- Aventine Hill
Infobox Hill of Rome
name =Aventine Hill
Latin name =Aventinus mons
Italian name =Colle Aventino
Roman Forum, Circus Maximus
Ancus Marcius, Lucius Opimius, Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, Naevius, Pope Sixtus III
Chariot racing, Aventine Secession (494 BC), Aventine Secession (20th century)
Bacchanalia, Sacred fire of Vesta
Artemis, Bona Dea, Ceres, Cacus, Dionysus, Diana, Heracles, Mercury, Selene, Vertumnus|
:"The Aventine is a hill in the city of Rome. It is accepted that it derives its name from birds (aves) which, rising from the Tiber, nested there (as we read in the eighth book of a suitable home for the nests of ill-omened birds). This is because of a king of the Aboriginal Italians, Aventinus by name, who was both killed and buried there - just as the Alban king Aventinus was, he who was succeeded by Procas. Varro, however, states that amongst the Roman people, the Sabines accepted this mountain when it was offered them by Romulus, and called it the Aventine after the Aventus river in its area. It is therefore accepted that these different opinions came later, for in the beginning it was called Aventinus after either the birds or the Aboriginal King: from which it is accepted that the son of Hercules mentioned here took his name from that of the hill, not vice versa." [Maurus Servius Honoratus, [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Serv.+A.+7.657 Commentary on the Aeneid of Vergil] ]
An alternate etymology comes directly from the founding of Rome.
Romulussaw birds from Aventine Hill, not Palatine Hill, so Aventine Hill was aptly named as where Romulussaw his omen (birds = "aves"). [Skutsch, O. ["Enniana IV: Condendae Urbis Auspicia"] , "The Classical Quarterly", 1961. Retrieved on May_6, 2007.]
Virgilwrote that Cacus, whom Herculeskilled, lived in a cave on Aventine Hill. Herculeskilled him because Cacushad stolen the Cattle of Geryon that Herculeshad to deliver. ["Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World". [http://www.paulyonline.brill.nl.turing.library.northwestern.edu/bnp.asp "Cacus"] , 2002. Retrieved on May_4, 2007.]
However, a number of other sources, including
Enniusand Servius, place Romuluson the Aventine Hill. Thus, the etymology of the hill’s name has a more direct connection to the founding of Rome as it is where Romulussaw his birds (aves).
In modern times, the Aventine Hill actually consists of two hills: the northwestern hill and the southeastern hill. During Romulus' and Remus' time, the Aventine Hill only consisted of the northwestern hill.
Remusstood on the southeastern hill. Eventually, the northwestern hill, where Romulusstood, and the southeastern hill, upon which Remusstood, both came together under the name of the Aventine Hill. As a result, mythologically, Romulusand Remuswould have stood on the same hill. In order to preserve the image of the twins standing on different hills looking for omens, Romulus’ position was changed to Palatine Hill, where Romulusfounded the city, and Remusremained on the Aventine Hill. [Skutsch, O. ["Enniana IV: Condendae Urbis Auspicia"] , "The Classical Quarterly", 1961. Retrieved on May_6, 2007.]
Ancient and medieval
The Aventine Hill did not become a part of Rome proper until long after the city’s founding. Strabo’s Geography has the Aventine Hill being incorporated into Rome by
Ancus Marcius, who ruled from 640-616 BC as the fourth king of Rome, in order to further fortify the city and protect it from invaders. [Strabo. [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/5C*.html "Geography"] , November_6, 2006. Retrieved on May_8, 2007.] Common Roman mythology believes the Aventine Hill was incorporated into the city of Rome with the building of the Servian Wallduring the reign of Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, in the mid-sixth century, BC. The wall itself, however, probably could not have been built before 393 BC when the Romans conquered Veii, which controlled a quarry that produced the specific type of stone of which the Servian Wallis made. Most scholars believe that the wall was built after an invasion and occupation by the Gaulsin 387 BC.
The Aventine Hill was a suburb of Rome during the monarchy and early Republic until about 456 BC when a law was passed allowing
plebeiansto own property on the hill. Thus, the city began to outgrow its walls as it extended onto Aventine Hill and the Campus Martius. This expansion made it much easier for the Gaulsto capture Rome. This invasion prompted a new wall to be built incorporating the new areas of the city, including the Aventine Hill. [Carter, Jesse Benedict. "The Evolution of the City of Rome from Its Origin to the Gallic Catastrophe"] , "Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society", September_2, 1909. Retrieved on May_6, 2007.]
During the Fascist period, many deputies of the opposition retired on this hill after the
murderof Giacomo Matteotti, here ending - by the so-called "Aventine Secession" - their presence at the Parliament and consequently their political activity.
The hill is now an elegant residential part of Rome with a wealth of architectural interest.
Popular culture references
The Aventine Hill is portrayed as a rough working-class area of ancient Rome in the popular Falco series of historical novels written by
Lindsey Davisabout Marcus Didius Falco, a 'private informer' who occasionally works for the Emperor Vespasian and lives in the Aventine. The same image is portrayed in much of the series "Rome", in which the Aventine is the home of Lucius Vorenus. In season two Vorenus and his friend legionary Titus Pullo seek to maintain order over the various gangs competing there for power.
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AVENTINE HILL — one of the seven hills of Rome, the mount to which the plebs sullenly retired on their refusal to submit to the patrician oligarchy, and from which they were enticed back by Menenius Agrippa by the well known fable of the members of the body… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Aventine — /av euhn tuyn , tin/, n. 1. one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. adj. 2. of or pertaining to the Aventine. [1615 25; < L Aventinus (mons) the Aventine (hill)] * * * … Universalium
Aventine — /av euhn tuyn , tin/, n. 1. one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. adj. 2. of or pertaining to the Aventine. [1615 25; < L Aventinus (mons) the Aventine (hill)] … Useful english dictionary
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Palatine Hill — (p[a^]l [.a]*t[imac]n), prop. n. [L. Mons Palatinus, It. Monte Palatino.] One of the seven hills of Rome, situated southeast of the Capitoline and north northeast of the Aventine. It borders on the Roman Forum; is the traditional seat of the city … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
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