Autonomous Governorate of Estonia


Autonomous Governorate of Estonia

Infobox Former Subdivision
native_name =
conventional_long_name = Governorate of Estonia
common_name = Estonia
subdivision = Governorate
nation = the Russian Empire
government_type = Autonomous governorate
year_start = 1917
event_start = Local autonomy
date_start = April 12, 1917
year_end = 1918
event1 = Estonian Declaration of Independence
date_event1 = February 24, 1918
event2 = Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
date_event12 = March 3, 1918
event_end =
date_end =
event_pre =
date_pre =
event_post =
date_post =
p1 = Governorate of Estonia
flag_p1= Eestimaa värvid.svg
p2 = Governorate of Livonia
flag_p2= Livonian colours.svg
s1 = Estonia
flag_s1 = Flag of Estonia.svg
s2 = Ober Ost
flag_s2 = Flag of the German Empire.svg







image_map_caption = The joined governorates was located approximately on the later territory of Estonia (at the top in light brown).
capital = Tallinn
political_subdiv=
footnotes = ¹ Declaration of independence for the Republic of Estonia

The local autonomy in Estonia ( _ru. Эстляндия) was established as a result of the Russian Revolution of 1917. For the duration of control by Imperial Russia, Estonia was divided between two governorates ("guberniya"s). The Governorate of Estonia in the north corresponded roughly to the area of Danish Estonia and the northern portion of Governorate of Livonia that had a majority of ethnic Estonians. These two areas were amalgamated on OldStyleDate|April 12|1917|March 30) by administrative reforms of the Russian Provisional Government.

Elections for a provisional parliament, "Maapäev" was organized, with the Menshevik and Bolshevik fractions of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party taking a share of the vote. On November 5, 1917, two days before the October Revolution in Saint Petersburg, Estonian Bolshevik leader Jaan Anvelt led his leftist gang in an anti-democratic coup in Tallinn, attempting to usurp political power in governorate from governor Jaan Poska on November 9. On OldStyleDate|November 28|1917|November 15 the "Maapäev", refusing to recognize the attempted Bolshevik coup d'etat, proclaimed itself to be the only legally elected and constituted authority in Estonia. However it was soon driven underground by the Bolsheviks. On 5-7 April 1919, during the Estonian War of Independence elections for the Estonian Constituent Assembly were arranged, anti-Bolshevik parties again winning the majority.

In February, after the collapse of the peace talks between Soviet Russia and the German Empire, mainland Estonia was occupied by the Germans. Bolshevik forces retreated to Russia. On 23 February 1918, one day before German forces entered Tallinn, the Salvation Committee of the Estonian National Council "Maapäev" emerged from underground and issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence. Although it took nearly 9 months for Estonia to be liberated from German occupation, this date is still celebrated as Estonia's independence day.

See also

* Estonian War of Independence
* Soviet Republic of Naissaar
* Commune of the Working People of Estonia
* History of Estonia

References

External links


* [http://www.postimees.ee/291104/esileht/siseuudised/151338_foto.php Jaan Anwelt]
* [http://kultuur.elu.ee/ke483_poska.htm Tartu rahu sepistaja Jaan Poska väärib monumenti (Estonian)]
* [http://www.humanrights.coe.int/minorities/Eng/FrameworkConvention/StateReports/1999/estonia/estonian.htm On 28 November 1917, the Estonian Diet (the Maapäev) declared itself fee supreme power in Estonia.]
* [http://www.estonica.org/eng/lugu.html?menyy_id=97&kateg=43&alam=61&leht=5 On 28 November 1917, the Land council proclaimed itself the highest power in Estonia...]
* [http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1917_11_28.htm On This Day - 28 November 1917]
* [http://www.einst.ee/factsheets/factsheets_uus_kuju/judicial_reform_in_estonia.htm Though the popularly elected Provisional National Council, had proclaimed itself the highest authority in Estonia as early as 28 November 1917...]


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