Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło Family


Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło Family

Infobox PolishCoA
herb=Radwan Coat-of-Arms/Herb


battlecry=Kaja, Radwan
alternative=Wierzbowa, Wierzbowczyk, Wirzbowa, Wirzbowo, Kaja
mention=1407
families=Żądło Dąbrowski
284 surnames/cognomens associated with the Radwan Coat-of-Arms/Herb, but only concerned with Żądło Dąbrowski in this instance.
towns=Kalwaria Zebrzydowska

Scions of the Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło Family, an old patriotic Polish noble/gentry family [http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerzy_Lerski George J. Lerski] , [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0313260079 "Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945"] (Westport, Connecticut, U.S.A. * London, ENGLAND: Greenwood Press, 1996), page 103.] [http://www.inib.uj.edu.pl/kadra/zdrada.htm Jerzy Zdrada] , [http://worldcat.org/oclc/2674795 "JAROSŁAW DĄBROWSKI: 1836 -- 1871"] (Kraków, POLSKA: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 1973), pages 9-10.] , long served Poland in the struggle for Polish freedom and the right to exist as a sovereign nation. This family of ancient origin are connected to famous Polish-born English author Joseph Conrad and the fight for Polish independence. One branch of the family and the reasons forcing their migration to the U.S.A. in the face of Russian oppression reflects the fate of many noble Polish families.

Pronunciation of Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło

Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło [ [http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasper_Niesiecki Kasper Niesiecki] , S.J. & Jan Nepomucen Bobrowicz, [http://www.wawrzak.org/herbarz_niesiecki/herbarzstronatytulowa.htm "Herbarz Polski Kaspra Niesieckiego S.J., powiększony dodatkami z poźniejszych autorów, rękopismów, dowodów urzędowych i wydany przez Jana Nep. Bobrowicza"] (Leipzig, DEUTSCHLAND: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1841), Volume VIII, page 292.] is pronounced "Rodvon Dombrovski-Zhondwo".

Origins of the Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło Family

From Mazowsza, Poland, the old szlachta/noble family Żądło Dąbrowski bearing the Polish Coat-of-Arms/Herb Radwan took their surname from the village/patrimony Dąbrówki/Dąbrówka under Piaseczno [Adam A. Pszczółkowski, [http://akson.sgh.waw.pl/~apszczol/warszawa.htm "Szlachta Ziemi Warszawskiej"] , [http://akson.sgh.waw.pl/~apszczol/ Adam A. Pszczółkowski prezentuje] . Retrieved on June 10, 2007.] [ [http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piaseczno "Piaseczno"] , [http://pl.wikipedia.org/ Wikipedii] . Retrieved on June 10, 2007.] in the lands of Warszawa, where other members of the family settled predominantly in the lands of Różan. They were always nobility, belonging to the "szlachta odwieczna" or "immemorial nobility", and in the armorials of Poland, documentation from the 15th century is used to note them. The original surname/przydomek they used was "Żądło" (the Sting), prior to establishing the fixed surname/cognomen Dąbrowski derived from their patrimony/inheritance Dąbrówki/Dąbrówka. Harv|Boniecki|1901|p=147.

In Polish "dąb" means "oak."William F. Hoffman, [http://worldcat.org/oclc/28492129 "Polish Surnames: Origins and Meanings"] (Chicago, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.: [http://www.pgsa.org/ POLISH GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA] , 1993?), page 157.] "Dąbrowa" means "oak forest," and "Dąbrowka" means "little oak forest" (or grove). In antiquity, the nobility used topographic surnames to identify themselves. The expression "z" (from, of) plus the name of one's patrimony/estate carried the same prestige as "de" in French names such as "de Châtellerault", and "von" or "zu" in German names such as "von Weizsäcker" or "zu Rhein". In Polish "z Dąbrowka" and "Dąbrowski" mean the same thing: "of, from Dąbrowka." Harv|Hoffman|1993?|p=60.

It is important to note this family were first and foremost members of the ancient Radwan gens/ród before they established a fixed surname/cognomen derived from their patrimony/inheritance (Dąbrówki/Dąbrówka). At least since the 17th century the surnames/cognomens of noble families became fixed and were inherited by following generations, remaining in that form until today. Prior to that time, a member of the family would be identified as "Jakób z Dąbrówki, herbu Radwan" (Jacob from Dąbrówki of the Clan Radwan Coat-of-Arms), or "Jakób z Dąbrówki, z przydomkiem Żądło, herbu Radwan" (Jacob from Dąbrówki with the distinguishing name/surname Żądło of the Clan Radwan Coat-of-Arms), or "Jakób Żądło, herbu Radwan".

Nomen (nomen gentile -- name of the gens or clan):

Radwan [http://www.his.uni.torun.pl/wydzial/instkat/historia/en/index.html Janusz Bieniak] , "Knight Clans in Medieval Poland," in Antoni Gąsiorowski (ed.), [http://www.bookfinder.com/dir/i/The_Polish_Nobility_in_the_Middle_Ages-Anthologies/8304017644/ The Polish Nobility in the Middle Ages: Anthologies] , [http://www.oss.wroc.pl/ Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich - Wydawnictwo] ; Wrocław, POLSKA; 1984, page 154.]

Cognomen (name of the family [sept] within the gens):

Dąbrowski [http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Boniecki_%28heraldyk%29 Adam Józef Feliks Boniecki] -Fredro, herbu Bończa; [http://buwcd.buw.uw.edu.pl/sklep/htm_eng/xix2_eng.htm "Herbarz Polski - Część I.; Wiadomości Historyczno-Genealogiczne O Rodach Szlacheckich."] (Warszawa, POLSKA: Skład główny [http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gebethner_i_Wolff Gebethner i Wolff] w Warszawie, 1901), Volume IV, pages 147-148.] Auteurs Associés, [http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/2907771000 "The Polish Armorial Polonais"] (Château-Thierry, FRANCE:Bibliothéque Albi Corvi, 1988), page 69.]

Agnomen (a second cognomen added to make a distinction within the family):

Żądło (the Sting) [William F. Hoffman, [http://worldcat.org/oclc/28492129 "Polish Surnames: Origins and Meanings"] (Chicago, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.: [http://www.pgsa.org/ POLISH GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA] , 1993?), page 281.]

(See: Roman naming conventions.)

Members of meager means ("dość uboga") always existed in this noble family, and wealth came to other members ("Szlachta zamożna/bene natus possessionatus et dominus") in certain periods. The Żądło-Dąbrowski's never obtained very important offices or dignities, but in the years of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth's existence (First Rzeczpospolita, or Rzeczpospolita szlachecka – Nobles' Commonwealth/Republic), they served in office as chamberlains (komornictwami/princeps nobilitatis - formerly the Judge in boundary disputes)Adam Mickiewicz, [http://www.harrowgatepress.com/pan.pdf "PAN TADEUSZ, or the Last Foray in Lithuania: a History of the Nobility in the Years 1811 and 1812 in Twelve Books of Verse"] (Translated from Polish by [http://www.harrowgatepress.com/lkress.htm Leonard Kress] . Perrysburg, OHIO, U.S.A.: [http://www.harrowgatepress.com/index.html HarrowGate Press] , 2006), page 264.] , treasurers (skarbnikostwem), seneschal (wojskostwem/tribunus), sword-bearers (miecznikostwem), and pantlers (stolnikostwem). (See: Offices in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - District Offices.) Nor were they absent from the clergy. Mainly due to marriages, the family began expanding to other regions of the Commonwealth. One particular branch of this family at the end of the XVIII-century domiciled/settled in Volhynia/Wołyniu (currently part of Ukraine). Harv|Zdrada|1973|p=9.

An [http://www.sofri.org/dopotutto1510.html Italian article] written by Adriano Sofri and published by Arnoldo Mondadori Editore on their Web Site [http://www.panorama.it/ Panorama Online] stating, "Il caso Sofri: Dopotutto 15 ottobre 1998" (The Sofri Case: Everything After October 15, 1998), mentions the Radwan Żądło-Dąbrowski's living in Warszawa as "una nobile famiglia di Varsavia" (one noble family of Warsaw).Adriano Sofri, [http://www.sofri.org/dopotutto1510.html "La leggenda del santo truffatore"] , [http://www.sofri.org/ Il caso Sofri, Bompressi e Pietrostefani] . Retrieved on June 06, 2007.]

Notable Scions of the Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło Family

JAROSŁAW RADWAN DĄBROWSKI ŻĄDŁO (November 13 1836 – May 23 1871) was a Polish revolutionary Nationalist and general. He was an officer of the Russian Tsar's army, and he was imprisoned for participation in a plot against the Tsar's absolutism, Adam Zamoyski, [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0141002239 "HOLY MADNESS: ROMANTICS, PATRIOTS, AND REVOLUTIONARIES, 1776-1871"] (New York, NEW YORK, U.S.A.: Viking Penguin, 2000), pages 416, 417, 438-9.] functioning as military leader of the "Reds," which represented the democratic element of the Polish nation suppressed by Russia, and wanted open rebellion and an immediate call to arms. (See: January Uprising of 1863.) In 1871 he became the Commander-in-Chief of the French Paris Commune, [ [http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/speel/illus/jleight.htm John Leighton] , [http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10861/10861.txt "Paris Under the Commune: The Seventy-Three Days of the Second Siege; With Numerous, Illustrations, Sketches Taken on the Spot, and Portraits (from the Original Photographs)"] , [http://www.gutenberg.org/ Project Gutenberg] . Retrieved on June 08, 2007.] a climax in revolutionary history. A revolutionary alliance ruled Paris for seventy-two days in the spring of 1871 in defiance of the Versailles-based government's modern centralized state. Jarosław Dąbrowski died heroically fighting on the barricades as General of the largest urban insurrection in the nineteenth century. Harv|Billington|1980|pp=346-348

[http://www.wat.edu.pl/ The Military Technical Academy in Warsaw, Poland,] [ [http://szkolnictwo.pl/index.php?id=D00409 "Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna im. Jarosława Dąbrowskiego"] , [http://szkolnictwo.pl/ Ogólnopolski Katalog Szkolnictwa www.szkolnictwo.pl] . Retrieved on June 14, 2007.] is named in memorial of him.

Connections to Joseph Conrad, the January 1863 Uprising, and Józef Piłsudski

Jarosław Dąbrowski's father was Wiktor Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło. His mother was Zofia née Falkenhagen-Zaleska. Jarosław's maternal uncle was the valued economist Piotr Falkenhagen-Zaleski, and through Piotr's wife, Marię née Korzeniowska, the Żądło-Dąbrowski's became related to the famous Polish-born English writer Joseph Conrad (born - Teodor Józef Konrad: Nałęcz Korzeniowski) (1857 - 1924).

Joseph Conrad's father, [http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Korzeniowski "Apollo Nałęcz Korzeniowski"] (1820 - 1869), along with Jarosław Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło (see above), were two of the leading figures of a secret City Committee in Warsaw organized in October 1861 by the Radical 'Reds', whose purpose was to prepare an armed struggle for Polish national independence and social revolution. (See: January Uprising of 1863.)Norman Davies, [http://www.amazon.com/Gods-Playground-Vol-History-Poland/dp/0231128193/ "GOD'S PLAYGROUND: A HISTORY OF POLAND, Volume II - 1795 to the Present"] (New York, NEW YORK, U.S.A.: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1982), page 351.]

In late 1861, Tsarist Russian authorities arrested Apollo Korzeniowski in Warsaw for helping organize what would become the January Uprising of 1863. He was exiled to Vologda, Russia, a city with a very harsh climate, approximately 300 miles north of Moscow, with his wife, Ewelina, and four-year-old son (Joseph Conrad). [Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia, [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-322636/Apollo-Nalecz-Korzeniowski "Apollo Nalecz Korzeniowski (Polish poet and patriot)"] , [http://www.britannica.com/ Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia] . Retrieved on November 16, 2007.]

In August 1862, Jarosław Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło was arrested by the Russians and sent to Russia for trial. As the Russian authorities could not pin anything on Dąbrowski, the man intended to lead the January Uprising of 1863, he was sentenced to fifteen years' hard labor in Siberia. Passing through Moscow, Dąbrowski escaped from the prison convoy, evading the Tsarist police to make his way to Stockholm, and finally Paris.

, his social origins the remains of the old Polish nobility, crushed by the repressions of imperial regimes. Piłsudski's father, also named Józef, took part in the January Uprising of 1863. [Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland, [http://poland.gov.pl/Jozef,Pilsudski,(1867-1935),1972.html "Józef Piłsudski (1867-1935)"] , [http://www.poland.gov.pl/ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland] . Retrieved on January 11, 2008.]

tefan Tytus Zygmunt Dąbrowski Bearing the Radwan Coat of Arms

[http://www.amu.edu.pl/nowa.php?linkid=241 Stefan Tytus Zygmunt Dąbrowski h. Radwan] (1877 - 1947) [ [http://genealog.home.pl/gd/szablony/rodzina.php?lang=en&id=01394 "Stefan Dąbrowski"] , [http://genealog.home.pl/ GENEALOGIA DYNASTYCZNA] . Retrieved on June 10, 2007.] [Jerzy Czartoryski, [http://www.chimtic.netfirms.com/genealogy/not01902.html "STEFAN TYTUS ZYGMUNT DĄBROWSKI h. Radwan"] , [http://www.chimtic.netfirms.com/genealogy/index05.html Descendants of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski] . Retrieved on June 07, 2007.] [http://www.guide.amu.edu.pl/amu/amu-rectors.htm "Rectors of Adam Mickiewicz University: Stefan Tytus Dąbrowski"] , [http://www.guide.amu.edu.pl/ Adam Mickiewicz University - Poznań, Poland] . Retrieved on June 07, 2007.]

* Physician, physiologist, biochemist, and Polish politician. [ [http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_Tytus_D%C4%85browski "Stefan Tytus Dąbrowski"] , [http://pl.wikipedia.org/ Wikipedii] . Retrieved on June 07, 2007.]

* Rector: Adam Mickiewicz University - Poznań, Poland (1945 - 1946).

* Authored: [http://worldcat.org/oclc/22520763 "Walka o rekruta polskiego pod okupacją" ("Battle About the Polish Recruit Under Occupation")] (Warszawa, 1922) [Stefan Dąbrowski, [http://worldcat.org/oclc/22520763 "Walka o rekruta polskiego pod okupacją" "(Battle About the Polish Recruit Under Occupation)"] (Warszawa, POLSKA, 1922). [http://worldcat.org/ WorldCat] . Retrieved on June 10, 2007.]

* Authored: [http://worldcat.org/oclc/69304607 "Zagadnienie obrony narodowej w wojnie nowoczesnej" ("The Issue of National Defense in Modern War")] (Poznań, 1925) [Stefan Dąbrowski, [http://worldcat.org/oclc/69304607 "Zagadnienie obrony narodowej w wojnie nowoczesnej" "(The Question of National Defense in Modern War)"] (Poznań, POLSKA, 1925). [http://worldcat.org/ WorldCat] . Retrieved on June 10, 2007.]

Stefan Tytus Zygmunt Dąbrowski herbu Radwan was born on January 31, 1877, in Warsaw, Poland, into an intelligentsia family (Radwan Dąbrowski). Dąbrowski's family was a fundamental influence on his life, which included growing up in an atmosphere of patriotism in the environs of Warsaw at the end of the nineteenth century.Józef Malinowski, [http://miasta.gazeta.pl/poznan/1,36048,4026166.html "Dąbrowski Stefan Tytus (1877 - 1947)"] , [http://www.gazeta.pl/ Gazeta.pl] . Retrieved on June 11, 2007.]

In January 1919, Poland's Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, made Dąbrowski Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs.

On May 11, 1939, the Senate of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań chose Dąbrowski, a professor, for the position of rector, however, the explosion of war beginning with Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, made the accession of Dąbrowski's rectorial duties impossible. Dąbrowski had foreknowledge of events in 1939, and spent the duration of the war in many localities hiding from the Gestapo, Nazi Germany's secret police. Under the Nazi's Generalplan Ost, more than 61,000 Polish activists, intelligentsia, nobles, actors, former officers, etc. (all those deemed capable of rousing the Polish people to defense and patriotic action), were to be interned or shot. (See: Operation Tannenberg, Operation Sonderaktion Krakau, and Massacre of Lwów professors.)


=Radwan Dąbrowski Descendants of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski=

Jadwiga Dąbrowska h. Radwan

[http://www.chimtic.netfirms.com/genealogy/fam00343.html Jadwiga "Jadzia" DĄBROWSKA h. Radwan] [Jerzy Czartoryski, [http://www.chimtic.netfirms.com/genealogy/fam00343.html "Jadwiga 'Jadzia' DĄBROWSKA h. Radwan"] , [http://www.chimtic.netfirms.com/genealogy/index05.html Descendants of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski] . Retrieved on May 30, 2007.]

ome Twentieth-Century Scions of the Radwan Dąbrowski-Żądło Family in the U.S.A.

After the national uprisings of 1831 and 1863 (November Uprising, January Uprising), particularly in the Polish realms annexed by the Russian Empire after the three partitions of Poland (1792-1795), which ended the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth's political existence, the nobility faced ever increasing pressure from the Tsar in the form of persecutions, deportations to Siberia, and denationalization of Poles, a disaster for social development. Under these conditions, these Poles became what Tsar Alexander II liked to call "noble rabble." The nobility saw emigration to the U.S.A. as their best option. [Theodore: Topór-Jakubowski, "15th-Century Polish Nobility in the 21st Century" (WHITE EAGLE: Journal of the Polish Nobility Association Foundation: Villa Anneslie, 529 Dunkirk Road, Anneslie, MARYLAND, The united states of America: [http://www.pnaf.us/ The Polish Nobility Association Foundation] , 1998), Spring/Summer 1998, page 9.]

PATRICIA HELEN FORD GETZ NÉE RADWAN DĄBROWSKI ŻĄDŁOStandard Certificate of Birth for Patricia Dabrowski, 01 March 1935, State File No. 864, [http://www.dhss.delaware.gov/dhss/dph/ss/vitalstats.html Delaware Vital Statistics] , Certified copy in possession of author.] [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D04E6DB1F3FF933A05753C1A9639C8B63 " Paid Notice: Deaths - GETZ, PATRICIA FORD"] , [http://www.nytimes.com/ THE NEW YORK TIMES] . Retrieved on June 14, 2007.]
Born: 01 March 1935, in Wilmington, DELAWARE, U.S.A.
Died: 27 October 2005, in New York, NEW YORK, U.S.A.

JOSEPH WILLIAM I RADWAN DĄBROWSKI ŻĄDŁOReturn of a Birth., City of Wilmington, Del. for Joseph (Father's Surname: Dąbrowski), 19th December 1908, [http://archives.delaware.gov/ Delaware Public Archives] , Copy in possession of author.] Certificate of Birth and Baptism for Joseph William, Dombrowski; Vol. III, Page 121; [http://sthedwig.org/26.html St. Hedwig Church] ; Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.; Certified copy in possession of author.]
(Delaware's "THE POLISH BARON")
Born: 19 December 1908, in Wilmington, DELAWARE, U.S.A.
Died: 20 June 1991, in Wilmington, DELAWARE, U.S.A. [Certificate of Death for Joseph W. Dabrowski, Sr.; 20 June 1991, State File Number 02773, [http://www.dhss.delaware.gov/dhss/dph/ss/vitalstats.html Delaware Vital Statistics] , Certified copy in possession of author.]

Ancient Origins and History of the Seminal Radwan Gens/Clan

The Żądło Dąbrowski's were members of the ancient Radwan gens/ród before the fixation of their topographical name "Dąbrowski". Prior, the sole przydomek (surname) "Żądło" was used to distinguish the members of this branch of Radwan's (sept) from other Radwan's, and this continued for centuries. In 1727, a member of the family appears in the records as "Michal Żądło". Appearing in the records are also Adam Żądło and Kazimierz Żądło in the election of King Jan III Sobieski (1674).

Families of magnate status (możni/high nobility) bearing Radwan arms were the Babski's, and the Magnuszewski's and Uchański's (See: Jakub Uchański), parts of the Mazovian feudal elite, [Jan Piętka, [http://worldcat.org/oclc/2357377 "Mazowiecka Elita Feudalna Późnego Średniowiecza"] (Warszawa, POLSKA: Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe, 1975), pages 135-136.] however, many branches of the Radwans never transcended the status of middle and lesser nobility.

"In Poland, the Radwanice were noted relatively early (1274) as the descendants of Radwan, a knight [more properly a "rycerz" {German "ritter"}] active a few decades earlier. ..."

[http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasper_Niesiecki Kasper Niesiecki] S.J. (1682-1744) in his [http://www.wawrzak.org/herbarz_niesiecki/herbarzstronatytulowa.htm "Herbarz Polski"] (with increased legal proofs and additions by Jan Nepomucen Bobrowicz [1805-1881] in the Leipzig editions, 1839-1846) writes:

"It [Radwan coat of arms] was awarded during the reign of King Boleslaw Smialy (1058-1079) on the occasion of a battle with Ruthenia; a captain named Radwan had been sent out on a foray with part of the army. He happened upon the enemy camp in such close quarters that they could neither protect themselves from a skirmish with the Ruthenians, nor fight with them, inasmuch as their numbers were so much smaller. But they all agreed it was better to fall dead on the spot than to encourage the enemy by fleeing. So with all their heart they sprang toward the Ruthenians, whose knights were daunted by this attack; but when they saw the small numbers against them, the Ruthenians grew bold, and not only took away their banner, but dispersed them as well. Captain Radwan, wishing to encourage his men to fight once more, rushed to a nearby church, where he seized the church’s banner; he then gathered his men and courageously attacked the enemy. The Ruthenians took this to mean a new army with fresh troops had joined the battle, and began to retreat and flee. So Radwan’s banner carried the day, and for this he received that church’s banner for his shield, as well as other gifts.Leonard Joseph: Sulima-Suligowski, "Polish Heraldry" (WHITE EAGLE: Journal of the Polish Nobility Association Foundation: Villa Anneslie, 529 Dunkirk Road, Anneslie, MARYLAND, The united states of America: [http://www.pnaf.us/ The Polish Nobility Association Foundation] , 1999), Spring/Summer 1999, page 9, prepared from the classic heraldic reference "Herbarz Polski" (by Kasper Niesiecki, S. J., Lipsk [Leipzig] edition, 1839 - 1846) by Leonard J. Suligowski.] [http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartosz_Paprocki Paprocki] , however, gives this as occurring during the rule of Bolesław Chrobry [992-1025] in 1021. He writes that Radwan was a royal chancellor, which information he is supposed to have taken from ancient royal grants. I conclude from this that either this clan sign is more ancient than the time of Bolesław Śmiały [1058-1079] and originated in the time of Bolesław Krzywousty [1102-1138] , to whom some authors ascribe its conferment on that aforementioned Radwan; or else that before the time of Bolesław Śmiały [1058-1079] the Radwans used some other arms in their seal: for instance, that Radwan whom Paprocki gives as Bishop of Poznań in 1138. Długosz, in 'Vitae Episcop. Posnan. [Lives of the Bishops of Poznań] ' does not include him under Radwan arms, but Sreniawa; there I, too, will speak of him."

From Little Poland, the Śreniawa family/gens was insignificant and financially modest; ["Rotation of the Elite of Power," in Antoni Gąsiorowski (ed.), [http://www.bookfinder.com/dir/i/The_Polish_Nobility_in_the_Middle_Ages-Anthologies/8304017644/ The Polish Nobility in the Middle Ages: Anthologies] , [http://www.oss.wroc.pl/ Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich - Wydawnictwo] ; Wrocław, POLSKA; 1984, page 217.] ; however, King Kazimierz the Great (1310 - 1370) supported them in Little Poland. ["Rotation of the Elite of Power," in Antoni Gąsiorowski (ed.), [http://www.bookfinder.com/dir/i/The_Polish_Nobility_in_the_Middle_Ages-Anthologies/8304017644/ The Polish Nobility in the Middle Ages: Anthologies] , [http://www.oss.wroc.pl/ Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich - Wydawnictwo] ; Wrocław, POLSKA; 1984, page 228.]

Bishop Radwan, Bishop of Poznań, assisted with the establishment of the first Commandery of the Knights of Saint John in Poznań circa 1187 or possibly May 6, 1170. The donation was made by Mieszko III Stary (1121? - 1202), High Duke of all Poland. [Darius von Güttner Sporzynski, [http://www.chivalricorders.org/orders/smom/maltpold.htm "The Knights Hospitallers in Poland"] , [http://www.chivalricorders.org/ Almanach de la Cour] . Retrieved on June 12, 2007.] [Marcin Libicki, [http://www.welcome-to.poznan.pl/2000.08/en-malta.html "800 Years Ago in Poznań"] , [http://www.welcome-to.poznan.pl/ Welcome to Poznań & Wielkopolska] . Retrieved on June 13, 2007.]


=General Discussion on Early Formation of Polish Noble Clans (Ród's)=

"See: ".

Footnotes

References

* Citation
last=Auteurs Associés
title=THE POLISH ARMORIAL POLONAIS
place=Château-Thierry, FRANCE
publisher=Bibliothéque Albi Corvi
year=1988
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/60013548
isbn=2907771000
.

* Citation
last=Billington
first=James H.
author-link=James H. Billington
title=Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith
publisher=Basic Books
place=New York, NEW YORK, U.S.A.
year=1980
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/6087769
isbn=046502405X
.

* Citation
last=Boniecki
first=Adam
title=HERBARZ POLSKI - CZĘŚĆ I.; WIADOMOŚCI HISTORYCZNO-GENEALOGICZNE O RODACH SZLACHECKICH.
publisher=Skład główny [http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gebethner_i_Wolff Gebethner i Wolff] w Warszawie
place=Warszawa, POLSKA
year=1901
volume=IV
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/7877064
id=OCLC: 7877064
.

* Citation
last=Davies
first=Norman
author-link=Norman Davies
title=God's Playground: A History of Poland, Volume II - 1795 to the Present
publisher=Columbia University Press
place=New York, NEW YORK, U.S.A.
year=1982
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/7652832
isbn=0-231-05353-3
.

* Citation
last=Davies
first=Norman
author-link=Norman Davies
title=Heart of Europe: A Short History of Poland
publisher=Oxford University Press
place=Oxford, ENGLAND; New York, NEW YORK, U.S.A.
year=1986
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/12581773
isbn=0192851527
.

* Citation
last=Gąsiorowski
first=Antoni
title=THE POLISH NOBILITY IN THE MIDDLE AGES: ANTHOLOGIES
place=Wrocław, POLSKA
publisher= [http://www.oss.wroc.pl/ Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich]
year=1984
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/13121771
isbn=8304017644
.

* Citation
last=Hoffman
first=William F.
title=Polish Surnames: Origins and Meanings
publisher= [http://www.pgsa.org/ POLISH GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA]
place=Chicago, ILLINOIS, U.S.A.
year=1993?
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/28492129
isbn=0924207000
.

* Citation
last=Jędrzejewicz
first=Wacław
author-link=Wacław Jędrzejewicz
title=Piłsudski: A Life for Poland
publisher=Hippocrene Books
place=New York, NEW YORK, U.S.A.
year=1982
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/23230888
isbn=0870527479
.

* cite web
last=Leighton
first=John
title=Paris Under the Commune: The Seventy-Three Days of the Second Siege; With Numerous, Illustrations, Sketches Taken on the Spot, and Portraits (from the Original Photographs)
publisher= [http://www.gutenberg.org/ Project Gutenberg]
url=http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10861/10861.txt
accessdate=2007-06-08

* Citation
last=Lerski
first=George J.
title=HISTORICAL DICTIONARY OF POLAND, 966-1945
place=Westport, CONNECTICUT, U.S.A. * London, ENGLAND
publisher=Greenwood Press
year=1996
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/31754935
isbn=0313260079
.

* cite web
last=Malinowski
first=Józef
title=Dąbrowski Stefan Tytus (1877 - 1947)
publisher= [http://www.gazeta.pl/ Gazeta.pl]
url=http://miasta.gazeta.pl/poznan/1,36048,4026166.html
accessdate=2007-06-11

* cite web
last=Mickiewicz
first=Adam
authorlink=Adam Mickiewicz
title=PAN TADEUSZ, or the Last Foray in Lithuania: a History of the Nobility in the Years 1811 and 1812 in Twelve Books of Verse
publisher=Translated from Polish by [http://www.harrowgatepress.com/lkress.htm Leonard Kress] . Perrysburg, OHIO, U.S.A.: [http://www.harrowgatepress.com/index.html HarrowGate Press]
url=http://www.harrowgatepress.com/pan.pdf
accessdate=2007-06-16

* Citation
last=Niesiecki S.J.
first=Kasper
last2=Bobrowicz
first2=Jan Nepomucen
title=HERBARZ POLSKI KASPRA NIESIECKIEGO S.J., POWIĘKSZONY DODATKAMI Z POŹNIEJSZYCH AUTORÓW, RĘKOPISMÓW, DOWODÓW URZĘDOWYCH I WYDANY PRZEZ JANA NEP. BOBROWICZA
place=Leipzig, DEUTSCHLAND
publisher=Breitkopf & Härtel
year=1841
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/9261567
id=OCLC: 9261567
.

* Citation
last=Piętka
first=Jan
title=MAZOWIECKA ELITA FEUDALNA PÓŹNEGO ŚREDNIOWIECZA
publisher=Państwowe Wydawn. Naukowe
place=Warszawa, POLSKA
year=1975
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/2357377
id=OCLC: 2357377
.

* cite web
last=Sofri
first=Adriano
authorlink=Adriano Sofri
title=La leggenda del santo truffatore
publisher= [http://www.mondadori.com/ Arnoldo Mondadori Editore] (from [http://www.panorama.it/ Panorama Online] , a Web Site produced by Arnoldo Mondadori Editore - see also: [http://www.sofri.org/dopotutto.html www.sofri.org: Panorama Online, Dopotutto di Adriano Sofri, 15 ottobre 1998] )
url=http://www.sofri.org/dopotutto1510.html
accessdate=2007-06-06

* cite web
last=Sporzynski
first=Darius von Güttner
title=The Knights Hospitallers in Poland
publisher=Stair Sainty Ltd
url=http://www.chivalricorders.org/orders/smom/maltpold.htm
accessdate=2007-06-12

* Citation
last=Zamoyski
first=Adam
author-link=Adam Zamoyski
title=HOLY MADNESS: ROMANTICS, PATRIOTS, AND REVOLUTIONARIES, 1776-1871
place=New York, NEW YORK, U.S.A.
publisher=Viking Penguin
year=2000
url=http://www.amazon.com/Holy-Madness-Romantics-Revolutionaries-1776-1871/dp/0141002239/ref=pd_bbs_sr_3/104-5517152-1725539?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1181278781&sr=1-3
isbn=0-670-89271-8
.

* Citation
last=Zdrada
first=Jerzy
title=JAROSŁAW DĄBROWSKI: 1836 -- 1871
publisher=Wydawnictwo Literackie
place=Kraców, POLSKA
year=1973
url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/2674795
id=OCLC: 2674795
.

External links

* [http://www.loc.gov/bicentennial/bios/preserve/billington.html The Library of Congress: James Hadley Billington]
* [http://www.chimtic.netfirms.com/genealogy/index01.html Descendants of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski]
* [http://www.davies.pl/ SIW ZNAK - Norman Davies]
* [http://www.his.uni.torun.pl/wydzial/instkat/historia/en/index.html Institute of History and Archival Sciences, UNC in Toruń]
* [http://www.chivalricorders.org/orders/smom/maltpold.htm The Knights Hospitallers in Poland]
* [http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/speel/illus/jleight.htm John Leighton, F.S.A.]
* [http://www.guide.amu.edu.pl/ Adam Mickiewicz University - Poznań, Poland]
* [http://www.usc.edu/dept/polish_music/composer/paderewski.html IGNACY JAN PADEREWSKI]
* [http://www.pgsa.org/ POLISH GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA]
* [http://akson.sgh.waw.pl/~apszczol/ Adam A. Pszczółkowski prezentuje]
* [http://www.sofri.org/ Il caso Sofri, Bompressi e Pietrostefani]
* [http://www.wat.edu.pl/ Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna im. Jarosława Dąbrowskiego w Warszawie]
* [http://www.aitkenalexander.co.uk/author.php?recordID=330 Adam Zamoyski]
* [http://www.inib.uj.edu.pl/kadra/zdrada.htm Dr hab. Jerzy Zdrada, prof. UJ]


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