- Pluricentric language
A pluricentric language is a
languagewith several standard versions, both in spoken and in written forms. This situation usually arises when language and the national identity of its native speakers do not coincide.
For example, English is a pluricentric language, with numerous differences in pronunciation, spelling, etc. between the
United Kingdomand the United States, and a variety of accents of those and other English-speaking countries. It is usually considered a symmetric case of a pluricentric language, because no variety clearly dominates culturally. Statistically, however, American Englishspeakers constitute more than 65% of native English speakers, with British Englishin second place at 18% and other varieties having up to 5% each. Due to globalization in recent decades, English is becoming increasingly decentralized, with daily use and state-wide study of the language in schools growing at a rapid rate in most regions of the world. British English was formerly dominant in the education systems of most regions where English was taught as a foreign language (L2). In former colonies, British English remains strong. Standard British English is also the primary form taught in the EU and the rest of Europe. In many regions of the world, the use of American English is beginning to accelerate, sometimes outstripping British English in popularity among L2 student and business users. Other varieties of English, including Australian, Canadian, Indian, Newfoundland, New Zealand, and South African English, are far less known as distinct varieties in terms of the teaching of English as an L2 abroad.
Standard Germanis often considered an asymmetric case of a pluricentric language, because the standard used in Germanyis often considered dominant, mostly because of the sheer number of its speakers and their frequent lack of awareness of the Austrian Germanand Swiss Standard Germanvarieties. While there is a uniform stage pronunciation (the " SiebsDictionary") which is used in theatres all across German-speaking countries, this is not true for the standards applied at public occasions in Austria and Switzerland, which differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, and sometimes even grammar. Sometimes this even applies to newsbroadcasts in Bavaria, a German region with a strong separate cultural identity. The varieties of Standard German used in those regions are to some degree influenced by the respective dialects (but by no means identical with them), by specific cultural traditions (e.g. in culinary vocabulary, which differs markedly across the German-speaking area of Europe), and by different terminology employed in lawand administration. A list of Austrian terms for certain food items has even been incorporated into EU law, even though it is clearly incomplete.Fact|date=June 2008
Portuguese varies mainly between
Brazilian Portugueseand European Portuguese. Both dialects have undergone significant and divergent developments in phonology and the grammar of their pronominalsystems. Brazilian Portuguese is considerably more conservative in its phonology, but much less conservative in its grammar. The result is that communication between the dialects without previous exposure can be occasionally difficult, especially for a Brazilian attempting to understand a European.
Brazilian and European Portuguese currently have two distinct, albeit similar, spelling standards. A unified
orthographyfor the two varieties (including a limited number of words with dual spelling) has been recently approved by the national legislatures of Brazil and Portugal and is due to come into force over the next years, see Spelling reforms of Portuguesefor additional details. Formal written standards remain grammatically close to each other, despite some minor syntactic differences. African Portugueseis based on the European dialect, but has undergone its own phonetic and grammatical developments, sometimes reminiscent of spoken Brazilian.
Galician is a special case. Originally the same language, it has lost almost all contact with Portuguese since the 14th century. Nowadays, a Galician standard has emerged which is still very close to European Portuguese. In pronunciation, however, each branch has gone very different ways, and as a result communication may be difficult at first. To a Galician speaker, Portuguese sounds like a kind of Galician with most vowels left out, whereas to a Portuguese speaker Galician may sometimes sound like Portuguese with a Spanish accent. The latter judgement, though, may be attributed to the fact that a large proportion of the Spanish citizens with whom a Portuguese speaker may have been in contact were Galicians. As further anecdotal evidence, a rural Galician accent is sometimes mistaken in Madrid for a Portuguese accent.
One example of a situation that does not arise of the fact that languages and national identities of its native speakers do not coincide.
Valencianis the name used -traditionally and for centuries- for the same language that is called Catalan in Andorra, the Balearic Islandsand Catalonia, among other places. Valencian is the official name of the language in the Valencian Communityand has its own writing rules dictated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, created in 1998. This institution recognizes that Catalan and Valencian are different local forms of the same language -mutually intelligible to all speakers- with no single accepted common name. The Universitat de les Illes Balearsis in charge of the rules of the different Balearicforms, that have not had a traditional common local name (Majorcan in Majorca, Minorcan in Minorca, ...). However, given that the syncretic and academic name Catalan-Valencian-Balearic has not succeed -beyond the title of an excellent dictionary and the name given by Ethnologue- Catalan is generally the colloquial name accepted by the philological community to refer to the whole system. Is an asymmetric case of a pluricentric language, due to the current pre-eminence of the Central Catalan dialect and the (sometimes questioned) origin of the language in the southern communities during the Reconquista.
Spanish is not completely pluricentric because all the
Hispanophone worldhas the same common orthographic rules for the written language. There are differences in pronunciation, like ceceoor seseo, and hundreds of slightly different regional pronunciations. All varieties are perfectly intelligible in their acrolects, except for minor vocabulary differences. The mesolects and basilects have diverged more, with different slangs, foreign influences and choices in verbal forms. However, the worldwide diffusion of telenovelas and Spanish-language music favor intercomprehension.
Chinese, at least in terms of its
writing system, has been pluricentric since the mid-20th century, when simplified Chinese characterswere introduced in the People's Republic of China. Simplified characters are now official in the PRC and Singapore, while traditional Chinese characters, the system originally used in Chinese societies before the advent of simplified characters, remain in use elsewhere, including the Republic of Chinaon Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, and many overseas Chinesecommunities.
Standard Mandarinis the official Chinese spoken languagein China, Taiwan and Singapore, whilst Standard Cantoneseis de factoofficial in Hong Kongand Macau. There are a few differences in the spoken Standard Mandarinpromulgated in the PRC and the ROC (Taiwan). Some of the vocabulary is different and a few words are officially pronounced with different tones. See Taiwanese Mandarinfor more details on the differences. [http://www.zhongwen.com/x/guopu.htm This site] also lists the differences in the pronunciation standards.
The three main standards of the French language are Parisian (Standard) French, Standard Canadian French (Québécois), and a more neutral
International French(used in media and in teaching). The last typically represents a French marked by much greater use of archaic vocabulary no longer current in metropolitan France. Official "Québécois" also makes a conscious effort not to borrow foreign vocabulary (creating such words as "stationnement" for "parking", the English word used in French from France), making it prone to continued divergence from European. At the same time, live Québécois has more English borrowings than accepted by L'Académie Français as "proper" French. There is also a variety of French, Acadian, which is distinct from Quebec Frenchand is spoken mainly in the Maritime provinces, especially New Brunswick. Acadian is marked by differences in pronunciation, intonation, and vocabulary. Both Acadian and Québécois feature archaic pronunciation.
Minor standards can also be found in
Belgiumand Switzerland, with a particular influence of Germanic languages on grammar and vocabulary, sometimes through the influence of local dialects. In Belgium for example, various Germanic influences in the spoken French are evident in Walloon(for example,: to "blink" in English, German and Dutch, "blinquer" in Walloon and local French, "briller" in standard French). "Ring" ("rocade" or "périphérique" in standard French) is a common word in the three national languages for beltway.
It can be argued that
Hindiand Urduare one language, or a diasystem, sometimes called Hindustani, spoken in Indiaand Pakistanrespectively, though they are divided by two different writing systems. In addition, while both varieties include borrowings from Persian and Arabic, the influence of these languages on Urdu is much heavier, and Hindi vocabulary contains many Sanskritwords.
Arabichas a standard acrolect, with several mutually unintelligible basilects
*Danish: Once identical with Danish Rigsmaal, a number of spelling reforms have brought the Norwegian
Riksmålcloser to spoken Dano-Norwegian.
*Dutch: despite sometimes significant differences in vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar between the Dutch, Flemish,
Surinam, and the Netherlands Antillesvariants, there is just one "Standard Dutch" orthographyas regulated by the Dutch Language Union.
*Korean: North and South (to some extent—differences are growing; see
Korean language North-South differences)
*Gaelic: Scottish, Irish and Manx.
*Serbo-Croatian: Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian standard forms that are sometimes considered either two or three separate languages. Perhaps the biggest difference is in orthography, with the Serbian variety being written in the
*Bulgarian and Macedonian standard forms which properly form a
dialect continuumand share a set of grammatical features which set them apart from other Slavic languages, with the Bulgarian standard being based on the more eastern dialects, and the Macedonian standard being based on the more western dialects.
*Swedish: Two varieties with official status exist: 'rikssvenska', the official language of Sweden, and 'finlandssvenska' which - alongside Finnish - is the other official language of Finland. There are differences in vocabulary and grammar, with the Finnish variety remaining a little more conservative. The most marked differences, however, are in pronunciation and intonation: whereas Swedish speakers usually pronounce /k/ before /e/, /i/, /y/, /ä/ and /ö/ as [ç] (as in German "ich"), this sound is usually pronounced by a Swedo-Finn as the /ch/ sound in English "cheese"; in addition, the two tones which are characteristic of Swedish (and Norwegian) are absent from most Finnish dialects of Swedish which have an intonation reminiscent of Finnish and thus sound more monotonous when compared to 'rikssvenska'.
* Clyne, Michael G. (Ed.). (1992). "Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations". Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1.
* Clyne, Michael G.; & Kipp, Sandra. (1999). "Pluricentric languages in an immigrant context: Spanish, Arabic and Chinese". Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016577-5.
* Dua, Hans R. (1992). Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language. In M. G. Clyne (Ed.)
Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache
* [http://www.inst.at/trans/15Nr/06_1/muhr15.htm Language Attitudes and language conceptions in non-dominating varieties of pluricentric languages (by Rudolf Muhr)]
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