- Ferguson Company
In about 1934, in company with David Brown,
Harry Fergusonformed the Ferguson-Brown Company and the two men produced the Model A Ferguson-Brown tractorwith a Ferguson-designed hydraulichitch. Ferguson surmised that the tractor hitch was the key to having a better plough and designed a simpler tractor attachment for it.
In 1938 Ferguson made a handshake agreement with
Henry Fordto produce "Ferguson System" Ford-Ferguson tractors using Ferguson's own self-regulating "three-point hitch" system, beginning with the Ford 9N tractor. The three-point hitch soon became the favorite hitch attachment system among farmers in North America and around the world.
In 1946 the
Ford Motor Companyparted from Ferguson and a protracted lawsuit followed involving Ford's continued use of Ferguson's patents. Ford altered the hydraulic design of its postwar tractors to avoid Ferguson's hydraulic system patent, but continued to produce machines equipped with the basic Ferguson hitch arrangement. Equipped with the three-point hitch, the postwar Ford 8n became the top-selling individual tractor of all time in North America.
After the split with Ford, Ferguson took the opportunity to have the
Standard Motor Companyof the UK produce a new design, the Model TE20. The model name came from Tractor, England 20 horsepower but is affectionately known as the "Little Grey Fergie". There were several variants of the TE20; the first tractors were designed to run on petrol, and were known as the TEA20 following the introduction of the TED20 which ran on TVO (tractor vapourising oil, similar to paraffin). Later a dieselmodel was introduced, the TEF20. There were other variants with narrow wheelbases for working in vineyards and orchards, like the TEB20 and TEC20.
In all over 500,000 Little Grey Fergies were built between 1946 and 1956, and a surprising number survive today. So successful was the TE20 that Ford nicknamed it the "Grey Menace" as sales of the tractor spread across the world. They were even used on an expedition to the South Pole in 1958 by Sir
Edmund Hillary, a testament to the durability of the machine. Ford ultimately settled the legal proceedings with a multi-million dollar sum that allowed Ferguson to further expand his own manufacturing interests.
There is a monument in Wentworth on the junction of the Darling and
Murray Rivers in Australiacommemorating the time in 1956 when both rivers flooded and a fleet of little grey Fergies was used to build levee banks to save the town.
The principal feature of the Ferguson System was the three-point linkage. This allowed trailed implements to be supported on a hydraulic system with the two drag links attached under the rear axle and a single compression link, connected to the upper rear
transmissioncase, that was automatically regulating the hydraulic suspension's height. Thus the implement could be built at a minimum weight because it needed no attached wheels, manual controls and so on. It was also assisting the tractor to maintain traction because it was applying a combined drag and rotary force to the axle that kept the driving wheels, on that axle, on the ground and the steering wheels held onto the ground too. Consequently the "rearing and bucking" of overloaded tractors was overcome, making tractors much safer.
Ferguson designs for tractors were the first with single-wheel brakes that allowed the driver to turn sharply by braking the inside wheel. The TE20 was one of the first tractors to have a four-speed
gearboxwith integrated Differential and hydraulic system.
In 1953 Ferguson and Massey-Harris merged and the combined company Massey-Harris-Ferguson (later shortened to Massey Ferguson) became the manufacturer of the tractors and other designs. By then many manufacturers had developed their own three-point linkages and the linkage had become standardised worldwide.
Ford N Series Tractors
* [http://www.geocities.com/MotorCity/Downs/9828/ History of Ferguson System]
* [http://www.ulsterhistory.co.uk/harryferguson.htm Henry George (Harry) Ferguson]
* [http://www.ytmag.com/cgi-bin/ntracz.pl?m=massey Massey Harris & Massey Ferguson Tractors discussion]
* [http://www.ytmag.com/cgi-bin/ntracz.pl?m=ferg Harry Ferguson tractors]
* [http://www.coventry.historians.co.uk/ferguson.html Harry Ferguson—visionary and inventor]
* [http://www.ferguson-museum.co.uk/ Ferguson Family Museum]
* [http://www.abc.net.au/rural/mdbc/minutes/s669550.htm Fergie in Wentworth]
* [http://www.masseyferguson.com Massey Ferguson Tractor Web Site]
* [http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/resources/archives/agriculture/massey_harris_collection.htm Massey-Harris-Ferguson Collection] at the University of Guelph Library, Archival and Special Collections
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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