- Wally Hedrick
bgcolour = #6495ED
name = Wally Hedrick
caption = Wally Hedrick, c.1967, in studio
working on "The War Room" (1967)
birthdate = 1928
deathdate = 2003
San Francisco, California
nationality = American
influenced by =
Wally Bill Hedrick (1928 in
Pasadena, California- December 17, 2003in San Francisco, California)Gerald D. Adams, San Francisco Chronicle, Wally Hedrick: Iconoclastic Painter, Sculptor, Wednesday, December 24, 2003 [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/12/24/BAGPK3TKBM1.DTL&hw=Wally+Hedrick&sn=001&sc=1000] ] was a seminal American artistin the 1950s California counterculture,Peter Selz and Susan Landauer, Art of Engagement: Visual Politics in California and Beyond, UC Press, 2006, pg.89. ] gallerist, and educator who came to prominence in the early 1960s. Hedrick’s contributions to art include pioneering artworks in psychedelic light art, mechanical kinetic sculpture, junk/assemblage sculpture, Pop Art, and (California) Funk Art. Later in his life, he was a recognized forerunner in Happenings, Conceptual Art, Bad Painting, Neo-Expressionism, and image appropriation. Hedrick was also a key figure in the first important public manifestation of the Beat Generationwhen he helped to organize the Six Gallery Reading, and created the first artistic denunciation of American foreign policy in Vietnam. Wally Hedrick was known as an “idea artist” long before the label “conceptual art” entered the art world, and experimented with innovative use of language in art, at times resorting to puns.
Wally Hedrick came out of the military and
car culture, first glimpsing the liberating promise of San Francisco bohemia in the late 1940s, then moving to the city permanently after seeing combat in the Korean War(1950 – 1953). Thomas Crow, The Rise of the Sixties: American and European Art in the Age of Dissent (New York, 1996) pg. 27. ] Hedrick visited California School of Fine Arts(now the San Francisco Art Institute) in 1946. During this period, he joined Progressive Art Workers with David Simpson, John Stanleyand others. The Progressive Art Workers was a social club which also functioned as a co-operative through which the group the members were able to exhibit their works. At this time, too, Vesuvio's bar in San Francisco's North Beach district hired Hedrick as an action painter to work (i.e. 'make paintings') while a jazz combo performed:
"That was his job. He made these paintings and while he would paint the musicians would play along with him. He would go like this and they would go doodoo doop. It was very popular in North Beach. The guy would make four or five paintings in an evening. " [ Richard Candida Smith, Utopia and Dissent: Art, Poetry, and Politics in California, University of California Press, 1995, p168. ]
Hedrick made an early break with the conventions of art training and art--making. John Natsoulas Gallery, Lyrical Vision Exhibition Catalogue, Davis, CA, 1990, pg. 64. ] "There were three directions an artist could take at that time," Hedrick says, "Figuration, Abstract-Expressionism. And this third thing, which was out of the surrealist and Dada tradition." [ Source forthcoming. ] Hedrick began "working out a form of personalized Dada", which led "perhaps to his most influential contribution to the course of Bay Area art: an elaborate kind of punning. The puns not only became titles...but appeared in the painting itself." [ Thomas Albright, 1885, pg. 89. ]
Hedrick's mature artistic career began with paintings of popular imagery -- American flags, radios, television cabinets and refrigerators -- years before the rise of New York
Pop Art. [ John Coplan, 1963, “Pop Art, USA," Oakland Museumcatalog essay for the exhibition. Reprinted Artforum, October 1963: 27-30. See also Solnit. ] John Coplansincluded Hedrick's use of popular imagery in 1951 in his timeline of the antecedents to Pop Art. [ John Coplans, Artforum, The New Paintings of Common Objects, December, 1962,pg. 29. ] Hedrick "began painting flags in the 1950s, before New York's Jasper Johns did. Soon after, Hedrick -- ever the anti-careerist -- painted many of those flags black to protest the Vietnam War."
In the early 1950s, Vesuvio’s bar, a popular Beat hangout, employed Hedrick to sit in the window dressed in full beard, turtleneck, and sandals and create improvisational drawings and paintings. Hedrick's figure, therefore, helped ushered in the Beat lifestyle which ballooned in the later 1950s; by 1958 tourists to San Francisco could take bus tours to view the North Beach "Beat" scene. [ William T. Lawlor ed., Beat Culture: Lifestyles, Icons and Impact, pg. 309. ] Hedrick once confided to his student
Jerry Garciathat "he and his friends were the "real" Beat Generation." Dennis McNally, A Long Strange Trip, 2002, pg 14. ]
At the time, Hedrick was one of the first San Francisco Artists in the early 1950s to work almost exclusively with metal. He began welding in 1952, and these efforts are considered the first kinetic / junk assemblages. [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Wally Hedrick Interview] Hedrick made assemblages and sculptures from beer cans, lights, broken radio and television sets, refrigerators, and washing machines he found in junkyards. "What interests me", he said later, is "to take garbage and make it into art, kind of ironic art." [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Wally Hedrick Interview. ] He painted over the surfaces with thick layers of impasto and gesso which incorporated the work into the aesthetic of action painting. He was particularly pleased when he could fix an abandoned appliance sufficiently that at least some piece of it would work and he could turn his assemblages into moving sculptures. [ Richard Candida Smith, Utopia and Dissent: Art, Poetry, and Politics in California, University of California Press, 1995, pp 202-203.]
"Some of his most memorable sculptures came from crushing and welding beer cans together, or stacking and welding them...In 1956 he made the first light sculpture that I had ever seen; a fixture that responded to sound. Later on he had the piece on at his house during a Christmas celebration for which Wally put on some Miles and Coltrane on and the sculpture went crazy! I also remember his assemblage Xmas Tree Sculpture, that lit up and danced!" [ Carlos Villa, "Remembering Wally Hedrick", www.stretcher.org/archives [http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:LY_boL1jFDMJ:www.stretcher.org/archives/e1_a/2004_02_28_e1_archive.php+jay+defeo+%22six+gallery%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=us&client=safari] ]
Although using beer cans was popularized in 1960 by
Jasper Johns, Hedrick began the practice [Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Wally Hedrick Interview:
"to me, the beer can had a mystical quality about it. I contained something that contributes a lot to my way of living. But also, most people throw them away and it's always been a concern to me to try to make something out of nothing. You've heard me say that several times, but it is. I like to make something out of nothing. To me, that explains why I'd have a fix-it shop, because I'm taking something that's useless and bringing it back to life. Well, a beer can that's been empty has lost its usefulness. You can't reuse them. Well, you can now; we have aluminum. But when I started these things they were all right. With some of the early beer can things, I made a point pouring acid on them so they'd be rusty. Or I'd find rusty beer cans."] in art many years earlier, during the early 1950s. [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Wally Hedrick Interview." ] One of Hedrick's favorite beer can sculptures "was made up of smashed beer cans in a kind of pyramid, as sort of a mountain, so I called it "American Everest"." [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Wally Hedrick Interview." ] The welded beer can sculptures "carried over until -- 1969." [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Wally Hedrick Interview." ]
During the 1950s, Hedrick's efforts followed two main paths: painting and sculpture. More specifically, between 1952 [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Wally Hedrick Interview: "I guess I started (making kinetic junk sculptures) somewhere along in '52." ] - 1958, [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With Wally Hedrick At His Home, San Geronimo, California, June 10, 1974. ] Hedrick begins his kenetic junk assemblages, beer can sculptures and 'Black Painting' series. Not only do Hedrick's junk kenetic beer can sculptures, now all lost or destroyed, possibly rank as the seminal "kinetic junk sculptures...made before Tinguely", [ Rebecca Solnit, 1990, The Secret Exhibition: Six California Artists. Note also that
Jean Tinguely's (1925-1991), supposedly self-destroying "Homage to New York" (1960), not only failed to self-destroy, it appeared some eight years later than Hedrick's first kinetic sculptures, and nearly two years after Hedrick's own destructive "Christmas Tree" (1958) kinetic sculpture created a sensation at The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. ] but also, Hedrick is one of the first American artists to oppose US intervention in South Vietnam. [ Peter Selz and Susan Landauer, Art of Engagement: Visual Politics in California and Beyond, UC Press, 2006, pg. 40. ]
Some artists at the time considered Hedrick a 'pre-conceptualist': "Wally's mind, I think... is of primary significance in this way. I think he's much more a preconceptualist than perhaps any of the others... the paintings, and the objects that he created are really more expressions of an idea." [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview with John Humphrey at the San Francisco Museum of Art, June 25, 1974.] Indeed,
Marcel Duchamp"was one of Wally's greatest gods, always." [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With Jay Defeo At Her Home, Larkspur, California, June 3, 1975. See also: Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With Wally Hedrick At His Home, San Geronimo, California, June 10, 1974:
WH: Well, I can't say that I knew about Duchamp. I knew about his work....And it always appealed to me and I probably am a Dadaist, but a left-wing Dadaist, you know."]
In 1951, during the
Korean War, Hedrick was drafted into the United States Armyagainst his will, escorted away by US Army MPs without even having the chance to call his parents. "Wally must have been a problem for them, though, because Wally didn't ever do military things quite the way they intended...you told Wally not to do it, that's what he would do. [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Oral History Interview Walter Askin in His Studio in Pasadena, California, March 4, 1992. ] He was stationed in Koreauntil 1952. During this time, his paintings and assemblages shifted from neo-cubism to metaphysics to political subjects painted in a cartoonish style and dealing particularly with the escalation of the Vietnam War.
tudio 13 Jazz Band
Hedrick joined the "Studio 13 Jazz Band" in 1952. The group was founded at the
San Francisco Art Institutein the late 1940s by two members of the Bay Area figurative painters David Parkand Elmer Bischoff. [ Jesse Hamlin, San Francisco Chronicle, Painters Make Music in Studio 13, January 13, 1996. ]
In 1953, one of the earliest paintings of his career as an artist presented a crumpled American flag defaced with the word 'Peace'.
Thomas E. Crowcontrasts this work with Jasper Johns’s "anonymous stenciling", drawing attention to the way Hedrick mimics the flamboyant calligraphy found in the decoration of hot-rod cars. Crow sees the work in contrast to Johns’s reticence, as a protest aimed against the waste of lives in Korea, and at Cold Waradventurism in general. Additionally, "Peace" (1953), "demonstrates an intuitive understanding of 'language as symbol' which predates the present postmodern use (of language) by twenty years. [ Jamie Brunson, Catalogue Essay, Second Newport Biennial: The Bay Area, October 3 - November 23, 1986, pg. 30. ] Hedrick’s pre-pop paintings were included in John Coplan’s historical “Pop Art, USA," the first exhibition to attempt a collective look at the movement in the United States, presented at the Oakland Art Museum during September, 1963. [ John Coplans, 1963, “Pop Art, USA," Oakland Museumcatalog essay for the exhibition. Reprinted Artforum, October 1963: 27-30 ] Even after his Pop Art phase, Hedrick continued "his risk-taking forays into regions where, mostly, angels fear to tread", [ Jamie Brunson, Catalogue Essay, Second Newport Biennial: The Bay Area, October 3 - November 23, 1986, pg. 32. ] .
In the late 1940s he experimented with light. San Francisco Art Institute Website, People: [http://www.sfai.edu/People/Person.aspx?id=1428&navID=6§ionID=2&typeID=1 Wally Hedrick] . ] By 1953 he had created a “light machine” that combined keyboard, glass, speakers, and homemade projectors and colored lights that responded to changes in pitch, register, and volume, which was an early precursor of the psychedelic light shows of the '60s -- and years before the light shows of
Haight-Ashbury. [ Ann Charters, The Portable Sixties Reader, (Penguin Classics), 2002, pg. 303. ]
'A Genuine Beatnik' Who Helped Usher in the
Beat Generation Jerry Garciaof The Grateful Deadstudied with Wally Hedrick and Elmer Bischoff at San Francisco Art Institute. It was the only school Garcia would ever be proud of attending. Hedrick served Garcia as a model not only as a painter but as an expositor of a way of life. To Garcia, Hedrick was a genuine beatnik. Hedrick thought Garcia bright and hip, and advised Garcia to attend poetry readings at the North Beach coffee houses, such as the Co-Existence Bagel Shop, the social centre of the Beat community. [ Christoph Grunenberg, Jonathan Harris, Summer of Love: Psychedelic Art, Social Crisis and Counterculture in the 1960s, pg. 310. [http://books.google.com/books?id=vn-O7V8YG8wC&pg=PA310&lpg=PA310&dq=%22jerry+garcia%22+%22wally+hedrick%22&source=web&ots=p2yXVv47Oy&sig=xyPXdzWKN3YCQgTctUqriWlQeKI#PPA310,M1] ] It was Hedrick who turned the young Garcia on to acoustic blues and Jack Kerouac’s "On the Road" and all its attendant attitudes. "On the Road" changed Garcia’s life forever. “Wally taught me that art is not only something you do, but something you are.” [ Garcia, Dylan, Higashi, Hart. Jerry Garcia: The Collected Artwork. pg. xviii. [http://books.google.com/books?id=2wFyTUd7soIC&pg=PT173&lpg=PT173&dq=%22jerry+garcia%22+%22wally+hedrick%22&source=web&ots=ADrm11Gbdr&sig=dqkzHVL-WsL-ON8sVWXSHGbaSbA#PPT21,M1] ]
In fact, as "a genuine beatnik" Hedrick was employed at a 'beatnik' bohemian sitting at the bar at Vesuvios, a famous hangout in San Francisco’s North Beach. Vesuvio’s employed Hedrick to sit in the window dressed in full beard, turtleneck, and sandals and create improvisational drawings and paintings. Hedrick's figure, therefore, helped ushered in the Beat lifestyle which ballooned in the later 1950s; by 1958 tourists to San Francisco could take bus tours to view the North Beach "Beat" scene. [ William T. Lawlor ed., Beat Culture: Lifestyles, Icons and Impact, pg. 309. ]
Although Hedrick once confided to his student
Jerry Garciathat "he and his friends were the "real" Beat Generation Dennis McNally, A Long Strange Trip, 2002, pg 14. ] , the seminal visual artists in the 1950s in San Francisco, including Hedrick, shunned the ‘beatnik’ label. None of them liked being called “Beats” and they especially abhorred the label “Beatniks,” a sobriquet of disparagement coined by San Francisco’s famed columnist Herb Caen. As Bruce Connerstated: “I don’t know any artist that would call himself a beat artist…If somebody did, you’d consider him a fake, a fraud running a scam.”
The Six Gallery, happenings, and Funk Art
"The opening night was the big thing in San Francisco. The opening night and all the artists, mainly artists, went out there and those few people that were into socialites or whatever they were, they went out. And then after that, you could go out there during a weekday and there would be nobody in the gallery. Nobody gave a damn." [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, " [http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:1tEyTQk-YPkJ:www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/saccar74.htm+wally+hedrick+assemblage+site:www.aaa.si.edu&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us&client=safari Interview with John Saccaro and Terry St. John] ", Conducted by Paul Karlstrom, November 18, 1974. ] -- John Saccaro
Made from what was known as the King Ubu Gallery ("an all poet thing"), in 1954, Hedrick co-founded The Six Gallery [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With Wally Hedrick At His Home, San Geronimo, California, June 10, 1974.
WH: We had this group which was made up of the original six of the Six Gallery: myself, Deborah Remington, John Ryan the poet, Jack Spicer the poet, Hayward King, and David Simpson. That's the six. [http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:a6mgapj_h7AJ:www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/hedric74.htm+six+gallery+wally+hedrick&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=7&gl=us&client=safari]See also: Artist and Professor Carlos Villa, in "Remembering Wally Hedrick":
"Wally Hedrick was a chief organizer of the Six Gallery, a cooperative gallery which to my knowledge was the first nonprofit exhibiting space in San Francisco." [http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:LY_boL1jFDMJ:www.stretcher.org/archives/e1_a/2004_02_28_e1_archive.php+jay+defeo+%22six+gallery%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=us&client=safari]] in
San Francisco, Californiawith David Simpson, Hayward King, John Allen Ryan, Deborah Remington and Jack Spicer-- and by 1955, had "become the official director". [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With Wally Hedrick At His Home, San Geronimo, California, June 10, 1974. ] Although "the activities of the "6" were poorly documented", [ John Natsoulas, "Searching for the 6", from Lyrical Vision Exhibition Catalogue, John Natsoulas Gallery, Davis, CA, 1990, pg 13. ] the Six Gallery functioned as an underground art galleryfor the members and a meeting place for poetsand literati alike. "The Six" was a focal point for countercultural activity during a crucial transition point -- unconventional artists were deep underground -- partly because no audience enouraged them to emerge, partly because it was safer there. Rebecca Solnit, "Mixing It Up: The Six Revisited", from Lyrical Vision Exhibition Catalogue, John Natsoulas Gallery, Davis, CA, 1990, pg 17. ] "The Six" delighted at the chance to defy authority. [ Kenneth Rexroth, "The Making of the Counterculture", 1967 - 1979. ] As the gallery director, Hedrick organized and participated in the spontaneous exhibition/poetry reading/performance events that were the precursors of the 'Happenings' of the 1960s. [ Jamie Brunson, Catalogue Essay, Second Newport Biennial: The Bay Area, October 3 - November 23, 1986, pg. 30. ]
"We didn't think of ourselves as a group. The other groups had a very strong group feeling, and they'd sit around and talk about taking over the world, or at least every art department in the Bay Area." [ Source forthcoming. ]
In the wake of the artist collective galleries such as Ubu and Six came galleries run by professionals.
"Hedrick was instrumental in transforming the cheery satire of
Pop Artinto the more outrageous bite of funk art." [ Suzaan Boettger, San Francisco Chronicle, Painting, From Raunchy To Cotton Candy, July 1, 1982. ] The birth of 'California Funk Art' can be found at the Six Gallery. [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With Wally Hedrick At His Home, San Geronimo, California, June 10, 1974.
Paul Karlstrom: I don't want to jump ahead to what's going to be, I hope, another profitable topic, but some of the seeds of so-called funk art could very well be located in the Six Gallery and perhaps some of the exhibitions there.]
WH: Well, I think when they talk about the funk business, it was at the Six Gallery.
Robert Arneson, the so-called "Father of the Ceramic Funk Art movement". [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Arneson Robert Arneson in Wikipedia] ] considered Hedrick, "The Godfather of Funk Art". [ Robert Arneson (1986) Graduate Lecture in Art Department, University of California, Davis.]
Hedrick received his
B.F.A.in Art from the San Francisco Art Institutein 1955.
The Six Gallery reading
:"See main article
Six Gallery reading"
Six Gallery reading" took place on October 7, 1955at the Six Gallery, when Allen Ginsberg, at Hedrick's invitation [ Jonah Raskin, American Scream: Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl” and the Making of the Beat Generation. "Wally Hedrick – a painter and veteran of the Korean War – approached Ginsberg in the summer of 1955 and asked him to organize a poetry reading at the Six Gallery…At first, Ginsberg refused…But once he’d written a rough draft of Howl, he changed his “fucking mind,” as he put it." ] , read " Howl" for the first time. [Jack Kerouac sat on the side of the low stage at the reading, drinking from a jug of wine and shouting, "Go!" at the end of some of the long lines. The audience of fewer than a hundred soon joined in with shouts of encouragement. [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2000/10/28/DD27873.DTL] ] The event has become nearly as much a part of the city's mystique as the 1849 Gold Rush or the 1906 earthquake. [ John Raskin, [http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:URLdyvHJGWMJ:sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi%3Ffile%3D/c/a/2005/09/30/EDGN7EVI0P1.DTL%26type%3Dprintable+jack+kerouac+%2B+six+gallery+Dharma+Bums&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=15&gl=us&client=safari 'Six at the Six' at 50 -- Return of S.F.'s Poetic Beat] , September 30, 2005. ]
Hedrick approached Ginsberg in mid-1955 and asked him to organize a poetry reading at the Six Gallery. At first, Ginsberg refused, but once he’d written a rough draft of
Howl, he changed his mind. [ Jonah Raskin, American Scream: Allen Ginsberg’s “Howl” and the Making of the Beat Generation. ] An account of the night can be found in Jack Kerouac's novel " The Dharma Bums", where he describes collecting change from each audience member to buy jugs of wine with Hedrick.
Hedrick's 'Six Gallery Reading' was the first important public manifestation of the Beat Generation and helped to herald the West Coast artistic revolution that became known as the
San Francisco Renaissance.
In the late 1950s, San Francisco became the beat poetry capital of the universe, but the visual artists who were part of the same epoch are less celebrated. [ Rebecca Solnit, Pacific Sun, "Gallery Paule Anglim Exhibition", 1986. ] The three-story building at 2322-24 Fillmore, where Hedrick and Jay DeFeo lived and worked was the unofficial epicenter of the small San Francisco art world in the years 1955-65. [ The other occupants of the four shotgun flats into which the building's upper two floors had been divided were Michael and Joanna McClure, Craig Kaufmann, Ed Moses, James Kelly and Sonia Gechtoff, Joan and William Brown, and Jim Newman, the founder of the Dilexi Gallery. Bill Berkson, Art in America, "In the heat of The Rose: Painting by Jay DeFeo", March, 1996 [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_n3_v84/ai_18119054/print] ] Hedrick met artist
Jay DeFeo, a student at the California College of Arts and Crafts, and they married in 1954. Jay DeFeo's best-known painting, "The Rose", [ Thomas Hoving, former director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, declared “The Rose” one of the 111 ‘greatest’ works of art in the history of Western civilization. Hoving describes “The Rose,” in his book "Greatest Works of Art of Western Civilization", as “perhaps the single most expressive painting of the 1960s, and one of the most expressive statements in the entire last third of the twentieth century.” ] was made in their Filmore Street apartment, took almost eight years to create and weighs 2,300 pounds, all paid for [ The files of Bay City Paint, where DeFeo bought gallon cans of black and titanium white and a dense, chalky texturing foundation called Prime-Rite, show that between 1960 and 1965 she paid a total of $5,375.51 for materials. Bill Berkson, Art in America, "In the heat of The Rose: Painting by Jay DeFeo", March, 1996 [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1248/is_n3_v84/ai_18119054/print] ] by her husband, Wally Hedrick.
"When I arrived in San Francisco in 1957, I remember going to "The Place" at North Beach with
Michael McClure. There was this assemblage by Wally Hedrick in the window. I think it was part of a stovepipe, there was a doll's head in the vent, and it had wheels; it was like a cart (with a cane on it)." [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, [http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/conner73.htm Bruce Conner Interview] , 1974. ] -- Bruce Conner
" 'The Christmas Tree' was supposed to have something to do with playing colors by light, but it was totally random as far as I could tell, just absurd." [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, [http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/conner73.htm Bruce Conner Interview] , 1974. ] --
In 1958 one of his mechanical assemblages "attacked" a woman at the
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art's annual Christmas party and holiday exhibition. His "Xmas Tree" was "sort of the pinnacle of the kinetic junk sculptures because I'd never attempted anything so complicated" [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Wally Hedrick Interview. ] , built out of "two radios, two phonographs, flashing lights, electric fans, saw motor--all controlled by timers, hooked so [they] would cycle all these things." One of the record players played "I Hate to See Christmas Come Around." At the opening, which Hedrick refused to attend, he set a timer so that the piece "suddenly began flashing its lights, honking its horns, and playing its records." One woman who was standing next to the piece when it suddenly turned on found her fur coat tangled in it and then received an electrical shock. [ Richard Candida Smith, 1995, pp 202-203. See Also: Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Wally Hedrick Interview:
The Christmas Tree Sculpture "dates from, well, I built that the summer that -- I started collecting stuff which was in '54. I had the idea of building this Christmas tree. I was going to have a wooden Christmas tree and I was going to hang things on it, like American things, junk. But then I decided I had so much stuff that I might as well just build a Christmas tree out of junk. It had two radios and two phonographs and flashing lights and electric fans and a saw motor, and, these were all controlled by timers. Well, John Humphrey can tell you about it because it became kind of a celebrity at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. I don't remember when it was, probably '57 or '58, some where along in there. They had a show and they invited me to have a piece in it. I took this thing down there and rehabilitated it. It had these timers out of washing machines, you know how they cycle them selves. Well, I hooked it up so it would cycle all these things. Like one of the record players played, "I Hate to See Christmas Come Around." It was a very big tune at the time. Any way, I got it all going and I plugged it in, but I set the timers so they wouldn't go off until the opening of the show, which was later that evening. So precisely at eight o'clock when the show opened up, the thing started up. At the beginning (now I've been getting this second hand because I wasn't there) it just flashed its lights, honked it horns, played its records, while the people were standing around with cocktails in their hands. One lady with a fur coat was standing close to it drinking and talking to her friends. It had a horn out of a very old automobile, and it only went off about once every twelve hours. Well, it went off right next to this woman and she backed right into it and got tangled in the mechanism because there were machines going around in it all the time. Her fur got tangled in it also gave her a shock. She was going to sue the museum. Then it just blew up. I wasn't there."] "It caused quite a sensation not because of its artistic merit, but because it attacked this lady, which I thought was very nice... I wasn't making it as an art thing. I was more interested in making a "thing", and if it attacked people--well I guess I knew it was going to attack...I knew it would probably attack because I laid the trap. So it entertained me; I thought the evening was a success." [ Richard Candida Smith, Utopia and Dissent: Art, Poetry, and Politics in California, University of California Press, 1995, pp 202-203.]
In 1955, art curator Dorothy Miller came to the West Coast. She included Hedrick in the 1959 "Sixteen Americans" show at the
Museum of Modern Artin New York, NY. [ Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, 1959, "16 Americans". See also: [http://www.wallyhedrick.com The Official Hedrick Webpage] : edited by Catherine Conlin. ] Most of the participants in this now infamous exhibition have since become firmly placed in the pantheon of Pop Art, Minimal Artand Contemporary Art: for example Hedrick's then wife, Jay DeFeo, Jasper Johns, Ellsworth Kelly, Robert Rauschenberg, and Frank Stella. Hedrick, knowing full well the importance of being on hand for the opening, gave his plane ticket for the New York museum exhibition and spectacle to friends, rather than participate. [ Bill Berkson, Art in America, In the heat of The Rose: Painting by Jay DeFeo, March, 1996. See also: Rebecca Solnit, San Francisco Chronicle, Inventing San Francisco's art scene: 1950s bohemians altered the world from their lofts in the city, Sunday, January 25, 2004 [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2004/01/25/LVG344BTP61.DTL] :
Hedrick and DeFeo were included in the Museum of Modern Art's 16 Americans show that also gave Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg their museum debuts, but they didn't bother to go to New York for the opening that might have launched their careers. Hedrick was busy painting his flags black. DeFeo was laboring on "The Rose," the massive painting to which she would devote seven years of her life. Both were good ways to sabotage a career.] It would be 25 years before Hedrick figured prominently again in
New York, during the Whitney Museum of American Art’s, "Beat Culture and the New America: 1950-1965" exhibition in 1995. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04E4D91439F933A25752C1A963958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print NY Times] ]
Not only did Hedrick not attend the 1959 "Sixteen Americans" opening at the Museum of Modern Art or even go to see the exhibition, he further distanced himself from the mainstream art world by declaring that artists such as
Jackson Pollock, Franz Kline, and Robert Motherwellwere too firmly rooted in formal traditions. Instead, Hedrick asserted, “You’ve got to have a deep sense of the human and you have to have a political stance. Painting is not above politics. Anything that has to do with the soul also has to do with the stomach.
In 1959, again recalling his Asian military experience, Hedrick painted "Anger" (or "
Madame Nhu’s Bar-B-Q"), the first artistic denunciation of American policy in Vietnam.
Under a black circle we read 'Madam Nhu Blows Chiang,' referring to the sister-in-law of South Vietnam President
Ngo Dinh Diemand Chiang Kai-shek, the Chinese Nationalist leader who was driven out of China by Mao Tse-tungand established his own semidictatorship on the island of Taiwan. On the right side of the painting, occupying the viewer's main attention, Hedrick presents a huge penis, forcefully penetrating an organ that can be read either as a vagina or a heart. [ Peter Selz and Susan Landauer, Art of Engagement: Visual Politics in California and Beyond, UC Press, 2006, pg. 40. ] "Anger", visually quates an act of forceful sexual penetration with corrupt political manipulation. Explosive rage and indignation are symbolized by an atomic cloud serving double duty as the form of male and female genitalia perpetrating the deed." [ Jamie Brunson, 1986, pg. 32. ]
In 1959, both Hedrick and DeFeo became an original members of
Bruce Conner's Rat Bastard Protective Association[ Its members included Jay de Feo, Michael McClure, Manuel Neri and Joan Brown. See Rebecca Solnit, ‘Heretical Constellations: Notes on California, 1946–61’, in Sussman, ed., Beat Culture and the New America, 69–122, especially 71.]
Hedrick and DeFeo's apartment lease at 2322 Fillmore was suddenly terminated (due in part to DeFeo's excesses) toward the end of 1965. [ Bill Berkson, 1996 ] Hedrick and DeFeo divorced in 1969.
The "Black Paintings" were Hedrick's protest against the Vietnam War. Rebecca Solnit, San Francisco Chronicle, Inventing San Francisco's art scene: 1950s bohemians altered the world from their lofts in the city, Sunday, January 25, 2004.] Hedrick took "about 50" [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With Wally Hedrick At His Home, San Geronimo, California, June 10, 1974] of his early canvases and painted them black. Hedrick's "Black Paintings" culminate in 1967 with "War Room". This series "was an idiosyncratic protest, but a passionate one."
War Room (Artwork)"
The War Room, a significant item of Bay Area art history, [ Kenneth Baker, San Francisco Chronicle (2003) [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/01/18/DD129080.DTL&hw=Wally+Hedrick&sn=010&sc=160] ] is a large environment, “a group of four eleven-by-eleven foot black canvases, each filling a wall of the room" [ Peter Selz and Susan Landauer, Art of Engagement: Visual Politics in California and Beyond, UC Press, 2006, pg. 41. ] then arranged "into a square...in the shape of a room...and a door to go in it." [Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With Wally Hedrick At His Home, San Geronimo, California, June 10, 1974. ]
During this time, Hedrick was accused of stealing paintings, including a canvas by
Clyfford Still, from the San Francisco Art Institute, where he was teaching, then either painting them black or painting his own iconoclastic pictures over them.
" Wally Hedrick: The Dark Millenium ", by Gina Dorré and
LG Williams, is an in-depth account of The War Room and Black Painting Series between 1953 - 2003.
1970s (Wally's Fix-It Shop)
In the early 1970s Hedrick was fired from a teaching post at the
San Francisco Art Institute, [ Thomas Albright, 1985. ] after circulating a petition protesting America's presence in Vietnam.
After the dismissal Hedrick began a period of self-imposed artistic exile, devoting most of his time to operating a home repair business (appropriately named, "Wally's Fix-It Shop") in the town of
San Geronimo, California. [ Thomas Albright, 1985. ] This is an example of the way Hedrick "operates outside the busy highway of contemporary art". [David Bonetti, San Francisco Chronicle, Gallery Paule Anglim Review, March 4, 1994.] The small repair business proved moderately successful. Hedrick's repair skills were first recognized during the Korean War, when he was given the task of fixing radios. [ Walter Askin, Smithsonian Interview, 1992. ]
His paintings of the 1970s were mainly crude black and white renditions of old mail order catalogue illustrations.
In the 1980s he shifted to large-scale canvases of rough and aggressive imagery, often sexual." From 1988 to his death, Hedrick lived and worked in Bodega, California, with his long-time companion, Catherine Conlin.
Hedrick recycled the Black paintings -- recycling being another recurring theme in his work -- during the
Persian Gulf War, slathering the older black paintings them with new statements in white acrylic paintlike, "So damn, whose sane?". [Biographical material: Catherine Conlin, editor, Wally Hedrick Official Webpage (written with Hedrick). Conlin was Hedrick's companion in Bodega, CA for the last 15 years of his life. See full resource here [http://www.wallyhedrick.com/About.html] ]
After 25 years, "The War Room" was brought out of storage to be the centerpiece for the 5th Annual San Francisco International Art Fair in 2003. The work was described as "the most topical thing on view." [ Kenneth Baker, San Francisco Chronicle (2003) [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/01/18/DD129080.DTL&hw=Wally+Hedrick&sn=010&sc=160] ] In 2003, with new American aggression taking place in the
Persian Gulf, Hedrick returned to making all-black paintings. [ Peter Selz and Susan Landauer, Art of Engagement: Visual Politics in California and Beyond, UC Press, 2006, pg. 41. ]
Significance and legacy
"I can remember in about 1959 or '60, the joke going around the art school in the city was, "A garage man had hauled away Hedrick's paintings and said, 'I don't know what art is.'" We'd all laugh like mad, you know, 'cause most of us weren't sympathetic towards Wally Hedrick's art at that time." [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art, " [http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:1tEyTQk-YPkJ:www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/saccar74.htm+wally+hedrick+assemblage+site:www.aaa.si.edu&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us&client=safari Interview with John Saccaro and Terry St. John] ", Conducted by Paul Karlstrom, November 18, 1974. ] -- Terry St. John
As early as 1963, John Coplans, the future editor of Artforum Magazine (January 1972–January 1977), would confess the "fashionable world of contemporary painting" (i.e. East Coast) unpleasant reaction to the independent, offensive, 35 year old Hedrick: "there is little doubt that Hedrick is an original, yet the fashionable world of contemporary painting tends to reject Wally Hedrick's work out of hand." [ John Coplans, Hedrick: Offense Intended, Artforum, May 1963. ] Its no surprise, therefore, “the pathos of Hedrick’s situation was that few not already converted were ever likely to witness Hedrick’s accomplishments."
William T. Wileydescribed Hedrick as "amazing". [ "Wally Hedrick? He's a really amazing artist." quote by William Wiley in Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With William T Wiley At His Home, Woodacre, California, October 8, 1997. [http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:1VqLo3f97AQJ:www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/wiley97.htm+robert+arneson+wally+site:http://www.aaa.si.edu/&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=us&client=safari] ]
# The absence of a wider art culture alert to experimental new work invariably choked off promising” widespread commercial or public acclaim. Indeed, West Coast marginalized artists differed from their East Coast counterparts in that they “lacked any stable structure of galleries, patrons, and audiences that might have given them realistic hopes for worldly success. [ Crow, 1996:23 ] There was no artworld in Hedrick’s region.
# Hedrick despised the art 'establishment' [ Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With Wally Hedrick At His Home, San Geronimo, California, June 10, 1974,
"I didn't like the politics involved with the art world; and I had been involved. I knew about them because I'd gone to the pinnacle, the Museum of Modern Art, just a few years earlier and I'd been approached by the New York galleries. I only say this, everyone says a few times, but luckily, I'm glad I did what I did, not for any altruistic reasons but because if I'd done something else I wouldn't be here now. So whatever decisions I made and whatever reasons I did it for, I'm glad I did it. As I said, I've seen a lot of my friends hurt quite badly by the galleries and by the museums, and maybe it's their own fault. I'm not pinning it on anybody. But I decided that wasn't the way I wanted to do it, so I didn't."] , yet he "was" an underground institution. [ Dean Smith, Bancroftiana: Newsletter of the Friends of the Bancroft Library, Volume 112, Spring 1998, "DeFeo, Conner papers add to Bancroft’s Beat collection": Jay DeFeo and Wally Hedrick turned their "large Victorian flat at 2322 Fillmore Street into one of the major hot spots for bohemian creativity in the City." ] This counter-cultural, anti-establishment attitude [ Smithsonian, Walter Askin: "I think most of our lives our position has been one of a counterpoint to what's been going on around us." ] became "an important part of the Bay Area art scene, the characteristic part." Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Oral History Interview with John Humphrey at the San Francisco Museum of Art, June 25, 1974. ] 'Funk art' at its core, was "reaction against what had gone before, establishment art" -- and Wally was it's leader "more than perhaps any of the others." "Wally's idea of the best Funk Art, puts it right out in front, you know...in its very self-conscious avoidance of all the references to art, to an object of worth, of social acceptance, that you could possibly contrive." Still, to many, Hedrick was an "unofficial gateway", [ Carlos Villa, "Remembering Wally Hedrick" [http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:LY_boL1jFDMJ:www.stretcher.org/archives/e1_a/2004_02_28_e1_archive.php+jay+defeo+%22six+gallery%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=us&client=safari] ] "Wally and Jay's (DeFeo's) house on Fillmore was the unofficial first stop on the art itinerary of anyone important in the art world, national or international." [ Carlos Villa, "Remembering Wally Hedrick" [http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:LY_boL1jFDMJ:www.stretcher.org/archives/e1_a/2004_02_28_e1_archive.php+jay+defeo+%22six+gallery%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=us&client=safari] . ]
# Hedrick's iconoclastic, raunchy [ Suzaan Boettger, San Francisco Chronicle, "Painting, From Raunchy To Cotton Candy," July 1, 1982. ] artistic temperament thwarted the conditions by which any critical determination, or any commercial success could begin. He said, "It's not that I don't want to sell my paintings, it's just that people who can afford them don't deserve them, and people who deserve them can't afford them." [ [http://www.neumu.com/captured/2002/2002-00034/2002-00034_captured.shtml neumu.com,]
August 16, 2002] Throughout his life, he shunned media attention. Art curator Walter Hopps, in his forward to 1985 Hedrick’s Adeline Kent Award exhibition catalogue at the San Francisco Art Institute, stated that Hedrick "decided to ignore the ideal of "career", "fame" and "greatness" to which his peers aspired, and settled for a simpler life, uncomplicated by openings and galleries and cocktail parties." [ Walter Hopps, 1985, Wally Hedrick: Adeline Kent Award Catalogue, San Francisco Art Institute.]
# "Hedrick's uncompromising attitude. Throughout his career, he has rejected the use of serial imagery or style [ "There apparently is no continuity in my work in the sense of one painting to the next. I know there is but it's not a stylistic one because to me style is a controllable thing.", Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Wally Hedrick Interview ] as a means of achieving recognition in the commercial marketplace, varying his technique and medium to best serve his ideas." [ Jamie Brunson, 1986, pg. 30. ] He never cesed to creatively forged ahead, whereas "too many of the other iconoclasts of the same era have themselves become icons, cranking out homages to their own faded talents. [ Rebecca Solnit, Artweek, Gallery Paule Anglim Review, September 4, 1986. ]
# "Hedrick consistently refused to be interested in what he describes as a "high art look," which he then considered a waste of time and energy." [
John Coplans, Hedrick: Offense Intended, Artforum, May 1963] Additionally, the subject matter and motifs of his art often included "rough and aggressive imagery, "painted in a fury that gains its edge from the blatant sexual rawness. Thus, Hedrick's "big, tough paintings are strong medicine...and disturbingly enigmatic." [ Kate Regan, San Francisco Chronicle, "Strong Medicine in Oils", April 13, 1985. ]
The cultural historian Rebecca Solnit in her 1990 book, "The Secret Exhibition: Six Californian Artists", reasserted Hedrick’s artistic achievements:
It is now possible to say that Hedrick was ahead of his time: the first American to protest the Vietnam War, the artist to paint flags before Jasper Johns painted flags, who made kinetic junk sculpture before Tinguely did. Hedrick was a forerunner of Pop Art, Bad Painting, Neo-Expressionism, and image appropriation. It might be more useful to view Hedrick as an artist who was of his time in a unique way, a maverick whose responses to the world showed it in a different light. [ Rebecca Solnit, 1990, The Secret Exhibition: Six California Artists]
"Maybe the most important thing about Wally is that he could have been so rich and so successful and so famous," said Professor Rollison, a colleague of Hedrick's at The
College of Marin. [ Lisa Bremner, The Echo Times, "Farewell Wally: Art instructor remembered for his role in the Beat Poetry Movement" [http://media.www.theechotimes.com/media/storage/paper347/news/2004/05/24/Ae/Farewell.Wally-681971.shtml] ]
Hedrick’s works have been exhibited in galleries and museums including
The Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Whitney Museum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and The M. H. de Young Memorial Museum. His work resides in public collections which include The Smithsonian Institution, The Museum of Modern Art, The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, and The M. H. de Young Memorial Museum.
Hedrick taught at the
San Francisco Art Institute"shortly after graduating (from SFAI). In 1959 he also stopped teaching as a form of protest against the war, and was eventually fired." Later, Hedrick taught at San Francisco Academy of Art, San Francisco State University, University of California at Davis, San Jose State Universityand the College of Marin, where he held Professor Emeritus status. His students included Jerry Garciaof the Grateful Dead[http://biography.jrank.org/pages/3611/Garcia-Jerry-1942-1995-Musician-Traded-in-Accordion-Guitar.html] , William Wiley, Robert H. Hudson, William Allen, Mike Henderson and LG Williams.
*, (1953), Oil on canvas, 18 x 14", Private Collection: "Hedrick...painted flags before Johns painted flags." -- Rebecca Solnit, The Secret Exhibition (1990)
*, (1953/59), 65 X 65", Oil on Canvas. Private Collection.
*"Christmas Tree", (1958), Kenetic Sculpture and Assemblage, Exhibited and Destroyed at The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
*, (c. 1965-68), Oil on Canvas, 48 x 48”. Col: Richard Reisman, Napa, CA.
*, (1967): "A significant item of Bay Area art history." -- Kenneth Baker, San Francisco Chronicle (2003) [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/01/18/DD129080.DTL&hw=Wally+Hedrick&sn=010&sc=160]
Awards and honors
* Original Member,
Rat Bastard Protective Association, (1959)
* National Endowment Arts (1962, 1982, 1993)
* Adeline Kent Award, San Francisco Art Institute (1985)
* San Francisco Foundation Award (1985, 1986)
* Golden Bear Award, California State Fair (1990)
* Merit award, California State Fair (1991)
* Award of Excellence, California State Fair (1996)
* Adolph and Esther Gottlieb Found (1997)
* Pollack-Krasner Foundation (1999)
Selected one person exhibitions
* Pasadena Art Center (1950)
* Area Arts Gallery, San Francisco (1954)
* M.H. De Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco (1955)
* San Francisco Art Association Gallery (1956)
* Oakland Art Museum (1958)
* Isaacs Gallery, Toronto, Canada (1961)
* New Mission Gallery, San Francisco (1963)
Selected group exhibitions
* Pasadena Art Museum, Annual (1948)
* Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Annual (1953)
* San Francisco Museum of Art, Annual (1954, 1957, 1960, 1966)
* Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 1st Biennial (1956)
* Museum of Modern Art, New York, Sixteen Americans (1959)
* California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, Winter Invitational (1959-61)
* San Francisco Museum of Art, Places - A Collaboration of 4 Artists (1962)
* San Francisco Museum of Art, The Art of San Francisco (1962)
* " [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_sJQYIWotnM Wally Hedrick: My Last Photos Of Wally] " (2007). A short documentary of the last photographs of Wally Hedrick taken by his friend LG Williams.
War Room (Artwork)
Rat Bastard Protective Association
Six Gallery reading
* Albright, Thomas. "Art in the San Francisco Bay Area 1945-80, An Illustrated History", published by University of California Press, 1985.
* Albright, Thomas. "Alternative of Mainstream", San Francisco Chronicle, March 26, 1982
* Anderson, Wayne. "American Sculpture in Progress", 1930-1970, New York Graphic Society, 1975, Boston, Massachusetts
* Bahr, Jeff. "Sheldon Show Gives a View of the Bay Area", The Lincoln Star, Lincoln Nebraska, Sept, 20, 1984
* Baker, Kenneth. "Wally Hedrick at Paule Anglim", San Francisco Chronicle, March 8, 1994, p. E3 Benetti, David. San Francisco Examiner, March 4, 1994.
* Baker, Kenneth. "A Bay Area Biennial", L.A. Review, Nov. 9, 1986
* Kenneth Baker, “Mass appeal: Art comes at visitors from all directions at the S.F. International Art Fair”, San Francisco Chronicle, Saturday, January 18, 2003. [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2003/01/18/DD129080.DTL&hw=Wally+Hedrick&sn=010&sc=160]
* Boetteger, Suzaan. "Painting from Raunch to Cotton Candy", San Francisco Chronicle, July 1, 1982
* Bruns, Rebecca. "Critics Choice", San Francisco Focus Magazine, May, 1985
* Brunson, Jamie. "Wally Hedrick", Monograph for Catalogue, "2nd Newport Biennial-The Bay Area, Newport Harbor Art Museum, Newport Beach, California, 1986.
* Ann Charters, The Portable Sixties Reader (Penguin Classics), 2002.
John Coplans. "The New Paintings of Common Objects." Artforum, Dec. 1962, p.26
John Coplans. "Circles of Style on the West Coast", Art in America, June 1964, p.28
Thomas E. Crow, The Rise of the Sixties: American and European Art in the Age of Dissent (New York, 1996)
* Curtis, Cathy. "A Visit from Another World: The Bay", The Orange County Register, Oct.3, 1986.
* Dorre, Gina and
LG Williams, "Envisioning The Dark Millennium - Wally Hedrick’s Black Paintings 1953 - 2003", 2005.
* Eggers, Ron. "Bay Area Artists", Orange Coast Magazine, Oct. 14, 1986
* Freid, Alexander. "Artistic Vaudeville and the Beer Can Question", San Francisco Examiner, Sept. 16, 1962, p.38
* Giles, Gretchen. "Word Play: Artist Wally Hedrick Stretches his Canvases". The Sonoma County Independent, July 25-31, 1996. Volume 84, Number 3.
* Goldman, Leah. "A View to the North", Artweek, Vol. 17, No 37, Nov. 8, 1986
* Greer, Ted. "Wally Hedrick," A Video Produced by Ted Greer Productions, Indian Valley College, Novato, California, 1981
* Greil, Marcus. "The Incredible Disappearing Art", San Francisco Focus, Oct 1991.
* Hammond, Miki. "Diversity Keynotes 12 One-Man Shows from the Bay Area, "The Irvine World News, Oct. 9, 1986.
* Hedrick, Wally. "Art Bank", A Catalogue published by the Artist Association Of the San Francisco Art Institute.
* Hedrick, Wally. "Invisible Painting and Sculpture", Booklet, April 24-June 1, 1969, Richmond Art Center
* Hedrick, Wally. Statement for Catalogue, "Sixteen Americans", published by the Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, 1959, p.13
* Hedrick, Wally. Monograph from California School of Fine Arts, Editor; Isabel Hood, Dec. 14, 1956-Jan., 1957
* Hedrick, Wally. Statement for Catalogue, "Sixteen Americans",
Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, 1959, p.13.
* Hendricks, Mark. "Bay Area Exhibit Paints Diverse Styles, Movements", Daily Nebraskan, Oct. 4, 1984.
Walter Hopps. Robert Rauschenberg: The Early 50's The Menil Collection. Houston Fine Arts Press. 1991.
Walter Hopps, "Can't Be Cut to Fit (Too Few Thoughts of the Subject of Wally Hedrick)"
* Hulten, Pontus k. "The Machine as Seen at the End of the Mechanical Age", Museum Of Modern Art, New York, 1968
* Ikeda, John. "Salute to the Arts", The Orange County Register, Oct. 14, 1986
* Kimmelman, Michael,
New York Times, "Art Review: At the Whitney, A Celebration Of Beat Culture (Sandals and All)", November 10, 1995
* Kyne, Barbara. "Veterans of Bay Area Art". Artweek, December 1999. Volume 30, Number 12.
* Leider, Philip. "The Construction as an Object of Illusion", Artforum, Nov. 1962, p.40
* Linhares, Phil. Catalogue for "Here and Now: "Bay Area Masterworks from the Di Rosa Collection" exhibit at the Oakland Museum. 1994.
Lucy Lippard. With Contributions by Lawrence Alloway, Nancy Marmer, Nicholas Calas, "Pop Art", published by Fredrick A. Praeger, Inc., New York, 1966, p.144
* Martin, Fred. Statement for Hedrick/Hinterreiter Catalogue published by the Fine Arts Patrons of Newport, California, May 1967
Michael McClure. "Sixty-Six Things About the California Assemblage Movement," Artweek, March 12, 1992 Volume 23, Number 10.
* Monte, James. "Polychrome Sculpture", Artforum, November, 1964
* Morehouse, William. Statement for Catalogue of "Funk Daddy", Exhibition, 1968, p.2
* Philips, Lisa. "Beat Culture and the New America 1950-1965."
* Plagens, Peter. "Sunshine Muse: Contemporary Art of the West Coast", Praeger, 1974
* Polley, E.M. "Some Points of View", Artforum, Jan. 1963, p.41
* Regan, Kate. "Strong Medicine in Oils", San Francisco Chronicle, April 13, 1985.
* Regan, Kate. "A Tough Sensibility on Canvas", San Francisco Chronicle, 1984.
* Rubin, David. "Wally Hedrick (The Secret Life of Harry FallicFallick Fallick)," Catalogue, Adeline Kent Award Exhibition, 1985.
* San Francisco Art Institute Website, People: [http://www.sfai.edu/People/Person.aspx?id=1428&navID=6§ionID=2&typeID=1 Wally Hedrick]
* Solnit, Rebecca. Secret Exhibition: Six California Artists of the Cold War Era. City Lights Books, San Francisco, California, 1990.
* Selz, Peter and Susan Landauer, Art of Engagement: Visual Politics in California and Beyond, UC Press, 2006
* Smith, Dean, Bancroftiana: Newsletter of the Friends of the Bancroft Library, "DeFeo, Conner papers add to Bancroft’s Beat collection", Volume 112, Spring 1998.
* Smith, Richard Candida, Utopia and Dissent: Art, Poetry, and Politics in California, University of California Press, 1995.
* Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With Jay Defeo At Her Home, Larkspur, California, June 3, 1975
* Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Paul Karlstrom, "Wally Hedrick Oral History Interview", June 10, 1974. [http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/oralhistories/transcripts/hedric74.htm]
* Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Oral History Interview with John Humphrey at the San Francisco Museum of Art, June 25, 1974.
* Smithsonian Archives of American Art: Oral History Interview With William T Wiley At His Home, Woodacre, California, October 8, 1997
* Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Oral History Interview Walter Askin in His Studio in Pasadena, California, March 4, 1992
* Solnit, Rebecca. "Icons & Iconoclasts", Artweek, Sept. 6, 1986, vVol. 17, No. 29
* Solnit, Rebecca. "Gallery Paule Anglim," Pacific Sun, Aug. 29, 1985.
* Stiles, Knute. "San Francisco Underground Art in Celebration: 1945-1968", (2nd Edition) 1976, p.27.
* Stiles, Knute. "Arts of San Francisco, Part 2", Artforum, Nov. 1964, p.45
* Tarshis, Jerome. "Wally Hedrick at San Francisco Art Institute", Art in America, July, 1985, p.141
* Tromble, Meredith. "A Conversation with Wally Hedrick". Artweek, October 1996. Volume 27, Number 10.
* Tooker, Dan. Art International, Edited by James Fitzimmons, Oct. 15, 1975, p.10
* Tuchman, Maurice. The Spiritual in Art: Abstract Painting 1980-85, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Abbeville Press, Inc., New York, New York, 1986
* Van Proyen, Mark. "Atypical Prototypes: The Art of Wally Hedrick," Artweek, April 27, 1985, Vol. 16, No. 17, p.1
* Van Proyen, Mark. "Sight/Vision: The Inward Gaze", Artweek, Oakland, California, Oct. 29, 1983
* Villa, Carlos, "Remembering Wally Hedrick", www.stretcher.org/archives [http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:LY_boL1jFDMJ:www.stretcher.org/archives/e1_a/2004_02_28_e1_archive.php+jay+defeo+%22six+gallery%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=9&gl=us&client=safari]
* Ward, Jenna. "The Beat Goes on for Artist Wally Hedrick." On Q, Santa Rosa Press Democrat, ,July 6, 1997.
* Whitmore, Tammy. "The Brain is as important as the Heart". Bodega Bay Navigator. Saturday, January 15, 2000. Volume 13, Number 26.
* Wilson, William. "The Bay is on the View in Newport", Los Angeles Times/Calendar, Oct. 26, 1986
* [http://www.wallyhedrick.com Estate of Wally Hedrick]
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Wally Bill Hedrick
DATE OF BIRTH=1928
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Pasadena, California, United States of America
DATE OF DEATH=
September 17, 2003
PLACE OF DEATH=
San Francisco, California
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