- Battle of Skuleni
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of Sculeni
Greek War of Independence
June 29, 1821
combatant1= Greek rebels
Sultan Mahmud II
The Battle of Skuleni (or the Battle of Sculeni) was fought on
June 29, 1821in Sculeni, Moldaviabetween the Ottoman forces of Sultan Mahmud IIand Greek Filiki Eteriaforces led by Prince George Catakouzenos. [Miller, p. 69.] It came as a result of Ottoman reprisals for Alexander Ypsilantis' expedition in the two Danubian Principalities, and followed in the aftermath of the Dragashani Battle (as a prelude to the Greek War of Independence). When the Ottomans crossed the Bahlui Riverin Iaşion June 25, 1821, Lieutenant Catakouzenos and his forces, originally stationed on the Russian frontier, crossed the Prut River. [Phillips, p. 43.]
The Ottomans possessed a military that outnumbered the Greeks at approximately ten to one. [Emerson, p. 673.] Catacouzenos imitated the retreat of Ypsilantis to the
Austrian Empireafter Dragashani, by fleeing to Russia. However, his forces, made up of around 500 young Greek soldiers (Edwin Emerson places the number at 400 soldiers [Emerson, p. 673.] ), wanted to stay and fight against the Ottoman Empire. During the battle, approximately one-fourth of the Greek army fled by swimming across the Prut. The remaining soldiers continued to fight until they were either killed by the Ottomans or by the stream itself. The Russians, positioned on the opposite bank of the river, applauded the bravery of the Greeks. Giorgakis Olympios, a military leader who commanded an army in Wallachia, was garrisoned in the Moldavian Secu Monastery; Giorgakis fought until the Ottomans stormed the monastery and forced him to light powder kegs from which he perished in the explosion. However, Giorgakis had a Macedonian comrade by the name of Yiannis Pharmakis, who continued the fight for a fortnight longer. In the end, on October 4, 1821, Pharmakis surrendered on the promise that his life would be spared. The promise was not kept by the Ottomans, and Pharmakis was ultimately decapitated in Istanbul. [Miller, p. 69.]
After the battle, all Greek uprisings in the Danubian Principalities and other northern areas subject to the Ottoman Empire ceased. [Phillips, p. 43.]
*Emerson, Edwin. "A History of the Nineteenth Century, Year by Year". P. E. Collier and Son, 1901 (New York Public Library).
*Ghervas, Stella. "Réinventer la tradition. Alexandre Stourdza et l'Europe de la Sainte-Alliance." Paris, Honoré Champion, 2008. ISBN 978-2-7453-1669-1
*Miller, William. "The Ottoman Empire and Its Successors, 1801-1927". Routledge, 1966.
*Phillips, Walter Alison. "The War of Greek Independence, 1821 to 1833". Smith, Elder and Company, 1897 (University of Michigan).
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