- Camelback locomotive
A camelback locomotive is a type of
steam locomotivewith the driving cab placed in the middle, astride the boiler. This placement was done to improve driver visibility; camelbacks were fitted with wide fireboxes which would have severely restricted driver visibility from the normal cab location at the rear. Camelbacks were also known as Mother Hubbards or center-cab locomotives.
The camelback design was developed separately by two different railroads in different eras. Though the name is common to both designs they had little in common other than the placement of the cab.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroadbegan to look into developing high-powered steam locomotives in the early 1840s, and in 1844 - 1847 built a series of locomotives nicknamed "muddiggers". As with many early B&O locomotives, a spur gear drive was used to connect the main shaft to the driving wheels. The long 0-8-0wheelbase pushed this connection to the back of the locomotive and caused the floor of the cab to be lifted up above the whole assembly.
Ross Winans, who had designed the "muddiggers", built the first of a series of 0-8-0camelback locomotives. These had long cabs that ran from the back of the smokeboxto the front of the firebox. The firebox itself sloped back on the earliest models; later models had longer "furnaces" which eliminated the slope, but which had a shallow curve from side to side. The firebox did not hang over the wheels, but it was wider than the main part of the boiler and would have obstructed the cab. The fireman worked from a large platform on the tender, and in some cases had a chute to allow him to deliver coal to the front of the grate.
Also in 1853, Samuel Hayes, the Master of Machinery for the railroad, had built a series of camelback
4-6-0locomotives for passenger service. The layout of the locomotive was roughly the same as for Winans' freight locomotives, except for the addition of the four wheel leading bogie. Copies and variations on these locomotives were built into the 1870s, with the last retirements coming in the 1890s.
The B&O examples burned conventional
bituminous coal. The large fireboxes of these locomotives were made obsolete by better boiler design.
The Wootten Firebox
John E. Wootten developed the Wootten firebox to effectively burn
anthracitewaste, which was a possible plentiful, cheap source of fuel. Wootten determined that a large, wide firebox would work best. As the successful trailing truckused to support large fireboxes had not yet been developed, Wootten instead mounted his huge firebox above the locomotive's driving wheels. The problem now arose that with a cab floor at the then standard tender deck height, it would be impossible for the locomotive's engineer to see forwards around the firebox shoulders. Instead, a cab for the engineer was placed above and astride the boiler. The fireman, however, remained at the rear with minimal protection from the elements. This gave rise to the unusual shape of the camelbacks.
The first camelback, a
4-6-0, was built in early 1877by the P&R's Reading, Pennsylvaniashops. It proved a success; the fuel cost saving was about $2,000 a year (approx. $30,000 now). More were built for many of the railroads operating in the anthracite regions, and some others, of many different wheel arrangements. The largest ones had a 0-8-8-0arrangement and were the only articulated camelbacks built.
The camelback was not a very safe design for its crew. The engineer was perched above the whirling siderods, vulnerable to swinging and flying metal if anything below should break. The fireman, meanwhile, was alone and exposed to the elements at the rear. The
Interstate Commerce Commissionbanned further construction of camelbacks, but gave exceptions to allow some to be completed. In 1927, further orders were completely prohibited on grounds of safety.
Many camelbacks were converted into end-cab locomotives; the advent of the
mechanical stokerand its associated underfloor machinery placed cab floors and tender decks higher, and from that vantage point the engineer could see ahead.
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Canadian Pacific Railway
Central Railroad of New Jersey
Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad
Chicago and Indiana Coal Railroad
Delaware and Hudson Railway
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad
Lehigh and Hudson River Railway
Lehigh and New England Railroad
Lehigh Valley Railroad
Long Island Rail Road
Maine Central Railroad
Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railroad
New York, Ontario and Western Railroad
New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway
Staten Island Rapid Transit
Southern Pacific Railroad
Union Pacific Railroad
Wheeling and Lake Erie Railway
*Barris, Wes. "Camelback Locomotives". Retrieved from http://www.steamlocomotive.com/camelback/ on
*Sagle, Lawrence W. "B&O Power: Steam, Diesel and Electric Power of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 1829 - 1964", Alvin F. Staufer, 1964
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
camelback locomotive — noun see camelback I, 3 … Useful english dictionary
Camelback — may refer to:* CamelBackCapitalization, a type of capitalization, usually known as CamelCase* A camelback locomotive, a type of steam locomotive with the cab mounted in the middle, astride the boiler. * Camelback Ski Area located on its namesake… … Wikipedia
camelback — I. ˈ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ˌ ̷ ̷ noun 1. : the back of a camel crossed the desert on camelback 2. : a back (as of a dog) that is slightly curved upward : roach back opposed to swayback 3 … Useful english dictionary
Locomotive a vapeur — Locomotive à vapeur Consolidation n°4193 du réseau du Nord Les premières locomotives (au XIXe siècle) étaient propulsées par une machine à vapeur, ce qui leur a valu le nom de locomotives à vapeur. Ce type de traction des trains est resté… … Wikipédia en Français
Locomotive À Vapeur — Consolidation n°4193 du réseau du Nord Les premières locomotives (au XIXe siècle) étaient propulsées par une machine à vapeur, ce qui leur a valu le nom de locomotives à vapeur. Ce type de traction des trains est resté largement prépondérant … Wikipédia en Français
Camelback (Lokomotive) — Eine 1912 für die Central Railroad of New Jersey von den Baldwin Locomotive Works gebaute Camelback L7s mit der Achsfolge 2 C. Als Camelback wird eine amerikanische Dampflokomotivbauweise bezeichnet, deren überdachter Führerstand in die Mitte der … Deutsch Wikipedia
Locomotive à vapeur — Consolidation n°4193 de la Compagnie des chemins de fer du Nord Les premières locomotives (au XIXe siècle) étaient propulsées par une machine à vapeur, ce qui leur a valu le nom de locomotives à vapeur. Ce type de traction des trains est… … Wikipédia en Français
Steam locomotive — A steam locomotive is a locomotive powered by steam. The term usually refers to its use on railways, but can also refer to a road locomotive such as a traction engine or steamroller.Steam locomotives dominated rail traction from the mid 19th… … Wikipedia
Firebox (locomotive) — In a steam engine, the firebox is the area where the fuel is burned, producing heat to boil the water in the boiler. Most are somewhat box shaped, hence the name. In the standard steam locomotive firetube type boiler, the firebox is surrounded by … Wikipedia
Baldwin Locomotive Works — Rechtsform Company Gründung 1831 Sitz Eddystone … Deutsch Wikipedia