- Operation Hammer (1997)
Operation Hammer Part of the Turkey-PKK conflict and Iraqi Kurdish Civil War Date 12 May - 7 July 1997 Location Iraqi Kurdistan Result Turkish victory Belligerents Turkey
Kurdistan Workers' Party Strength Turkey: 30,000 soldiers
10,000 village guards
Casualties and losses Turkey:
15 August 1984 · Serhildan · Şırnak · Tasdelen · Northern Iraq · May 24 ambush · Winter Campaign · Steel · Sazak · Hammer · Dawn · Murat · 1st Hakkâri · Sun · Reşadiye · Turkey-Iraq cross-border · 2nd HakkâriBombings:
Istanbul (1999) · Ankara (2007) · Diyarbakır (2008) · Istanbul (2008) · Hakkâri (2010) · Istanbul (2010)
The operations objectives were to destroy PKK units in Northern Iraq, to strengthen Massoud Barzani's Kurdistan Democratic Party in its ongoing Civil War with Jalal Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan in the hole that the KDP would prevent further PKK raids into Turkey, and to counter Iranian influence in the region as Turkey accused Iran of supporting the PKK, and over 2,000 Iranian forces had entered Iraqi Kurdistan that year to aid the PUK.
Some 30-50 thousand Turkish forces entered Iraq on May 14 in response to an appeal by the Kurdistan Democratic Party for support in its offensive against the PKK. On May 19, the KDP launched a military operation to evacuate all PKK fighters from their capital in Arbil, which turned into a major battle in which 53 KDP and 58 PKK fighters were killed. In response the PKK ordered 4 suicide bombings from June 1 to June 11 which resulted in the death of 55 KDP fighters By July 7, when Turkish forces withdrew, over 2,000 PKK and at least 200 KDP forces had been killed.
More than 30,000 troops took part in the initial operation. Turkey announced fatalities at a total of 114 personnel made out of 14 commissioned officers, four non-commissioned officers, 75 soldiers and 21 village guards. Turkey announced the injured at a total of 185 personnel made out of 24 commissioned officers 17 non-commissioned officers, 338 soldiers and 48 village guards. Turkey announced the total number of militants neutralized at a total of 3,145 with 2,730 being killed and 415 being captured live or injured.
- Iran: The Iranian government condemned the invasion "as not only a violation of all international laws but the sovereign rights and territorial integrity of the Iraqi Muslim nation" and denounced Turkish claims of Iranian support for the PKK as "a joint conspiracy by the Turkish military and Israel."
- Operation Steel (1995)
- ^ a b c d Europa World Year Book 2004 (page 4227)
- ^ a b (page 155)
- ^ a b c d e "Çekiç harekatı (12 Mayıs - 7 Temmuz 1997)". Hürriyet. http://fotoanaliz.hurriyet.com.tr/GaleriDetay.aspx?cid=6755&p=3&rid=4369. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
- ^ a b c Turkey and Iran Face off in Kurdistan
- ^ a b c http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,MARP,,IRQ,,469f38a6c,0.html
- ^ a b Chronology of Kurds in Turkey
- ^ "Turkey withdraws bulk of troops from Iraq." Associated Press, June 21, 1997.
- ^ PDF2
History · Effects ParticipantsRepublic of Turkey · Kurdistan Democratic Party (between 1996-1998) ConflictsOthers Armed attacks
See Also Timeline
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