Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty

Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty

Infobox East Asian
title=Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty
romaji=Nikkan Heigō Jōyaku
(한일합방조약, 한일합방늑약)
(韓日合邦条約, 韓日合邦勒約)
rr=Hanil Byeonghap Joyak
(Hanil Hapbang Joyak, Hanil Hapbang Neugyak)
The Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty was signed on August 22, 1910 by the representatives of the Korean and Japanese Imperial Governments, and was proclaimed to the public (and became effective) on August 29, officially starting the period of Japanese rule in Korea. The treaty had eight articles, the first being: "His Majesty the Emperor of Korea makes the complete and permanent cession to His Majesty the Emperor of Japan of all rights of sovereignty over the whole of Korea."

In modern Korea, the treaty is also commonly called "Hanil Hapbang Neugyak" (한일 합방 늑약)," which simply means a coerced (and hence invalid) treaty ("neugyak") of Korea's annexation to Japan. The event itself is also called "Gyeongsul Gukchi" (경술국치)," which means "the humiliation of the nation in the Year of the Dog." The day it happened, August 29, is remembered today as "Gukchi-il" (국치일)," that is, "the day of national shame."


The legality of the Treaty was disputed by the exiled Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea as well as the modern Republic of Korea; a position which also adopted later by the Allied forces that occupied the Empire of Japan after World War II. While the treaty was affixed with the national seal of the Korean Empire, Emperor Sunjong of Korea, refused to sign the treaty as required under Korean law. The treaty was instead signed by Prime Minister Lee Wan-Yong of Korea and Resident General Count Terauchi Masatake of Japan.

The 1965 Treaty of Basic Relations between South Korea and Japan declared that

"It is confirmed that all treaties or agreements concluded between the Empire of Japan and the Empire of Korea on or before August 22, 1910 are already null and void".

Due to ambiguities in the wording in the Japanese language, Japan interprets the above clause to mean that the 1910 Treaty was still valid until the signing of the 1965 Treaty, whereas both South and North Korea interpret the clause to mean the treaty was already null and void at the surrender of Japan, an interpretation which is upheld in the English text, of which the final paragraph of the 1965 Treaty agrees should be used in case of any conflict of interpretation. [cite journal|last=Kawasaki|first=Yutaka|title=Was the 1910 Annexation Treaty Between Korea and Japan Concluded Legally?|journal=Murdoch University Journal of Law|volume=3|issue=2|date=July 1996|url=http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v3n2/kawasaki.html|accessdate=2007-06-08]

Royal seal authenticity

The royal seal's authenticity is disputed. There are numerous claims that the empereror has forged the royal seal, and that the real seal is located somewhere hidden.Fact|date=August 2008

ee also

* Annexation
* Eulsa Treaty
* Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty of 1907
* Unequal Treaties
* List of Korea-related topics
* Korea under Japanese rule



*cite book
last = Beasley
first = W.G.
year = 1991
title = Japanese Imperialism 1894-1945
publisher = Oxford University Press
id = ISBN 0198221681

*cite book
last = Duus
first = Peter
year = 1998
title = The Abacus and the Sword: The Japanese Penetration of Korea, 1895-1910
publisher = University of California Press
location =
id = ISBN 0520213610

External links

* [http://www.isop.ucla.edu/eas/documents/kore1910.htm Japan – Korea Annexation Treaty (English)]

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