- Feast of the Immaculate Conception
The Feast of the Immaculate Conception celebrates the
Roman Catholic dogmaof the Immaculate Conceptionof the Blessed Virgin Mary. It is celebrated on 8 December, nine months before the Nativity of Mary, which is celebrated on 8 September.
A feast called the Conception of Mary arose in the Eastern Church in the seventh century (prior to the Great Schism of 1054). It spread to the West in the eighth century. In the eighth century it became a feast of the Roman Catholic Church. It is the only one of Mary's feasts that came to the Western Church not by way of Rome, but instead spread from the
Byzantinearea to Naples, and then to Normandy during their period of dominance over southern Italy. From there it spread into England, France, Germany, and eventually Rome. [Francis X. Weiser. "Handbook of Christian Feasts and Customs" (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1958), p. 292.]
Prior to Pope
Pius IX's definition of the Immaculate Conceptionas Church dogma in 1854, most missals referred to it as the Feast of the Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The festal texts of this period focused more on the action of her conception than on the theological question of her preservation from original sin. A missal published in England in 1806 indicates the same collect for the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary was used for this feast as well. [ [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC11989834&id=jHtt7xoUbfoC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=Roman+Missal+in+English#PRA2-PA529,M1 The Roman Missal in English] Tr. John England (Philadelphia: Eugene Chummiskey, 1843), p. 529.]
The first move towards describing Mary's conception as "immaculate" came in the eleventh century. In the fifteenth century
Pope Sixtus IV, while promoting the festival, explicitly tolerated those who promoted it as the Immaculate Conception and those who challenged such a description, a position later endorsed by the Council of Trent.
The proper for the feast of the Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Medieval Sarum Missal, perhaps the most famous in England, merely addresses the action of her conception.
The collect for the feast reads:
O God, mercifully hear the supplication of thy servants who are assembled together on the Conception of the Virgin Mother of God, may at her intercession be delivered by Thee from dangers which beset us. [ [http://books.google.com/books?vid=08I4RhaJDeU0z2Dt&id=cyUBAAAAQAAJ&pg=RA1-PR7&lpg=RA1-PR7&dq=%22Sarum+Missal#PRA18-PA332,M1 The Sarum Missal in English] Tr. A. Harford Pearson (London: The Church Printing Co., 1834), p. 332.]In 1854,
Pius IXmade the infallible statement " Ineffabilis Deus": "The most Blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instant of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege granted by almighty God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the saviour of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of original sin." [ [http://www.newadvent.org/library/docs_pi09id.htm "Ineffabilis Deus"] the Apostolic Constitutionof Pope Pius IX on the Immaculate Conception (December 8, 1854), in the Acta Pii IX, pars 1, Vol. 1, p. 615.]
It is a public holiday in
Austria, Nicaragua, Chile, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Macau, Malta, Peru, and Paraguay. It is also a public holiday in the Philippinesand is a Holy Day of Obligation, as it is in the United Statesand Ireland.
December 8th is also celebrated as mother's day in
Panamain honor of this holiday and is therefore a national holiday.
Anglican Communion, the "Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary" may be observed as a Lesser Festivalon 8 December. Many Anglo-Catholicparishes observe the feast using the traditional Roman Catholic title, the "Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary."
Eastern Orthodox Churches have never accepted the Roman Catholic dogma of the Immaculate Conception, they do celebrate December 9 as the Feast of the Conception by St. Anne of the Most Holy Theotokos. While the Orthodox believe that the Virgin Mary was, from her conception, filled with every grace of the Holy Spirit, in view of her calling as the Mother of God, they do not teach that she was conceived without original sin as their understanding of this doctrine differs from the Roman Catholic articulation. [Timothy Ware, "The Orthodox Church" (Penguin Books, 1963, ISBN 0-14-020592-6), pp. 263-4.] The Orthodox do affirm that Mary is "all-holy" and never committed a personal sin during her lifetime.
The Orthodox feast is not a perfect nine months before the feast of the Nativity of the Theotokos (
September 8) as it is in the West, but a day later. This feast is not ranked among the Great Feastsof the church year, but is a lesser-ranking feast ( Polyeleos).
* [http://www.americancatholic.org/Features/SaintOfDay/default.asp?id=1223 Feast of the Immaculate Conception] , AmericanCatholic.org
* [http://orthodoxwiki.org/Conception_of_the_Theotokos Conception of the Theotokos] Article about the Orthodox feast from Orthodoxwiki.org
* [http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?SID=4&ID=1&FSID=103506 The Conception by Righteous Anna of the Most Holy Mother of God] Orthodox
Iconand Synaxarionof the feast
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Congregation of the Immaculate Conception — is the name of six Catholic Congregations: Contents 1 Order of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady (The Conceptionists) 2 Mission Priests of the Immaculate Conception (usually called Missionaries of Rennes) … Wikipedia
Congregation of the Immaculate Conception — Congregation of the Immaculate Conception † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Congregation of the Immaculate Conception I. Congregation of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady (The Conceptionists). Founded in 1484 at Toledo, Spain, by… … Catholic encyclopedia
Royal Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Immaculate Conception — The Royal Military Order of Saint George for the Defense of the Faith and the Immaculate Conception was founded by Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria in 1726 to provide for a means of honouring the nobility and recognizing distinguished… … Wikipedia
Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Mobile — The Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, is the seat of the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mobile. The cathedral is named for Mary, mother of Jesus, under her title, Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception. Located at 2 … Wikipedia
Church of the Immaculate Conception (Saint Mary-of-the-Woods, Indiana) — Church of the Immaculate Conception … Wikipedia
Immaculate Conception — • In the Constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 8 December, 1854, Pius IX pronounced and defined that the Blessed Virgin Mary in the first instance of her conception, by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus… … Catholic encyclopedia
Immaculate Conception — ► NOUN 1) (in the Roman Catholic Church) the doctrine that God preserved the Virgin Mary from the taint of original sin from the moment she was conceived. 2) the feast commemorating the Immaculate Conception on December 8th … English terms dictionary
Immaculate Conception — For the novel by Gaétan Soucy, see The Immaculate Conception. Immaculata redirects here. For other uses, see Immaculata (disambiguation). La Purisima Inmaculada Concepcion by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, 1678, now in Museo del Prado, Spain. The… … Wikipedia
Immaculate Conception — Rom. Cath. Ch. the dogma of the unique privilege by which the Virgin Mary was conceived in her mother s womb without the stain of original sin through the anticipated merits of Jesus Christ. Cf. virgin birth (def. 1). [1680 90] * * * In Roman… … Universalium
The Immaculate Election — Infobox Arrested Development episode episode name = The Immaculate Election episode no = 2AJD14 airdate = March 20, 2005 writer = Barbara Adler and Abraham Higginbotham director = Anthony Russo on the next = Lucille finds a housekeeper that she… … Wikipedia