- Pulmonary alveolus
An alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin "alveolus", "little cavity") is an anatomical structure that has the form of a hollow cavity. Found in the lung, the pulmonary alveoli are spherical outcroppings of the respiratory bronchioles and are the primary sites of
gas exchangewith the blood. Alveoli are particular to mammalian lungs. Different structures are involved in gas exchange in other vertebrates. [cite journal
author = Daniels, Christopher B. and Orgeig, Sandra
title = Pulmonary Surfactant: The Key to the Evolution of Air Breathing
journal = News in Physiological Sciences
year = 2003
volume = 18
issue = 4
pages = 151–157
url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=12869615&dopt=Abstract]
The alveoli are found in the respiratory zone of the lungs. The blood brings carbon dioxide from the rest of the body for release into the alveoli, and the oxygen in the alveoli is taken up by the blood in the alveolar blood vessels to be transported to all the cells in the body.
The human lung contains about 480 million alveoli,cite journal |author=Weibel ER |title=How to make an alveolus |journal=Eur. Respir. J. |volume=31 |issue=3 |pages=483–5 |year=2008 |month=March |pmid=18310393 |doi=10.1183/09031936.00003308 |url=http://erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/content/full/31/3/483] representing a total surface area of about 70-90 square meters (m2). Each alveolus is wrapped in a fine mesh of
capillariescovering about 70% of its area. An adult alveolus has an average diameter of 0.2-0.3 mm, with an increase in diameter during inhalation.fact|date=August 2008
The alveoli consist of an epithelial layer and extracellular matrix surrounded by capillaries. In some alveolar walls there are pores between alveoli called pores of Kohn.
There are three major alveolar cell types in the alveolar wall (
* Type I cells that form the structure of an alveolar wall
* Type II cells that secrete
pulmonary surfactantto lower the surface tension of water and allows the membrane to separate thereby increasing the capability to exchange gases. Surfactant is continuously released by exocytosis. It forms an underlying aqueous protein-containing hypophase and an overlying phospholipid film composed primarily of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine.
Macrophagesthat destroy foreign material, such as bacteria.
The alveoli have an innate tendency to collapse (
atelectasis) because of their spherical shape, small size, and surface tensiondue to water vapor. Phospholipids, which are called surfactants, and s help to equalize pressures and prevent collapse.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) is a severe inflammatory disease of the lung. Usually triggered by other pulmonary pathology, the uncontrolled inflammation leads to impaired gas exchange, alveolar flooding and/or collapse, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. It usually requires mechanical ventilationin an intensive care unit setting.
Infant respiratory distress syndrome(IRDS) is a syndrome caused by lack of surfactant in the lungs of premature infants.
asthma, the bronchioles, or the "bottle-necks" into the sac are restricted causing the amount of air flow into the lungs to be greatly reduced. It can be triggered by irritants in the air, photochemical smogfor example, as well as substances that a person is allergic to.
Emphysemais another disease of the lungs, whereby the elastinin the walls of the alveoli is broken down by an imbalance between the production of neutrophil elastase (elevated by cigarette smoke) and alpha-1-antitrypsin (the activity varies due to genetics or reaction of a critical methionine residue with toxins including cigarette smoke). The resulting loss of elasticity in the lungs leads to prolonged times for exhalation, which occurs through passive recoil of the expanded lung. This leads to a smaller volume of gas exchanged per breath.
Chronic bronchitisoccurs when an abundance of mucus is produced by the lungs. The production of this substance occurs naturally when the lung tissue is exposed to irritants. In chronic bronchitis, the air passages into the alveoli, the broncholiotes, become clogged with mucus. This causes increased coughing in order to remove the mucus, and is often a result of extended periods of exposure to cigarette smoke.
Cystic fibrosisis a genetic condition caused by the dysfunction of a transmembraneprotein responsible for the transport of chloride ions. This causes huge amounts of mucus to clog the bronchiolites, similar to chronic bronchitis. The result is a persistent cough and reduced lung capacity.
Diffuse interstitial fibrosis
Lung canceris a common form of cancer causing the uncontrolled growth of cells in the lung tissue. Due to the sensitivity of lung tissue, such malignant growth is often hard to treat effectively.
Pneumoniais an infection of the alveoli, which can be caused by both viruses and bacteria. Toxins and fluids are released from the virus causing the effective surface area of the lungs to be greatly reduced. If this happens to such a degree that the patient cannot draw enough oxygen from his environment, then the victim may need supplemental oxygen.
Cavitary pneumoniais a process in which the alveoli are destroyed and produce a cavity. As the alveoli are destroyed, the surface area for gas exchange to occur becomes reduced. Further changes in blood flow can lead to decline in lung function.
Pulmonary contusionis a bruiseof the lung tissue.
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