Kingdom of Tavolara


Kingdom of Tavolara

Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Regno di Tavolara"
conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Tavolara
common_name = Tavolara|
continent = Europe
region = Western Europe
country = Italy
era =
status = unrecognized
government_type = Monarchy|
life_span = 1836 – 1886
1899 – 19341
event_start = Kingdom established
year_start = 1836
date_start =
event_end = Occupied by Italy
year_end = 1962
date_end =
p1 =
flag_p1 =
p2 =
flag_p2 =
s1 = Republic of Tavolara
flag_s1 = Flag of Tavolaran Republic.gif
s2 = Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
flag_s2 = Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg|
event1 = Republic established
date_event1 = 1886
event2 = Monarchy restored
date_event2 = 1899
event3 = Ceded to Italy
date_event3 = 19341|


flag_type =


symbol =
symbol_type =





image_map_caption = Location of Tavolara off Sardinia|
capital =
largest_city = N/A
national_motto =
national_anthem =
common_languages = Sardinian, Italian
religion =
currency = |

leader1 = Giuseppe
year_leader1 = 1836-1845
title_leader =
deputy1 =
year_deputy1 =
title_deputy =
leader2 = Paolo II
year_leader2 = 1929-1962
deputy2 =
year_deputy2 = |

stat_year1 = 1900
stat_area1 = 5
stat_pop1 = 55
stat_year2 =
stat_area2 =
stat_pop2 =
footnotes = 1Italy never formally annexed the island, but occupied much of its territory in 1962.
In the 19th and 20th centuries, Tavolara island off the northeast coast of Sardinia was ruled by the Bertoleoni family as the Kingdom of Tavolara, one of the smallest kingdoms on the planet. It is now simply part of Italy, although it was never formally annexed.

In 1836, King Charles Albert of Sardinia visited the island and acknowledged Giuseppe Bertoleoni as an independent sovereign monarch. [Wallechinsky, David, and Amy Wallace (2005), "The New Book of Lists", pp 383-384, ISBN 1-84195-719-4] When he died in the 1840s, his eldest son became King Paolo I.

Tavolara was not included in the Italian unification, and King Paolo actively sought and obtained recognition from Italy. During his reign, in 1861 the Italian government paid 12,000 lire for land at the northeast end of the island to build a lighthouse, which began operating in 1868. ["La Republique de Tavolara," "A travers le monde aux pays inconnus" (1896), p 176] ["Notice to Mariners," "London Gazette," Aug 28, 1868, p 4734] Tavolara's sovereignty was reconfirmed in 1903, when Victor Emmanuel III of Italy signed a treaty of friendship with the nation. ["Tiny Republic Signs Treaty," "Atlanta Constitution", Nov 22, 1903, p10]

After Paolo's death in 1886, ["E morto il Re!" "La Sardegna", June 8, 1886, p 1] and according to his wishes, the island became a republic, with a president and council of six elected every six years by a vote of the people, male and female. ["Smallest State in the World," "New York Times", June 19, 1896. p 6] Its third president was elected in 1896. ["Tiny Nation to Vote: Smallest Republic in the World to Hold a Presidential Election," "Lowell Daily Sun", Sep 17, 1896] ["Nation of 55 People: Republic of Tavolara in Its Third Presidential Campaign" "Boston Globe", Jan 10, 1897, p 34]

The monarchy, however, was reinstated in 1899. Since that time the island's kings have all come from the Bertoleoni family, recognized as the rulers of Tavolara by the Kings of Sardinia. Documents dating to 1767 affirm that Tavolara had never been a part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

The third king of Tavolara was Carlo I, who was succeeded upon his death in 1928 by his son King Paolo II. [ "Tavolara's King Dies; Ruled Tiniest Realm; Charles Bartoleoni Was Monarch of Small Island Off Sardinia's Coast," "New York Times", Feb 1, 1928, p 27] Paolo went abroad, however, and left Carlo's sister Mariangela as regent in his absence. Queen Mariangela died in 1934, leaving the kingdom to Italy. ["Italy Gets Queen's Island of Tavolara," "Hartford Courant", July 9, 1934, p 15]

Her nephew Paolo II still claimed the kingdom, however, and ruled it until his death in 1962. That year marked the installation of a NATO station and the effective end of Tavolaran sovereignty.

The present King Tonino of Tavolara is an Italian citizen named Tonino Bertoleoni, who runs "Da Tonino," a restaurant on the island. Politically, the interests of the island are represented in its external dealings by Prince Ernesto Geremia di Tavolara, of La Spezia, Italy, who has written a history of the island. [Geremia, Ernesto Carlo, and Gino Ragnetti (2005), "Tavolara - l'Isola dei Re", ISBN 8-84253-441-2]

The royal tomb of King Paolo I is in the graveyard on the island, surmounted by a crown.

References

*Fioretti, Ovidio, [http://www.ceramichesarde.it/pagine/rubriche/tavolara.htm "La corona senza reame,"] "Almanacco di Cagliari 1989"
*Geremia, Ernesto Carlo, and Gino Ragnetti (2005), "Tavolara - l'Isola dei Re", ISBN 8-84253-441-2

ee also

*Bertoleoni
*List of extinct states
*Former countries in Europe after 1815
*Self-proclaimed monarchy

External links

* [http://www.fotw.net/flags/it-tavol.html Flag of Tavolara]


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