 February 2007
] [cite web
title=Denying Basic Human Rights to Citizens of Orissa and Bihar
] the state of Orissa, with 3.6% of the population, receives an estimated 0.73% of central ("i.e." federal) funds.cite web
title=Statewise allocation of educational funds by HRD
coauthors=Chitta Baral
] These numbers translate to a meager investment of Rs. 4.07 per person in Orissa, compared to, for example, Rs. 183.08 and Rs. 41.20 that Delhi and neighboring West Bengal get from the center. Due to this paucity of resources available from the central government, the state has been left with no centrally funded establishment that is officially labeled as an "institution of national importance". [cite web
title=Institute of national importance
] Most of the investment in higher education in Orissa is through the private sector and the state government. The needs of the state, which is witnessing investment at an unprecedented level, and poised for rapid economic growth, for elite centrally funded institutions has been highlighted recently.cite web
title=Naveen urges PM to open IIT, IIM & IIIT in Orissa
date=16 October 2007
] cite web
title=Orissa demands well known institutes
date=17 October 2007
] cite web
title=Give me an 'Ivy League': CM to Centre
date=17 October 2007
] cite web
title=CM demands setting up of elite institutes
date=October 2007
] Fortunately, some institutions in the state, particularly a few new ones being set up through private investment, are of national and international caliber.

chool education

The 10+2 structure

In Orissa, as elsewhere in India, children are enrolled in school at the age of five. The core subjects taught in schools include science (including physics, chemistry and biology), mathematics (arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, computer science, and set theory), social studies (geography, history, civics, and economics), and three languages, which are usually Oriya, Hindi, and English. Additionally, school children receive training in sports and physical education, as well as vocational training. Although 10 years of primary education is mandatory in Orissa, the literacy rate continues to be low.

After ten years of schooling, children at the end of class X must appear in one of the three school examinations, ("i") the All India Secondary School Examination (AISSE) conducted by the central government run Central Board of Secondary Education(CBSE), ("ii") Orissa High School Certificate Examination, which is conducted by the Board of Secondary Education,Orissa and ("iii") the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) examination, conducted annually by the New Delhi based Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations(CISCE). Children who appear in either the All India Secondary School Examination or the Orissa High School Certificate Examination have a choice of using Oriya, Hindi or English as the medium language. However, Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations makes English the mandatory language.

Two years of higher secondary education follow, which is optional. Students, usually in the 15 through 17 age group, have a choice of specializing in the following streams ("i") science, ("ii") arts, or ("iii") commerce. At this stage, the students get exposed to a wide array of elective subjects. The CBSE conducts the All India Senior School Certificate Examination and the CISCE conducts the Indian School Certificate Examinations for students in class XII.There are also junior colleges and degree colleges in the state that offer secondary education for class XII children. The Council of Higher Secondary Education, Orissa conducts the higher secondary level examination for them.

This educational structure in Orissa is referred to commonly as the 10+2 system. Students who undergo the 10+2 education system are eligible for admission into a college or university in Orissa, and can also opt for other professional training. However, admission into the few top institutions in Orissa, particularly in engineering and medicine, are highly competitive. Students graduating from class XII typically must qualify in an entrance examination in order to gain admission.

Joint Entrance Examination

The government of Orissa conducts a highly competitive Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) annually to select students for admission into the various engineering colleges operating under BPUT. In the year 2006, as many as 49,555 candidates appeared in the JEE.

Private institutions

Vedanta University

Vedanta University is based on a $3 billion endowment by Anil Agarwal, a successful Indian industrialist and philanthropist. According to its founders, Vedanta University will be India's only truly world-class university, comparable to Stanford, Harvard, and Oxford universities. It will offer undergraduate, postgraduate, and doctoral degrees to 100,000 Indian and foreign students in 95 disciplines in engineering, medicine, business, liberal arts, sciences, law, and the performing arts. When completed, Vedanta university will be one of the largest universities in the world. [cite web
title=New Indian university modeled after Stanford
date=27 July 2006
] [cite web
title=Orissa’s $3.2 bn to Vedanta varsity
date=20 July 2006
] The sprawling 8,000 acres (32 km²) Vedanta University campus is being developed along the Puri-Konark marine drive, near the bay of Bengal, between Nuanai and Balighai beach. This task is being implemented by the Baltimore based architectural firm, Ayers Saint Gross. [cite web
title=Ayers Saint Gross Architects and Planners: On the boards

According to newspaper reports, Vedanta University will be developed in several phases until its planned completion in 2025. However, the university is expected to start admitting its first batch of around 3,500 students as early as 2011, into its engineering, liberal arts, and basic science programs. Most academic schools, including those of law and performing arts, as well as a few centers of excellence would be in place by 2016. The campus is expected to develop into a full-fledged university township with a population of 500,000.

ri Sri University

The Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Vidya Mandir Trust and the Government of Orissa signed a Memorandum of Understanding on December 18, 2006 to establish a full-fledged multidisciplinary university near the state capital, Bhubaneswar and former capital,Cuttack within two or three years. Admission into the proposed varsity will be open to 15,000 Indian as well as foreign students. It will offer postgraduate and undergraduate degrees in traditional Indian as well as modern fields of study, such as sciences, engineering, humanities, pharmacy, biosciences, law, Vedic studies, Ayurveda, and Yoga. [cite web
title=Art of Living to set up university in Orissa
date=13 December 2006

The proposed campus will be established in approximately 200-300 acres of land along the banks of the Kathjodi river in picturesque Naraj, near the city of Cuttack. [cite web
title=Location of the proposed Sri Sri University
] Naraj will be developed into an education city. [cite web
title=Education hub mooted near Cuttack
date=25 April 2007

Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar

The Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar (XIMB) was established in 1987. It owes its origin to a contract between the Government of Orissa and the Orissa Jesuit Society. XIMB is governed by a board consisting of representatives from the Orissa Jesuit Society, the government of India, the government of Orissa, as well as invited industrialists and academics.

XIMB has been ranked among the top 10 business schools in India. The institutions offers postgraduate programs, leading to Masters and Ph.D. degrees in business management, rural management, as well several professional training programs. [cite web
title=Doctoral summer school at XIMB
date=29 May 2007
] It has a few research centers in areas such as entrepreneurship, utility regulation, small and micro enterprise development, and healthcare management.

XIMB will establish a second campus in Orissa. This convert|100|acre|km2|1|sing=on campus is slated to start in 2011 to coincide with the institution's silver jubilee. It will be located somewhere in the outskirts of the city of Bhubaneswar. [cite web
title=Coming up: XIMB II
date=6 May 2007

ICFAI University

Hyderabad based Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India (ICFAI) has signed a memorandum of understanding with the chief minister of Orissa, Mr. Naveen Patnaik, to set up a university in the outskirts of the city of Bhubaneswar. ICFAI plan to buy convert|150|acre|km2|1 of land from private parties in Jatni, near the Khurda Road station. [cite web
title=ICFAI inks MoU with State Government to set up varsity
date=21 March 2007
] [cite web
title=ICFAI to set up varsity in state
date=30 July 2005
] The university is budgeted at Rs. 150 crores (1.5 billion). It will function primarily as a business school.

Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology

The Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) is established in Bhubaneswar in 1992.Academic programmes of KIIT University are conducted by its seven constituent schools - School of Technology, School of Computer Application, School of Management, School of Rural Management, School of Medicine, School of Biotechnology and KIIT Law School. The University currently offers B.Tech., MTech, BCA, MCA, M.Sc (Biotechnology), BBA, MBA, MBA in Rural Management, Integrated LL.B and doctoral and post-doctoral programmes in technology, management, humanities and basic sciences. All the academic programmes are accredited by NAAC of UGC and NBA of AICTE. The institute offers MBBS and BDS programmes from its School of Medicine.

National level public institutions

Indian Institute of Technology

According to recent news, the central government finally decided to establish an IIT in Orissa, thus satisfying a five-decade-long demand by the state. The roots of this clamorous demand lay during the establishment of the very first IIT at Kharagpur in West Bengal, which according to the original plan was supposed to have been Orissa's, and has been bolstered by what is construed as government "discrimination" against the state. An earlier plan to establish a full-fledged branch of IIT Kharagpur had been rescinded by the center. Another proposal to establish two IITs in Orissa, that was announced by the cabinet minister, Mr. M. A. Fatimi in July 2006, was also set aside in favor of other states. [cite web
title=PU may finally get Central varsity status
date=29 August 2006
] However, the present announcement, if true, would try to correct Orissa's alleged long history of educational neglect by the central government. Dr. Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister said: [cite web
title=PM promises IIT for Orissa
date=26 June 2007
] :"Orissa is included in all the flagship programs of the UPA Government at the centre." Specifically, the Prime Minister's statement concerning the IIT was::"I am aware of the demands for an IIT in the state and it will be set there.”Previously, the central government had been reported to have been considering creating an IIT in the state. [cite web
title=Orissa to have an IIT: Navin Patnaik
date=16 May 2007

National Institute of Science Education & Research

The National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) is a premier research institution in India along the lines of the internationally reputed IISc in Bangalore, and five sister institutions, the IISERs. Instead of the Ministry of Human Resources Development, NISER operates under the umbrella of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). It was established in 2007, in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, when the first batch of students were admitted into its integrated postgraduate program based on a highly competitive national level entrance examination. The government of India has earmarked an initial outlay of Rs. 823 crores (INR 7.5 billion) during the first seven years of this project.

NISER is dedicated to graduate education and research only. It offers 5 year integrated M.S. as well as Ph. D. degrees in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and biology. Later, engineering, computer science, as well as earth and planetary sciences will be added. The Orissa government has provided convert|300|acre|km2|1 free of cost for the upcoming campus, in Barunei Hills, between Bhubaneswar, the state capital and Khurda. [cite web
title=NISER Bhubaneswar to start session from Sept
date=15 April 2007
] [cite web
title=State to hand over convert|300|acre|km2|1 free of cost for establishment of NISER

Keeping in view the paucity of central government institutions in the state, the government of Orissa has mooted the idea of a National Institute for Technology Education and Research (NITER), a sister institution of NISER, in Bhubaneswar. [cite web
title=After NISER, State wants one more
date=8 September 2007

KBK Adivasi Central University

The Prime Minister has announced that the backward KBK (Kalahandi-Bolangir-Koraput) region of southern Orissa would get a new centrally funded university.

Indian Institute of Information Technology, Bhubaneswar

An Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) is being set up in Bhubaneswar. It will be partly funded by the government of Orissa, and partly self-financed. The institute will have a convert|100|acre|km2|1|sing=on campus close to the new Infocity-II area in the city, where several IT companies are building new offices. It will start operating in September 2007, with a small initial intake of 60 students. [cite web
title=IIIT will start operating from September: Minister
date=26 April 2007
] [cite web
title=Tech Giants Eye Big Plans In Orissa
date=26 April 2007

Indian Institute of Information Technology, Berhampur

In June, 2007, the UPA government in New Delhi decided to establish a central government funded IIITs in each state. The IIIT in Orissa would be established in Berhampur, and unlike its sister institute in Bhubaneswar, would receive funding from the center.cite web
title=Orissa may get 3 more educational institutes
date=25 June 2007

When will IIIT will be established in Berhampur , Berhampur is the Heart of city in South orissa, so many Techciniavl student in South part of orissa, New IIT and IIIT will be consider in Berhampur(Orissa),Ganjam.

National Institute of Design

The central government will establish four new National Institutes of Design (NIDs). One of the locations would be the city of Berhampur in southern Orissa. [cite web
title=Delhi Govt for 4 more National Institutes of Design in 11th Plan
date=10 February 2007
] [cite web
title=Orissa short-listed for NID: Kamal Nath
date=June 2007

National Institute of Fashion Technology

The central government recently announced plans to create a new National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) in Orissa's capital city, Bhubaneswar. [cite web
title=Centre okays proposal for IIHT in Orissa
date=18 May 2007
] The NIFT would be funded through the Indian Ministry of Commerce.

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose All India Institute of Medical Sciences

The government of India had promised to build an All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in the state. The foundation stone was laid in Bhubaneswar, in 2003. According to recent media sources, the progress in this front has been tardy. As of 2007, the state has not received any budgetary support from the Indian government. [cite web
title=Appeal to Indian PM
date=26 April 2007
] [cite web
title=Turf war in AIIMS unhealthy: Sushma
date=18 June 2006
] However, there are indications that construction work will begin towards the end of 2007. [cite web
title=Seven years on construction for proposed AIIMs may begin
date=30 June 2007

National Institute of Technology

The National Institute of Technology (NIT) at Rourkela is the foremost engineering degree granting institutions in Orissa. It has been awarded the status of an Institute of National Importance under the NIT Act and ranks among the best in India. It has been placed third in the eastern zone in the latest DataQuest ranking (2005), only after IIT Kharagpur and IIT Guwahati. [cite web
title=India's top 20 engineering colleges
date=28 June 2005
] NIT, Rourkela focusses mostly in engineering education. It has the following departments, ceramic engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer science & engineering, electrical engineering, electronics & communication engineering, mechanical engineering, metallurgical & materials engineering, mining engineering, chemistry, applied mathematics, physics, and humanities & social sciences. It offers undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral degrees. Its 2.62 km² campus stretches over eastern Rourkela, and houses academic departments, administrative buildings, student and staff housing. The land was provided by the government of Orissa.

Other institutions

The Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) is located in the city of Cuttack. It is one of the premier institutions in Asia for rice research. It was established by the center in 1946 with an experimental farm land of 0.6 km² provided by the Orissa government.

The Bhubaneswar based [http://www.iopb.res.in/ Institute of Physics] was set up by the government of Orissa in 1972 and later funded by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy. It conducts research and offers pre-doctoral and doctoral training, although it does not grant degrees. The [http://www.ilsc.org/ Institute of Life Sciences] is also in Bhubaneswar. It conducts research in fields related to biotechnology, helth and the environment, and offers training programs for doctoral students.

The Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (IMMT, formerly Regional Research Laboratory) is an established institution in Bhubaneswar in 1964 by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. It is a research establishment with expertise in areas such as material science, mineral engineering and metallurgy.

The central government has recently set up some more small institutions. Among them is the regional campus of the Gwalior based institute in Bhubaneswar, called the Indian Institute of Tourism Travel and Management Baji Rout Regional Centre (IITTM). It will offer postgraduate diploma courses in travel & tourism and international business. Another institution, the Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology (CIPET) was established in 2007 by the Ministry of chemical and fertilizers. One of its campuses is at Bhubaneswar. It offers a postgraduate degree in plastic technology and engineering, as well as several diploma courses.

Outside the Bhubaneswar metropolitan region, a small branch campus of the Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC) was established in Dhenkanal in 1993. It offers postgraduate courses in English and Oriya journalism. [cite web
title=Indian Institute Of Mass Communication, Dhenkanal.
] Located in Puri, the [http://bpnsi.org/ Biju Patnaik National Steel Institute] conducts a certificate course in iron & steel manufacturing & plant management.

tate level public institutions

Utkal University

Utkal University (Vani Vihar) was the first university to be established in Orissa in 1943. It is also the seventeenth oldest in India. It is located in Bhubaneswar and has about 3,000 postgraduate and doctoral students enrolled. The university has jurisdiction over nine districts in Orissa, namely Angul, Cuttack, Dhenkanal, Jajpur, Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapara, Khurda, Nayagarh and Puri, catering to the needs of higher education of a population of over 11 million people.

ambalpur University

Sambalpur University (Jyoti Vihar) in Burla, in western Orissa is another important university covering the districts of Sambalpur, Sundargarh, Jharsuguda, Deogarh, Bargarh, Bolangir, Subarnapur, Nawapara, Kalahandi, Boudh as well as the Athamallik Sub-Division of Angul district. It offers postgraduate education in twenty seven subjects. The university has been functioning since 1967.

Berhampur University

Berhampur University was established in southern Orissa in 1965, as the third oldest university in the state. The University has 25 affiliated colleges and covers the districts of Ganjam, Koraput, Kandhomal, Gajapati, Rayagda, Nawrangpur and Malkangiri.

Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology

The Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT) was established in the city of Bhubaneswar in 1962. It is dedicated to agriculture related research and education, and has seven colleges as well as a centre for postgraduate studies.

Biju Patnaik University of Technology

The Biju Patnaik University of Technology (BPUT),Rourkela, was created by an act of the Orissa state legislature in the year 2002. Almost all the engineering, pharmacy, architecture and most of the colleges offering MBA degree programmes are either constituent or affiliated colleges of BPUT. Today, the university has 110 colleges, both constituent and affiliated, with around 58,000 students. The disciplines include engineering and architecture, business management and hotel management, computer studies and pharmacy.

Ravenshaw University

Upgraded from Ravenshaw College one of the oldest and largest colleges of India, the Ravenshaw University came into existence on 15 November 2006. Originally affiliated to University of Calcutta and thereafter to Patna University and then finally to Utkal University the institution finally got its own identity and became one of the most reputed universities of the Orissa state. Presently the University runs 23 Post-Graduate courses with research facilities and 27 Undergraduate honours courses.

University College of Engineering

Established in 1956 at Burla, the University College of Engineering (UCE) is Orissa's oldest, and one of the east zone's oldest engineering colleges. It operates within the aegis of BPUT, offering undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral degrees in several engineering disciplines. The academic departments within UCE are, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics & telecummunications, manufacturing science & engineering, civil engineering, computer science, information technology, physics, chemistry, humanities and mathematics. UCE Burla receives financial grants from the AICTE and UGC, two central agencies, as well as from the state government.

Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology

The Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology (IGIT) is located at Sarang in the industrial belt of Talcher. It was established in 1982 by the government of Orissa. In addition to four year undergraduate degrees in electrical, mechanical, chemical and civil engineering, and metallurgical & materials science, it offers three year diplomas in a few technical disciplines.

College of Engineering and Technology

The College of Engineering and Technology (CET) was established within the purview of OUAT in Bhubaneswar. It is primarily an undergraduate college, offering programs in architecture, computer science, information technology, and electrical, civil, instrumentation & electronics and mechanical engineering.

hriram Chandra Bhanja Medical College

Established in 1944, The Shriram Chandra Bhanja Medical College (SCB Medical College) at Cuttack, is the premier medical institution in Orissa and one of the oldest in India. It offers postgraduate degrees in all broad areas of medicine. It also runs super speciality training facilities in several areas such as cardiology, neurosurgery, and radiotherapy. There also exists a dental wing under the SCB Medical college.

Veer Surendra Sai Medical College

The Veer Surendra Sai (VSS) Medical college and hospital has been in operation since 1959 in Burla. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate education in medicine and surgery, besides offering training courses in pharmacy and nursing.

Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati Medical College

The Maharaja Krishna Chandra Gajapati (MKCG) Medical College is a medical college in Berhampur. It was originally started in 1976 as an extension of the SCB Medical College. It operates under Berhampur University. It offers MBBS and MD degrees and also provides training in medical related fields.

tate legislation pertaining to higher education

The Orissa state legislative assembly (Vidhan Sabha) will be formulating a Private Universities Act to facilitate the growth of private universities such as Vedanta university, Sri Sri university. The higher education department of the state will draft the bill, which will be referred to the law department, before being placed in the assembly. This bill would guarantee the fiscal and administrative autonomy for private institutions. [cite web
title=Orissa to formulate new Act for Private Universities
date=21 September 2006
] [cite web
title=Private Universities in Orissa on Anvil
date=1 January 2003
] [cite web
title=India: Private Colleges Fill A Void
date=28 March 2007

Vedanta University act

The Orissa legislature will also pass a specific act to make Vedanta university a statutory body. After the passage of the act, the university will be regarded as a non-profit organization. It will establish its own, independent governing board, where the Orissa government will not exercise any control.

Alleged central government neglect of Orissa

"See also Orissa IIT Controversy"

Alleged discrimination in existing institutions

The Ministry of Human Resources and Development (HRD) of the Government of India has set up several premier technical institutes, across the country that produce India's world class talent pool in science, engineering, and management, and contribute strongly to the economic development of the state where they are located as well as the nation. These institutions include the seven "Indian Institutes of Technology" (IITs), the "Indian Institute of Science" (IISc), the five "Indian Institutes of Management" (IIMs), the "Indian Statistical Institute" (ISI), several " [http://www.ugc.ac.in/inside/utype.php?st=Central%20University Central Universities] ", and a few other smaller institutions, all of which receive direct funding from the center ("i.e." federal government) instead of relying on smaller budgets through their state and local governments.cite web
title=Higher education, lower development
date=21 December 2006

According to recent news reports, there has been large scale discrimination in setting up these institutions of higher learning against a few states, especially Orissa. It has also been observed within scholarly circles that Orissa is routinely discriminated against by the Indian government, which has caused the state to lag behind the rest of the nation in terms of infrastructure, poverty reduction, literacy, education, and health.cite journal
title=Poverty, Disparities, or the Development of Underdevelopment in Orissa
coauthors=Arjan de Haan, Amaresh Dubey
journal=Economic and Political Weekly
issue=22, 23
] cite journal
title=Conceptualising social exclusion in the context of India’s poorest regions: a contribution to the quantitative-qualitative debate
coauthors=Arjan de Haan
journal=Conference on Experiences of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Poverty Appraisal
] cite journal
title=Chronic Poverty and Remote Rural Areas in Eastern India
coauthors=B. K. Malik, S. K. Mohanty
journal=Conference on Experiences of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Poverty Appraisal
publisher=Population Association of America
location=Los Angeles, California
] cite journal
title=Poverty in Remote Rural Areas in India: Pattern, Processes of Reproduction, and Policy Imperatives
coauthors=Amita Shah
journal=Understanding and addressing spatial poverty traps: an international workshop
publisher=Chronic Poverty Research Centre & Overseas Development Institute
format=PDF}location=Stellenboch, South Africa
] [cite book
coauthors = Kate Bird, David Hulme, Karen Moore and Andrew Shepherd
title=Chronic Poverty in Remote Rural Areas
publisher=International Development Department, Univ. Birmingham
location=Birmingham, UK
] [cite book
title=Understanding chronic poverty in South Asia
] [cite web
title=Tata steel’s romance with Orissa: minerals-based underdevelopment and federal politics in India
coauthors = P. J. Pradhan|format=PDF
] [cite web
title=Analysis: Orissa's history of neglect
coauthors = P. J. Pradhan

None of the premier institutions of national importance are located in the state of Orissa. In terms of per capita funding received from the HRD ministry, it is among the bottom-most of all states. The only states below it are Bihar, Rajasthan, and a few very small states in the north eastern region. There have been estimates of the amount of HRD funding received by each state within the Indian union. One recently published estimate is provided in the table below. [cite web
title=Denying Basic Human Rights to Citizens of Orissa and Bihar
coauthors=Purna C. Mishra

1in crore (=10,000,000) rupees

The non-allocation of quality educational institutions to the state of Orissa by New Delhi has been interpreted by various quarters, ranging from politicians to Oriya academics living abroad, as proof of discrimination against the state by the HRD ministry. Orissa, which has 3.6% of the population of India, receives a minuscule 0.73% of the allocated budget This, it is claimed, falls within the purview of a larger pattern of what the national media has labeled as the "step-motherly treatment" meted out to Orissa by the government of India. The inequitable distribution of resources by the central government to the various states was identified in 1991 as a cause of regional disparities.cite web
title=Central institutions and regional disparity
date=9 January 2006
] [cite web
title=Regional Disparity in India: A Comparison Between Pre and Post Reforms Decades
coauthors = Bhattacharya and Sakthivel
publisher=Institute of Economic Growth
location=New Delhi, India
] Although the Prime Minister of India, Dr, Manmohan Singh, announced that the UPA-led government would "evolve policies to remedy these regional imbalances", the current indications are that these imabalances have widened even further, with Orissa being identified as a state that gained little from the central government's economic policies. [cite web
title=Regional Disparity Widens; Rich States Corner Benefits of Reforms
] [cite web
title=Historical neglect towards eastern region should be corrected
date = 29 May 2007
] Studies have blamed central government policies above any other factor, as the cause of Orissa's backwardness. [cite web
title=Disparities in national development

Alleged discrimination in establishing new institutions

India's recent rapid economic expansion has created the need for more world class talent. The Human Resources and Development ministry has undertaken the need to set up several more institutions of international quality. A total of twenty three institutions were announced, including more IITs, IIMs, Central Universities, as well as the new "Indian Institutes of Science Education & Research" (IISERs) and the "Indian Institutes of Engineering Science & Technology" (IIESTs), all under the 11th Five Year Plan. As before, the state of Orissa has not been allocated any institution of national importance and continues to be the last state in terms of per capita investment in human resources by the Indian government. [cite web
title=Bias against Bhubaneswar
date=1 July 2006
] [cite web
title=The gold that keeps Orissa poor
date=17 November 2006
] Mrs. Purandeshwari, a minister in the Indian cabinet has stated in parliament that national level institutions will be set up in other states, but no similar plan for Orissa is under consideration. [cite web
title=UPA discrimination on Orissa: No IIT, no fund
date=3 June 2007
] The regional disparities in this regard has been pointed out even by Dr. C. N. R. Rao, the scientific advisor to the Prime Minister of India. [cite web
title=PM's scientific adviser finds Plan paper weak
date=30 September 2006

The HRD ministry has recently announced plans to build three additional IITs in the states of Rajasthan, Bihar, and Andhra Pradesh. According to recent reports, the allocation of the new IITs to Rajasthan and Bihar are to compensate them for earlier neglect. [cite web
title=IITs to come up in Bihar, Andhra and Rajasthan
date=4 March 2006
] Andhra Pradesh, which borders Orissa will get the third IIT, which allegedly was shifted from Orissa. [cite web
title=Three IITs for Andhra, none for Orissa
date=3 March 2006
] . If the Indian media is to be believed, the UPA government has categorically declined to establish an IIT in Orissa. [cite web
title=Govt says no to an IIT in Orissa
date=8 May 2007
] [cite web
title=Centre rules out setting up of IIT in Orissa
date=9 May 2007
] [cite web
title=Orissa not to have a premier IIT institute
date=2 June 2007
] Upon implementation of the HRD ministry's plan, Orissa will become the lowest ranking state in terms of per capita HRD investment. [cite web
title=Plz; no politics over IIT
date=7 June 2007
] This is in spite of a few new central institutions that will be put up in various states, which includes an IIIT, a central university, and possibly a National Institute of Design (NID). This is because such institutions are planned in each and every state, and the NID receives only a small fraction of the budget involved in a major institution, such as an IIT.The IIESTs are a group of technical institutions that are planned to be established as IIT clones. They will be set up by upgrading existing NITs and other state funded prominent engineering institutions. Several institutions have been identified by the Indian government for this purpose. [cite web
title=The IIT story: IIESTs, 3 new IITs on way
date=20 January 2007
] The University College of Engineering at Burla, which is Orissa's first engineering college as well as one of the oldest in India, was allegedly sidelined when identifying potential IIESTs. [cite web
title=Upgradation of Orissa’s oldest and finest engineering college ‘UCE, Burla’ as an IIEST
] The NIT at Rourkela ranks higher than four of the five institutions in other states that were marked for upgradation. [cite web
title=India's top 20 engineering colleges
date=28 June 2005

It has been alleged that the government had originally picked Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Orissa as one of the locations for an IISER, which was later shifted to Kolkata. [cite web
title=NIS/IISER/equivalent must be established in Orissa
date=20 January 2007
] This issue was resolved when it was decided to set up the National Institute for Science Education and Research (NISER) as a similar institution, which would be funded through the Indian Department of Atomic Energy. A recent court order has directed the central government to start NISER's functioning before August, 2007 to compensate for the shifting of an IISER elsewhere. [cite web
title=Set up NISER in city by August: HC
] NISER is the only such upcoming institution in Orissa, whereas other states have had similar non-HRD funded institutions for several decades. [cite web
title=Gross injustice to Orissa:Announced National Inst. of Sc. in Bhubaneswar renamed & shifted

The Koraput-Balangir-Kalahandi (KBK) region of Orissa [cite web
title=KBK Districts
] is one of the most backward regions of India, with famines and large scale starvation deaths reported each year. [cite web
title=Shocking Reports Of Starvation Deaths
date=30 September 2001
] The region lacks infrastructure and the Indian government has done very little to alleviate the plight of the impoverished masses in those districts. [cite web
title=Ferment in Orissa
date=July/August 2001
] [cite web
title=Centre to blame for starvation
date=31 August 2001
] There is a long-standing demand by the people of Orissa for the Indian government to establish a central university in this region, as part of the plan to ameliorate the poverty through various direct and indirect means such as education, as is being done in the underdeveloped north-east region. [cite web
title=Central university as development pill
date=20 January 2007
] [cite web
title=Orissa demands IIT and KBK Univ
date=20 January 2007
] [cite web
title=Central University: Union government ignores Orissa again
date=13 November 2005
] [cite web
title=Open letter to Planning commission, Government of India
] This is in addition to the central university that the government will set up within the next five years, with one in each state, which would also include Orissa. Such a central university to cater to the tribal population was announced by the central government recently. However, the location of the institution was in Madhya Pradesh to Orissa's west. Since the demographic make-up of that state is less tribal than that of Orissa, the media has accused the cabinet minister, Mr. Arjun Singh of showing favoritism, as Madhya Pradesh is Mr. Singh's own home state. [cite web
title=Arjun highjack Naveen plan
date=15 June 2007
] [cite web
title=Orissa feels dejected again
date=20 June 2007
] [cite web
title=Orissa CM demands Central varsity for KBK
date=20 June 2007

The government of India has decided to establish three new IIMs. [cite web
title=Three new IIMs need of the day: Moily sub-group
date=4 August 2006
] There is a demand for one of the new management institutions to be established in Orissa, on grounds that the state is witnessing large-scale foreign investment, and because it is the bottom-most state in Indian central government funded institutions. [cite web
title=Patnaik writes to PM, wants IIT/IIM in Orissa
date=11 May 2007

Politics related to the issue

Politicians including the chief minister of Orissa, Mr. Naveen Patnaik, have sought to cast this festering issue as a sign of severe neglect of the state by the government in New Delhi led by the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). [cite web
title=IIT must for Orissa: Naveen
date=16 May 2007
] [cite web
title=Orissa CM writes to Centre for IIT in the State
] [cite web
title=Union Govt’s neglect towards Orissa must be corrected: Naveen
] [cite web
title=UPA discrimination on Orissa
date=3 June 2007
] [cite web
title=Naveen slams Centre for ignoring Orissa
date=20 May 2007
] [cite web
title=Rejection enrage Naveen
date=9 May 2007
] In May 2007, the issue became a major issue in the Indian parliament. [cite web
title=IIT issue echoes in LS
date=3 June 2007
] [cite web
title=IIT Orissa hits Central wall
date=3 June 2007
] [cite web
title=Naveen takes up IIT issue with Manmohan
date=11 May 2007
] In his words, “Orissa does not have a single institution of national excellence and the demand for IIT is a long-standing one”. [cite web
title=Naveen calls for IIT cause
date=15 May 2007
] The opposition National Democratic Alliance (NDA) staged a walk-out in the Indian parliament, accusing the ruling UPA of neglecting the state's economic development. [cite web
title=IIT for Orissa: NDA stages walkout
date=9 May 2007
] [cite web
title=Orissa MPs stage walkout over IIT issue
] [cite web
title=Naveen kicks off movement against UPA Government
date=28 May 2007

It has been reported by sections of the media in May 2007 that the Congress party led UPA government has been embarrassed by this issue. [cite web
title=IIT issue to hit Congress: Congress leaders have no face to save
] The HRD minister, Mr. Arjun Singh has also relented. [cite web
title=Centre will consider IIT for Orissa: Arjun Singh
] However, recent comments by the Orissa government point towards continued neglect of Orissa. [cite web
title=Neglecting eastern region not good for national integration: Orissa CM

There have been several incidents of protest in Orissa in 2007. [cite web
title=Vehicular movement hit over protests on proposed IIT
date=2 February 2007
] Students have taken to the streets to demand the setting up of an IIT and other educational institutions in Orissa. [cite web
title=Political activists, students demand IIT for Orissa
date=11 May 2007
] [cite web
title=Child prodigy Budhia rallies for IIT in Orissa
date=8 April 2007
] [cite web
title=Janashakti to launch stir against Centre’s apathy
date=April 2007
] Agamee Odisha, an organization spearheading a mass agitation in Orissa has organized statewide rallies. [cite web
title=Agami Odisha members demand IIT for Orissa
] [cite web
title=Intellectuals to hit streets for IIT
date=3 April 2007
] There also have been stray incidents of violence related to the issue of Orissa's neglect. [cite web
title=Youths of BJD picks up fight
date=15 May 2007
] In May 2007, this issue was taken up by the National Students Union of India (NSUI). [cite web
title=IIT: NSUI plans stir
date=23 May 2007
] This issue has also found strong support among the Oriyas residing in other countries, who have demanded that two central universities and a new IIT be set up in the state. [cite web
title=OSA demands central varsity and IIT in Orissa
date= 7 October 2007
] This demand is justified in view of similar plans that were taken up for other similar sized states, and because Orissa, according to them, is on the verge of rapid industrialization.


External links

* [http://equitableindia.org Center for Promoting an Equitable India]
* [http://iitorissa.org Orissa at the receiving end of MHRD again: Announced for new IIT for Orissa shifted?]
* [http://kbkcentral.blogspot.com KBK Adivasi Central University & similar ones in other backward-n-tribal district clusters]
* [http://newiits.blogspot.com Regional balance as well as academic excellence in making new IITs and IIESTs]
* [http://orissawatch.org Orissa Watch]
* [http://orissalinks.googlepages.com OrissaLinks: Orissa infrastructure links with some commentary]
* [http://orissalinks.googlepages.com/orissauniversities Universities in Orissa]
* [http://orissalinks.googlepages.com/researchinstitutesinorissa Research Institutes in Orissa]
* [http://chitta.googlepages.com/2006budget1 Favouritisms in the 2006-2007 Indian budget]
* [http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETSOCIALDEVELOPMENT/Resources/DeHaan_Formatted.pdf Towards Inclusive Institutions]

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