- Plant embryogenesis
Plant embryogenesis is the process that produces a plant embryo from a fertilised ovule by asymmetric cell division and the differentiation of undifferentiated cells into tissues and organs. It occurs during seed development, when the single-celled
zygoteundergoes a programed pattern of cell division resulting in a mature embryo. [Suárez, María F., and Peter V. Bozhkov. 2008. Plant embryogenesis. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p 3.] A similar process continues during the plant's life within the meristemsof the stems and roots. Unlike animals, plants are made up of both mature and immature cells. In animals, apart from stem cellsin the bone marrow, somatic cells do not have unlimited morphogeneticpotential, and can only produce cells of the same type through cycles of continuous cell division ( mitosis). However, the immature cells of plant meristems can produce new cells which can develop into any tissue or organ, or even an entirely new plant. The meristems are derived from and carry out the same functions as embryonic cells formed during embryogenesis.clarifyme
Embryogenesisoccurs naturally as a result of sexual fertilization and the formation of the "zygotic embryos." The embryo along with other cells from the motherplant develops into the seedor the next generation, which, after germination, grows into a new plant.
Embryogenesis may be divided up into two phases, the first involves morphogenetic events which form the basic cellular pattern for the development of the shoot-root body and the primary tissue layers; it also programs the regions of meristematic tissue formation.clarifyme The second phase, or postembryonic development, involves the maturation of cells, which involves cell growth and the storage of macromolecules (such as oils, starches and proteins) required as a 'food and energy supply' during germination and seedling growth. Embryogenesis involves cell growth and division, cell differentiation and programed cellular death. [Current topics in developmental biology; v. 67. 2005. [S.l.] : Elsevier Academic Press. p 135.] The zygotic embryo is formed following double
fertilisationof the ovule, giving rise to two distinct structures: the plant embryo and the endospermwhich together go on to develop into a seed. Seeds may also develop without fertilization, which is referred to as apomixis. Plant cells can also be induced to form embryos in plant tissue culture; such embryos are called "somatic embryos."
Following fertilization, the zygote undergoes an asymmetrical
cell divisionthat gives rise to a small apical cell, which becomes the embryo and a large basal cell (called the suspensor), which functions to provide nutrients from the endosperm to the growing embryo. From the eight cell stage ( octant) onwards, the zygotic embryo shows clear embryo patterning, which forms the main axis of polarity, and the linear formation of future structures. These structures include the shoot meristem, cotyledons, hypocotyl, and the root and root meristem: they arise from specific groups of cells as the young embryo divides and their formation has been shown to be position-dependent. [ [http://www.zmbp.uni-tuebingen.de/DevelopmentalGenetics/ResearchGroups/juergens/apical/index.html ZMBP Embryo Patterning ] ]
In the globular stageclarifyme, the embryo develops radial patterning clarifyme through a series of cell divisions, with the outer layer of cells differentiating into the 'protoderm.' The globular embryo can be thought of as two layers of inner cells with distinct developmental fates; the apical layer will go on to produce
cotyledons and shoot meristem, while the lower layer produces the hypocotyland rootmeristem. Bilateral symmetry is apparent from the heart stage; provascular cells will also differentiate at this stage. In the subsequent torpedo and cotyledonary stages of embryogenesis, the embryo completes its growth by elongating and enlarging.clarifyme
dicotembryo, the hypophysis, which is the uppermost cell of the suspensor, differentiates to form part of the root cap. Plant cells can also be induced to form embryos in plant tissue culture; these embryos are called "somatic embryos," which are used to generate new plants from single cells.
Plant growth and buds
Embryonic tissue is made up of actively growing cells and the term is normally used to describe the early formation of tissue in the first stages of growth. It can refer to different stages of the
sporophyteand gametophyteplant; including the growth of embryos in seedlings, and to meristematic tissues, [Pandey, Brahma Prakash. 2005. Textbook of botany angiosperms: taxonomy, anatomy, embryology (including tissue culture) and economic botany. New Delhi: S. Chand & Company. p 410.] which are in a persistently embryonic state, [McManus, Michael T., and Bruce E. Veit. 2002. Meristematic tissues in plant growth and development. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.] to the growth of new buds on stems. [Singh, Gurcharan. 2004. Plant systematics: an integrated approach. Enfield, NH: Science Publishers. p 61.]
gymnosperms and angiosperms, the young plant contained in the seed, begins as a developing egg-cell formed after fertilization(sometimes without fertilization in a process called apomixis) and becomes a plant embryo.This embryonic condition also occurs in the buds that form on stems. The buds have tissue that has differentiated but not grown into complete structures. They can be in a resting state, lying dormant over winter or when conditions are dry, and then commence growth when conditions become suitable. Before they start growing into stem, leaves, or flowers, the buds are said to be in an embryonic state.
Somatic embryos are formed from plant cells that are not normally involved in the development of embryos, i.e. ordinary plant tissue. No endosperm or seed coat is formed around a somatic embryo. Applications of this process include: clonal propagation of genetically uniform plant material; elimination of viruses; provision of source tissue for genetic transformation; generation of whole plants from single cells called
protoplasts; development of synthetic seed technology. Cells derived from competent source tissue are cultured to form an undifferentiated mass of cells called a callus. Plant growth regulatorsin the tissue culture medium can be manipulated to induce callus formation and subsequently changed to induce embryos to form from the callus. The ratio of different plant growth regulatorsrequired to induce callus or embryo formation varies with the type of plant. [http://www.accessexcellence.org/LC/ST/st2bgplant.html "Plant Tissue Culture"] Asymmetrical cell division also seems to be important in the development of somatic embryos, and while failure to form the suspensor cell is lethal to zygotic embryos, it is not lethal for somatic embryos.
Notes and references
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