- Robert Doisneau
Robert Doisneau in his studio in Montrouge, 1992
Born Robert Doisneau
14 April 1912
Gentilly, Val-de-Marne, Paris
Died April 1, 1994(aged 81)
Cause of death Acute pancreatitis Resting place Raizeux Nationality French Education Ecole Estienne, graduated 1929, diplomas in engraving and lithography Occupation Photographer, engraver Known for
Street photography,Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville (Kiss by the Hôtel de Ville)
Title Chevalier of the Order of the Légion d'honneur Spouse Pierrette (née Chaumaison) Children Annette (b.1942)
Robert Doisneau (April 14, 1912, Gentilly, Val-de-Marne – April 1, 1994) was a French photographer. In the 1930s he used a Leica on the streets of Paris; together with Henri Cartier-Bresson he was a pioneer of photojournalism. He is renowned for his 1950 image Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville (Kiss by the Hôtel de Ville), a photo of a couple kissing in the busy streets of Paris. Robert Doisneau was appointed a Chevalier (Knight) of the National Order of the Légion d'honneur in 1984.
Robert Doisneau was known for his modest, playful, and ironic images of amusing juxtapositions, mingling social classes, and eccentrics in contemporary Paris streets and cafes. Influenced by the work of André Kertész, Eugène Atget, and Henri Cartier-Bresson, in over twenty books Doisneau presented a charming vision of human frailty and life as a series of quiet, incongruous moments.
“ "The marvels of daily life are so exciting; no movie director can arrange the unexpected that you find in the street." Robert Doisneau. ”
Doisneau's work gives unusual prominence and dignity to children's street culture; returning again and again to the theme of children at play in the city, unfettered by parents. His work treats their play with seriousness and respect. In his honour, and owing to this, there are several Ecole Primaire (Primary Schools) named after him. An example is at Veretz (Indre-et-Loire).
Robert Doisneau is one of France's best known photographers, for his street photography and the many playful images in everyday French life. His photographs over the course of several decades provide people with a great record of French life. He has published over twenty books with realistic and charming pictures of personal moments in the lives of individuals.
At thirteen he enrolled at the École Estienne, a craft school where he graduated in 1929 with diplomas in engraving and lithography. Here he had his first contact with the arts, taking classes in Figure drawing and Still life.
When he was 16 he took up amateur photography but was reportedly so shy that he started by photographing cobble-stones before progressing to children and then adults.
At the end of the 1920s Doisneau found work as a draughtsman (lettering artist) in the advertising industry at Atelier Ullmann (Ullmann Studio), a creative graphics studio that specialised in the pharmaceutical industry. Here he took an opportunity to change career by also acting as camera assistant in the studio and then becoming a staff photographer.
Photography in the 1930s
While working at Atelier Ullmann Doisneau had helped out as a camera assistant and developed into a staff photographer, but in 1931 he left both the studio and advertising, taking a job as an assistant with the modernist photographer André Vigneau.
In 1932 he sold his first photo story to Excelsior magazine.
In 1934 he began working as an industrial advertising photographer for the Renault car factory at Boulogne-Billancourt. Working at Renault increased Doisneau’s interest in working with photography and people. In 1991 he admitted that the years at the Renault car factory marked “the beginning of his career as a photographer and the end of his youth.” Five years later, in 1939, he was fired for being constantly late. He was forced to try freelance advertising, engraving and postcard photography to earn his living. At that time the French postcard industry was the largest in Europe, postcards served as greetings cards as well as vacation souvenirs.
In 1939 he was hired by Charles Rado of the Rapho photo agency and travelled throughout France in search of picture stories. This is where he took his first professional street photographs.
War service and resistance
Doisneau worked at Rapho until the outbreak of World War II, whereupon he was drafted into the French army as both a soldier and photographer. He was in the army until 1940 and from then until the end of the war in 1945 used his draughtsmanship, lettering artistry and engraving skills to forge passports and identification papers for the French Resistance.
Some of Doisneau's most memorable photographs were taken after the war. He returned to freelance photography and sold photographs to Life and other international magazines. He briefly joined the Alliance Photo Agency but rejoined the Rapho agency in 1946 and remained with them throughout his working life, despite receiving an invitation from Henri Cartier-Bresson to join Magnum Photos.
His photographs never ridiculed the subjects; thus he refused to photograph women whose heads had been shaved as punishment for sleeping with Germans.
“ "I don't photograph life as it is, but life as I would like it to be," Robert Doisneau ”
In 1948 Doisneau was contracted by Vogue to work as a fashion photographer. The editors believed he would bring a fresh and more casual look the magazine but Doisneau didn’t enjoy photographing beautiful women in elegant surroundings, he preferred street photography. When he could escape from the studio, he photographed ever more in the streets of Paris.
The 1950s were Doisneau's peak but the 1960s were his wilderness years. In the 1970s Europe began to change and editors looked for new reportage that would show the sense of a new social era. All over Europe, the old-style picture magazines were closing as television got the public's attention. Doisneau continued to work, producing children's books, advertising photography and celebrity portraits including Alberto Giacometti, Jean Cocteau, Fernand Léger, Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso.
Doisneau worked with writers and poets such as Blaise Cendrars and Jacques Prevert, and he credited Prevert with giving him the confidence to photograph the everyday street scenes that most people simply ignored.
Group XV was established in 1946 in Paris to promote photography as art and drawing attention to the preservation of French photographic heritage. Doisneau joined the Group in 1950 and participated alongside Rene-Jacques, Willy Ronis and Pierre Jahan.
Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville (The Kiss)
In 1950 he created his most recognizable work for Life - Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville (Kiss by the Hôtel de Ville), a photo of a couple kissing in the busy streets of Paris, which became an internationally recognised symbol of young love in Paris. The identity of the couple remained a mystery until 1992.
Jean and Denise Lavergne erroneously believed themselves to be the couple in The Kiss, and when Robert and Annette met them for lunch in the 1980s he "did not want to shatter their dream" so he said nothing. This resulted in them taking him to court for "taking their picture without their knowledge", because under French law an individual owns the rights to their own likeness. The court action forced Doisneau to reveal that he posed the shot using Françoise Delbart and Jacques Carteaud, lovers whom he had just seen kissing but had not initially photographed because of his natural reserve, but he approached them and asked if they would repeat le baiser. He won the court case against the Lavergnes.
“ "I would never have dared to photograph people like that. Lovers kissing in the street, those couples are rarely legitimate." Robert Doisneau. 1992 ”
The couple in Le baiser were Françoise Delbart, 20, and Jacques Carteaud, 23, both aspiring actors. In 2005 Françoise Bornet (née Delbart) stated that "He told us we were charming, and asked if we could kiss again for the camera. We didn't mind. We were used to kissing. We were doing it all the time then, it was delicious. Monsieur Doisneau was adorable, very low key, very relaxed." They posed at the Place de la Concorde, the Rue de Rivoli and finally the Hôtel de Ville. The photograph was published in the June 12, 1950, issue of Life. The relationship between Delbart and Carteaud only lasted for nine months. Delbart continued her acting career, but Carteaud gave up acting to become a wine producer.
In 1950 Françoise Bornet was given an original print of the photo, bearing Doisneau's signature and stamp, as part of the payment for her "work", and thus her subsequent attempt at litigation in the 1990s was rejected by the court. In April 2005 she sold the print at auction for 155,000€ to an unidentified Swiss collector via the Paris auctioneers Artcurial Briest-Poulain-Le Fur.
In 1936 Doisneau married Pierrette Chaumaison whom he had met in 1934 when she was cycling through a village where he was on holiday. They had two daughters, Annette (b.1942) and Francine (b.1947). Annette worked as his assistant from 1979 until his death.
Pierrette died in 1993 suffering from Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Doisneau died six months later, having had a triple heart bypass and suffering from acute pancreatitis. Annette said "We won in the courts, (re: The Kiss) but my father was deeply shocked. He discovered a world of lies, and it hurt him. 'The Kiss' ruined the last years of his life. Add that to my mother suffering from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and I think it's fair to say he died of sadness."
Doisneau was in many ways a shy and humble man, like his photography, still delivering his own work at the height of his fame. He chastised Francine for charging an 'indecent' daily fee of £2,000 for his work on a beer advertising campaign – he wanted only the rate of an "artisan photographer".
“ "Maybe if I was 20, success would change me. But now I'm a dinosaur of photography," Doisneau  ”
He lived in southern Paris (Gentilly, Val-de-Marne, Montrouge and 13th arrondissement of Paris) throughout his life and died in 1994. He is buried in the cemetery at Raizeux beside his wife Pierrette.
Awards and commemoration
He won several awards throughout his life, including:
- the Balzac Prize in 1986 (Honoré de Balzac)
- the Grand Prix National de la Photographie in 1983
- the Niépce Prize in 1956 (Nicéphore Niépce)
- the Kodak Prize in 1947
A short film, "Le Paris de Robert Doisneau", was made in 1973.
In 1992 the French actress and producer Sabine Azéma made the film Bonjour Monsieur Doisneau.
The photography of Robert Doisneau has had a revival since his death in 1994. Many of his portraits and photos of Paris from the end of World War II through the 1950s have been turned into calendars and postcards and have become icons of French life.
- 1912 Born April 14 in Gentilly, France.
- 1926–29 Studies at Ecole Estienne in Paris and receives a diploma as an engraver-lithographer.
- 1930 Draftsman at the Ulman Workshop.
- 1931 Assistant to André Vigneau.
- 1932 Images of a flea market are the first photographs sold to the daily publication, L’Excelsior.
- 1934-38 Works as an industrial photographer at the Renault factories in Billancourt, France.
- 1939 Meets the founder of the Rapho agency, Charles Rado. Begins working as a fully independent photographer.
- 1942 Meets renowned French typographer Maximilien Vox.
- 1944 Meets French actor Maurice Baquet.
- 1945 Works for the first time with Pierre Betz, editor for the magazine Le Point (published from 1936 to 1962). Introduced to the Swiss poet and novelist Blaise Cendrars in Aix-en-Provence, France. Meets photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson, one of the founding members of the photographic agency Magnum Photos.
- 1946 Raymond Grosset re-establishes the Rapho, which had closed during World War II. Doisneau would go on to work with the agency for nearly fifty years.Works with the weekly publication, Action. Travels to Yugoslavia.
- 1947 Receives the Kodak Prize
- 1947 Introduced to Bordeaux shipper Robert Giraud as well as the French poet Jacques Prévert.
- 1949-51 Receives contract with Vogue magazine.
- 1956 Receives the Niepce Prize.
- 1960 Visits the United States to work in Hollywood and Palm Springs.
- 1967 Visits the USSR for the magazine Working Life.
- 1975 Guest at the Meetings of Arles.
- 1984 Responsible for the topic of “New Urban Landscapes” for the photographic mission of DATAR.
- 1983 Receives the Grand Prix National de la Photographie
- 1983 Introduced to French actress and producer Sabine Azéma, who would later make the film Bonjour Monsieur Doisneau.
- 1985 Produces portraits of personalities for the magazine Femme.
- 1986 Meets the French journalist François Canna.
- 1986 Receives the Balzac Prize
- 1991 Introduced to the French author Daniel Pennac.
- 1994 Dies April 1 in Paris.
- 1947 Salon de la Photo, Bibliothèque, Paris.
- 1951 Exhibition with Brassaї, Willy Ronis, and Izis, Museum of Modern Art, New York.
- 1960 Solo Exhibition, Museum of Modern Art, Chicago.
- 1965 Exhibition with Daniel Frasnay, Jean Lattès, Jeanine Niépce, Roger Pic, and Willy Ronis, Six Photographes et Paris, Musée des Arts Decoratifs, Paris. Exhibition with Henri Cartier-Bresson and André Vigneau, Musée Réattu, Arles. Solo Exhibition, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Exhibition with D. Brihat, J. P. Sudre, and L. Clergue, Musée Cantini de Marseilles.
- 1972 Solo Exhibition, International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York.
- 1972 Exhibition with Edouard Boubat, Brassaї, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Izis, and Willy Ronis, French Embassy, Moscow.
- 1974 Solo Exhibition, University of California at Davis. Solo exhibition, Galerie du Château d’Eau, Toulouse.
- 1975 Solo Exhibition, Witkin Gallery, New York; Musée Réattu Arts Décoratifs, Nantes; Musée Réattu, Arles.
- 1975 Solo exhibition, Galerie et Fils, Brussels. Solo exhibition, fnac, Lyons. Group exhibition, Expression de l’humor, Boulogne Billancourt. Solo exhibition, Galerie Neugebauer, Basel.
- 1976 Exhibition with Brassaї, Cartier-Bresson, Jean-Philippe Charbonnier, Izis, and Marc Riboud, Kraków.
- 1977 Solo Exhibition, Brussels. Exhibition with Guy la Querrec, Carlos Freire, Claude Raimond-Dityvon, Bernard Descamps, and Jean Lattès, Six Photographes en quête de banlieue, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris.
- 1978 Solo Exhibition, Ne Bougeons plus, Galerie Agathe Gaillard, Paris. Solo exhibition, Witkin Gallery, New York. Solo exhibition, Musée Nicéphore Niépce, Charlon-sur-Saône.
- 1979 Solo Exhibition, Paris, les passants qui passent, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.
- 1980 Solo Exhibition, Amsterdam.
- 1981 Solo Exhibition, Witkin Gallery, New York.
- 1982 Solo Exhibition, Portraits, Foundation Nationale de la Photopraphie, Lyons. Solo exhibition, French Embassy, New York. Solo exhibition, Robert Doisneau, Photographe de banlieue, Town Hall, Gentilly.
- 1982 Solo exhibition of 120 photographs, Palace of Fine Arts, Beijing. Exhibition of portraits, Tokyo. Solo exhibition, Robert Doisneau, Photographie du dimanche, Institut Lumière, Lyon.
- 1986 Group Exhibition, De Vogue à femme, Rencontres Internationales de la Photographie d’Arles.
- 1987 Solo Exhibition, St.-Denis, Musée de St.-Denis. Solo exhibition, The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto.
- 1988 Solo Exhibition, A Homage to Robert Doisneau, Villa Medicis, Rome.
- 1989 Solo Exhibition, Doisneau-Renault, Grande Halle de la Villette, Paris.
- 1990 Solo Exhibition, La Science de Doisneau, Jardin des Plantes, Paris.
- 1992 Solo Exhibition, Robert Doisneau: A Retrospective, Modern Art Oxford.
- 1993 The Summerlee Heritage Trust, Coatbridge, Scotland; Royal Festival Hall, London; Manchester City Art Gallery; O Mes da Fotografie Festival, Convento do Beato, Lisbon, Portugal. Musée Carnavalet, Paris.
- 1994 Musée d’Art Contemporain de Montréal, Canada; Galway Arts Centre, Ireland. Solo exhibition, A Homage to Robert Doisneau, Galerie du Château d’Eau à Toulouse. Solo exhibition, Doisneau 40/44, Centre d’Histoire de la Résistance et de la Déportation de Lyon, Lyon, France. Solo exhibition, Robert Doisneau ou la désobéissance, Ecomusée de Fresnais.
- 1995 Museum of Modern Art, Oxford, England; Aberdeen Art Gallery, Scotland; The Mead Gallery, Warwick Arts Centre, Coventry.
- 1996 Solo Exhibition, Montpellier Photo-Visions, Galerie Municipale de la Photographie; Isetan Museum of Art, Tokyo; Daimaru Museum, Osaka, Japan.
- 2000 Exhibition, Gravités, Paris.
- 2000 Exhibition, Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris.
- 2002 Exhibition, Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Santiago, Chile.
- 2003 Exhibition, Budapest, Hungary. Exhibition, Bucarest, Romania.
- 2003 Exhibition, Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris.
- 2005 Solo Exhibition, Robert Doisneau from the Fictional to the Real, Bruce Silverstein Gallery, New York.
- 2005 Solo Exhibition, Robert Doisneau, Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris.
- 2010 Solo Exhibitions, Robert Doisneau, Du metier a l'oeuvre, Fondation Henri Cartier Bresson, 2, Impasse Lebouis, 75014 Paris.
- 2010 Group Exhibition, Discoveries, Robert Doisneau, Bruce Silverstein Gallery, New York.
- 2010 Solo Exhibition, Robert Doisneau, the fisherman of images, the Space for Art of Caja Madrid Zaragoza, Aranjuez, Madrid.
- 2011 Group exhibition. Night, Robert Doisneau Bruce Silverstein Gallery, New York.
- Paris délivré par son peuple. (From the People of Paris). - Paris: Braun: c.1944.
- La Banlieue de Paris. (The Suburbs of Paris). - Text by Blaise Cendrars. Paris: Éditions Pierre Seghers, 1949.
- L'Enfant de Paris. (The Children of Paris). - Text by Claude Roy. Neuchâtel: La Baconnière, 1951.
- Sortilèges de Paris. (The magic of Paris). - Text by François Cali. Paris: Arthaud, 1952.
- Les Parisiens tels qu’ils sont. (The Parisians as they are.) - Text by Robert Giraud and Michel Ragon. Paris: Delpire, 1954.
- Instantanés de Paris. (Snapshots of Paris). - Preface by Blaise Cendrars. Paris: Arthaud, 1955.
- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, Compter en s’amusant. (Fun Counting). - Lausanne: La Guilde du Livre, 1955.
- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. - Text by Arthur Gregor. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1956.
- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. - Text by Elsie May Harris. London: Nelson, 1962.
- Pour que Paris soit. (This is Paris). - Text by Elsa Triolet. Paris: Éditions Cercle d’Art, 1956.
- Gosses de Paris. (Children of Paris). - Text by Jean Dongués. Paris: Éditions Jeheber, 1956.
- Robert Doisneau's Paris: 148 Photographs. - Text by Blaise Cendrars. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1956.
- Paris Parade: 148 Photographs. - London: Thames & Hudson, 1956.
- Le ballet contre l'opéra. (The Ballet and The Opera). - Souillac, Lot: Mulhouse, 1956.
- A.B.C. du dépannage. - N.p.: Société des pétroles Shell Berre, 1958.
- Bistrots. (Bistros). - Text by Robert Giraud. Le Point: Revue artistique et littéraire, 57. Souillac, Lot: Mulhouse, 1960.
- Palm Springs 1960 - Robert Doisneau. Flammarion publishing 01/03/2010 EAN: 9782080301291
- Arabie, carrefour des siècles: Album. (Arabia, crossroads of the centuries. An album). - Text by Jacques Benoist-Méchin. Lausanne: La Guilde du livre, 1961.
- Nicolas Schöffer. - Text by Guy Habasque and Jacques Ménétrier. Neuchâtel: Éditions du Griffon, 1962.
- Cognac. - Text by Georges Vial. Cognac: Rémy Martin, 1960 (?). (English)
- Cognac. - Text by Louise de Vilmorin. Paris: Rémy Martin, 1962. (French)
- Marius, le forestier. (Marius, the forester. The working men). - Text by Dominique Halévy. Les hommes travaillent. Paris: Éditions Fernand Nathan, 1964.
- Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Doisneau, André Vigneau: Trois photographes français. - Arles: Musée Réattu, 1965.
- Catalogue of an exhibition at Musée Réattu of Doisneau, Henri Cartier-Bresson, and André Vigneau.
- Épouvantables Épouvantails. (Appalling Scarecrows). - Paris: Éditions Hors Mesure, 1965.
- Le Royaume d’argot. (The Kingdom of slang). - Text by Robert Giraud. Paris: Denoël, 1966.
- Catherine la danseuse. (Catherine - the dancer). - Text by Michèle Manceaux. Paris: Éditions Fernand Nathan, 1966.
- L'École polytechnique. (The Polytechnic). - Loos-lez-Lille: L. Danel, 1967.
- L'Oeil objectif. (The eye is a lens). - Marseille: Musée Cantini, 1968.
- Le Royaume secret du milieu. (The secret of the middle kingdom) - Text by Robert Giraud. Paris: Éditions Planète, 1969.
- My Paris. - Text: Chevalier, Maurice. Macmillan Publishers. New York. 1972
- Le Paris de Robert Doisneau et Max-Pol Fouchet. - Les éditeurs français réunis. France. 1974
- L’Enfant à la Colombe. (The Child of the Dove). - Text: Sage, James. Editions of the Oak. Paris. La Loire. Denoël. Paris. 1978
- Le Mal de Paris. (The Evil of Paris). - Text: Lépidis, Clément. Arthaud Publications. Paris. Trois Secondes d’éternité. Contrejour. Paris. 1979
- Ballade pour Violoncelle et Chambre Noir. (A Song for a Cello and a dark room). - Co-author: Baquet, Maurice. Herscher Editions. Paris. 1980
- Robert Doisneau. - Text: Chevrier, Jean-François. Belfond Editions. Paris. 1981
- Passages et Galeries du 19ème Siècle. (Passages and Galleries of the 19th Century). - Text: Delvaille, Bernard. Éditions Baslland. Paris. 1982
- Doisneau. - Photopoche, Centre National de la Photographie. France. 1983
- Paysages, Photographies. (Landscapes). - (mission photography for DATAR) Éditions Hazan. Paris. 1985
- Un Certain Robert Doisneau. - Editions of the Oak. Paris. 1986
- Pour saluer Cendrars. (In honour of Cendrars). - Text: Camilly, J. Actes Sud. Arles, France. 1987
- 60 portraits d/artists. (60 portraits of artists). - Text: Petit, Jean. Hans Grieshaber Publications. Zürich. 1988
- Doisneau. Quotations by Doisneau collected by Maisonneuve Andre. - Éditions Hazan. Paris, France. 1988
- Bonjour Monsieur Le Corbusier. (Hello Mr Le Corbusier). - Text: Petit, Jean. Hans Grieshaber Publications. Zürich. 1988
- A l’imparfait de l’objectif. (The imperfect object). - Belfond Editions. Paris. 1989
- Les Doigts Pleins d’encre. (Fingers full of ink). - Text: Cavanna. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1989
- La Science de Doisneau. (The Science of Robert Doisneau). - Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1990
- Les Auvergnats. (People of the Auvergne). - (with Dubois, Jaques) Nathan Images. Paris. 1990
- Lettres à un Aveugle sur des Photographies de Robert Doisneau. (Letters to a blind man about the Photographs of Robert Doisneau). - Text: Roumette, Sylvain. 1990
- Le Tout sur le tout/Le Temps qu’il fait. (All about the weather). - Paris. 1990
- Le Vin des rues. - Text by Robert Giraud. Paris: Denoël, 1990.
- Rue Jacques Prévert. - Hoëbeke Editions. Paris, France. 1991
- La Compagnie des Zincs. - Text: Carradec, François Carradec. Seghers. Paris. 1991
- Les Grandes Vacances. (Summer vacation). - Text: Pennac, Daniel. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1992
- Mes gens de Plume. - Writings by Doisneau collected by Dubois, Y. Éditions La Martinière. France. 1992
- Les Enfants de Germinal. (The children of Germinal). - Text: Cavanna. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1993 (See also Germinal (month) - the downfall)
- Doisneau 40/44. - Text: Ory, Pascal. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1994
- La Vie de Famille. (Family life). - Text: Ory, Pascal. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1994
- Robert Doisneau ou la Vie d’un photographie. (Robert Doisneau - the life of a photographer. - Text: Hamilton, Peter. Hoëbeke Editions. Paris. 1995
- Mes Parisiens. (My Parisians). - Nathan Publications. Paris. 1997
- ^ a b c d e f g h "''Bonjour+Monsieur+Doisneau''&source=bl&ots=igbGd1tV6P&sig=X8fJmzMOpPHKaVxQDIs_MEg0EIk&hl=en&ei=3qJdTO-nOZWTjAeC0fn3Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CEMQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=''Bonjour%20Monsieur%20Doisneau''&f=false Encyclopedia of 20th century photography By Lynne Warren". Books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YeK7FXhKrw0C&pg=PA413&lpg=PA413&dq=. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
- ^ W. Scott Haine, Culture and Customs of France (London Greenwood, 2006), p. 289
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Sunday Times. November 6, 2005 It started with the kiss. by John Follain[dead link]
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- ^ Shown here .
- ^ a b c d e "report on the auction of ''Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville''". BBC News. 2005-04-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4481789.stm. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
- ^ a b c Lucas, Dean (2007-04-17), Famous Pictures Magazine - Kissing Couple, http://www.famouspictures.org/mag/index.php?title=Kissing_Couple
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- ^ "Françoise Delbart - Wikipédia" (in (French)). Fr.wikipedia.org. 2011-08-06. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7oise_Delbart. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
- ^ The Photographs of Robert Doisneau, "Promenades dans les Passages avec Robert Doisneau" with Rosi Huhn (Interview), Bracha L. Ettinger (Photographic portraits of Robert Doisneau) and Wolfgang Schmitz (Drawings). In: Passages d'après Walter Benjamin / Passagen Nach Walter Benjamin. [Eds.: V. Malsey, U. Rasch, P. Rautmann, N. Schalz]. Verlag Herman Schmidt, Mainz, 1992. ISBN 3-87439-250-3
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- ^ "Robert Doisneau Exhibited in Paris". Parisvoice.com. 2010-04-18. http://www.parisvoice.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=650&Itemid=33. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
- ^ http://www.brucesilverstein.com/documents/4c59cf6dcb562.jpg
- ^ "Robert Doisneau exhibition in Zaragoza, Spain - Mondrian's Room". Mondriansroom.posterous.com. 2010-06-03. http://mondriansroom.posterous.com/robert-doisneau-exhibition-in-zaragoza-spain. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
- ^ Ignacio Villarreal (2011-04-12). "Bruce Silverstein Gallery Shows Works by Artists Who Found the Night to Be an Inspiring Subject". Artdaily.org. http://www.artdaily.org/index.asp?int_sec=2&int_new=46469. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
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