Sigmund Mowinckel


Sigmund Mowinckel

Sigmund Olaf Plytt Mowinckel (Kjerringøy, Norway, August 41884-Oslo, June 41965) was one of the world's most significant Psalms scholars.

Life

He was educated at the University of Oslo (in those days Oslo was still officially called Kristiania), and from 1917 onwards he was a lecturer there.

From the 1920s onwards Mowinckel headed a school of thought on the Psalms which sometimes clashed with the Form Critical conclusions of Hermann Gunkel (see Form criticism) and those who followed in Gunkel's footsteps (Hans Joachim-Kraus etc). In broad terms, Gunkel strongly advocated a view of the Psalms which focussed on the two notable names for God occurring therein: Yahweh (JHWH sometimes called tetragrammaton) and Elohim. The schools of Psalm writing springing therefrom were termed "Yahwist" and "Elohist".

Mowinckel's approach to the Psalms differed quite a bit from Gunkel's. Mowinckel explained the psalms as wholly cultic both in origin and in intention. He attempted to relate more than 40 psalms to a hypothetical autumnal New Year festival.

Published works (early editions)

* "Statholderen Nehemia" (Kristiania: a. 1916)
* "Esra den skriftlærde" (Kristiania: a. 1916)
* "Kongesalmerne i det Gamle Testamentet" (Kristiania: (1916)
* "Der Knächt Jahves" (1921)
* "Psalmenstudien I: 'Awan und die individuellen Klagepsalmen" (Kristiania: SNVAO* 1921)
* "Psalmenstudien II: Das Thronbesteigungsfest Jahwas und der Ursprung der Eschatologie" (Kristiania: SNVAO* 1922)
* "Psalmenstudien III: Kultprophetie und kultprophetische Psalmen" (Kristiania: SNVAO*, 1923)
* "Psalmenstudien IV: Die technischen Termini in den Psalmenuberschriften" (Kristiania: SNVAO*, 1923)
* "Psalmenstudien V: Segen und Fluch in Israels Kult und Psalmdichtung" (Kristiania: SNVAO*, 1924)
* "Psalmenstudien VI: Die Psalmdichter" (Kristiania: SNVAO*, 1924)
* "Diktet om Ijob og hans tre venner" (Kristiania: 1924)
* "Profeten Jesaja" (Oslo: 1925)
* "Jesaja-disiplene: Profetien fra Jesaja til Jeremia" (Oslo: 1926)
* "Motiver og stilformer i profeten Jeremias diktning" (1926)
* "Le Decalogue" (Paris: 1927)
* "Det Gamle Testament som Guds Ord" (Oslo: 1938)
* "Gamla testamental som Guds ord" (Stockholm: 1938)
* "Die Erkentis Gottes bei den alttestamentlichen Propheten" [translation: "The recognizable God in/within the Old Testament prophets" or perhaps "The recognition of God beside/by the Old Testament prophets"] Supplementary volume to "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" (Oslo: 1941).
* "Prophecy and Tradition" (1946)
* "Han som kommer : Messiasforventningen i Det gamle testament og på Jesu tid" (1951)
* "Offersang og sangoffer : salmediktningen i Bibelen" [translated: "Song of sacrifice and Sacrifice of song" or "Offering song and Song offering": "Psalm Poetry in the Bible"] (Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co, 1951).
* "Der achtundsechsigste Psalm" [ANVAO**, II, 1953, I] (Oslo: 1953)
* "Religion och Kultus" (1953).
* "Real and Apparent Tricola in Hebrew Psalm Poetry" [ANVAO**, II, 1957] (Oslo: 1958)

NOTE [*] : SNVAO signifies the Norwegian publisher/publications Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, II. Hist.-Filos. Klasse

NOTE [**] ANVAO signifies the Norwegian publisher/publications Avhandliger utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo. II. Hist. Filos. Klasse.

Articles by Mowinckel

* 'Om den jodiske menighets og provinsen Judeas organisasjon ca. 400 f. Kr.', "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" (Kristiania: 1915), pp. 123ff., 226ff.
* 'Tronstigningssalmerne og Jahves tronstigningsfest', "Norsk teologi til reformationsjubileet", specialhefte [i.e. special issue] to "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" (Kristiania: 1917), pp. 13ff.
* 'Die vorderasiatischen Konigs- und Fursteninschriften' [translation: "The early Asiatic Kings and Princes Inscription"] , "Eucharisterion" [Studien zur Religion und Literatur d. Alt und Neu Testaments, H. Gunkel zum 60] ["Studies in the Religion and Literature of the Old and New Testaments, H. Gunkel at 60" --- Gunkel's 60th birthday was in 1922] I, pp. 278ff., a book produced by "Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur d. Alten und Neuen Testaments" (FRLANT) Band (Vol.) 36 (Gottingen: 1923)
* 'Det kultiske synspunkt som forskningsprinsipp i den gammelstestamentlige videnskap', "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" (Kristiania: 1924), pp. 1ff.
* 'I porten' "Studier tilegnede Frans Buhl" (Copenhagen: 1925)
* 'Drama, religionsgeschichtlisches' [translation: "Drama historical religion" (or "Drama religion history)", RGG2 [appeared in "Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart" 2.Aufl.] (Tubingen: 1927-32)
* 'Levi und Leviten' [translation: "Levi and Levites"] , RGG2 [appeared in "Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart" 2.Aufl.] (Tubingen: 1927-32)
* 'Stilformer og motiver i profeten Jeremias dikning', "Edda" Vol. 36 (1926), pp. 276ff.
* 'Salmeboken og gudstjenestesalmen', "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" (Oslo: 1927), pp. 153ff.
* 'Die letzten Worte Davids' [translation: "The last words of David"] , in II Samuel 23:1-7, "Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft"' Band (Vol.) 45? (Giessen:1927), pp. 30ff.
* 'A quelle moment le culte de Jahwe a Jerusalem est il officiellement devenu un culte sans images?' [translation: "At what moment did the cult of Jahweh of Jerusalem officially become a cult without images?"] "Revue de l'Histoire et des Philosophies Religieuses" Vol. 9 (Strasbourg: 1929), pp. 197ff.
* The following sections/chapters in "Det Gamle Testament, oversatt av S. Michelet, Sigmund Mowinckel og N. Messel" (also known simply as GTMMM) Volumes I - III (Oslo: 1929-following years):-: Sections 2. Mos. 18-34; 4. Mos. 20-25; 32-33; 5. Mosebok; Josvaboken; Samuelsboken; Kongeboken; Jesaja; Jeremia; Tolvprofetboken.
* Book review of Eduard Konig's "Das Buch Hiob in Deutsche Litz", 3. Folge, 1. Jahrg. 12, (1930) columns 529ff. [presumably this review relates to E Konig's "Das Buch Hiob eingeleitet, ubersetzt und erklart" (Gutersloh: Bertelsmann, 1927 or 1929)]
* 'Die Komposition des Deuterojesajanischen Buches' [translation: "The Composition of the books of Deutero-Isaiah"] , "Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft"' Band (Vol.) 44 (Giessen: 1931)pp. 87ff., 242ff.
* 'Die Chronologie der israelitischen und judaischen Konige' [translation: "The Chronology of the Kings of Israel and Judah"] , "Acta Orientalia" Vol. 10 (Leiden: 1932) pp. 161ff.
* 'Fiendene i de individuelle klagesalmer', "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" (Oslo: 1934), pp. 1ff.
* 'The "Spirit" and the "Word" in the Preexilic Reforming Prophets', "Journal of Biblical Literature" Vol. 53 (Philadelphia: 1934) pp. 199ff.
* '"Anden" og "Ordet" hos de foreksilske reformprofeter', "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" (Oslo: 1935), pp. 1ff.
* 'Ekstatisk oplevelse og rasjonal bearbeidelse hos de gammeltestamentlige profeter', [translation: "Extatic experience and rational elaboration in Old Testament prophecy"] "Theologisk Tidsskrift" (known as " [D] TT") (Kobenhavn [Copenhagen] :1935), pp. 1ff.
* 'Extatic Experience and Rational Elaboration in Old Testament Prophecy', "Acta Orientalia" Vol. 13 (Leiden: 1935), pp. 264ff.
* 'Hat es ein israelitisches Nationalepos gegeben?' [translation: "Is there a given Israelite national epic?"] , "Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft"' Band (Vol.) 53 (Giessen: 1935) pp. 130ff.
* 'Zur Geschichte der Dekalogue' [translation: "To a History of the Decalogue (Ten Commandments)"] , "Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft"' Band (Vol.) 55 (Giessen: 1937) pp. 218ff.
* Book Review of Widengren's "Accadian and Hebrew Psalms of Lamentation" which appeared in "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" (Oslo: 1940), pp. 155. [G. Widengren's book itself was published at Stockholm, 1937] .
* 'Ras Shamra og det Gamle Testament', "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" Vol. xl, (Oslo: 1939), pp. 16ff.
* 'Oppkomsten av profetlitteraturen', "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" (Oslo: 1942), pp. 65ff.
* 'Kadesj, Sinai og Jahve', "Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift" Vol. 9 (1942), pp. 21ff.
* 'Nathanprofetien i 2. Sam. 7' [translation: "Nathan's prophecy in II Samuel 7"] , "Svensk Exegetisk Arsbok" (known as SEA) (Uppsala: date ?), pp. 220ff.
* 'Zum Problem der hebraischen Metrik' [translation: "Towards the Problem of the Hebrew Metric"] , "Bertholetfestschrift" (Tubingen: 1950), pp. 379ff. ["Bertholetfestschrift" = Festschrift Alfred Bertholet zum 80. Geburtstag, herausgeg. von W. Baumgartner, O. Eissfeldt, K. Elliger, L. Rost>> translation: "Festschrift for Alfred Bertholet on his 80th Birthday--editors: W. Baumgartner, Otto Eissfeldt, K. Elliger and L. Rost"] .
* 'Den senjodiske salmediktning', "Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift" (Oslo: 1950), pp. 1-54.
* 'Zur hebraischen Metrik II' [translation: "Towards Hebrew Metric II"] , "Studia theologica cura ordinum theologorum Scandinavorum edita" Vol. VII (1953), pp. 54ff.
* 'Metrischer Aufbau und Textcritik, an Ps. 8 illustriert' [translation: "Metrical Construction and Textcriticism, illustrated on Psalm 8"] , "Studia Orientalia Johanno Pedersen Septuagenario...dicata" [Studia Orientalia's volume celebrating the 70th birthday of Johannes Pedersen] (Havniae [Copenhagen] : 1953), pp.250ff.
* 'Der metrische Aufbau von Jes. 62, 1 - 12 und die neuen sog. kurzverse' [translation: "The metrical construction of Isaiah 62: 1 - 12 and the new so-called ? shortverse"] , "Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft"' Band (Vol.) 65 (Giessen: 1953), pp. 167ff.
* 'Zum Psalm des Habakuk' [translation: "Towards the Psalm of Habakkuk"] , "Theologische Zeitschrift" Band (Vol.) 9 (Basel: 1953), pp. 1ff.
* 'Psalm Criticism between 1900 and 1935 (Ugarit and Psalm Exegesis)', "Vetus Testamentum" Vol. 5 (Leiden: Brill, 1955) pp. 13ff.
* 'Marginalien zur hebraischen Metrik', "Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft"' Band (Vol.) 67 (Giessen: 1956) pp. 97ff.
* 'Zu Psalm 16, 3 - 4' [translation: "To/towards Psalm 16: 3 - 4"] , "Theologische Literaturzeitung" (1957), columns 649ff.
* 'Notes on the Psalms', "Studia theologica cura ordinum theologorum Scandinavorum edita" Vol. XIII (1959), pp. 134ff.
* 'Drive and/or Ride in the O.T.', "Vetus Testamentum" Vol. 12 (Leiden: Brill, 1962) pp. 278-299ff.

Other relevant articles from periodicals

* 'Mowinckel und Deutschland' written by R. Smend, "Studia Theologica", Volume 53, Number 2, 20 December 1999, pp. 79-96(18) (Routledge, 1999), pp. 79 - 96.


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